(collection of compendium)
Another name is hemp seed.
[source] it is the seed of Tiliaceae plant jute. See jute leaf for plant morphology.
[chemical constituents] the seeds contain jujube glycoside a, longcapsule jujube glycoside and glucosinolate. Qilianoside A and a small amount of jute alcohol glycoside a were also isolated from the fermented seeds, which contained jute bitter, sucrose, raffinose, stachyose and mucose.
The seed oil contained 39.18% oleic acid glyceride, 44.63% linoleic acid glyceride, 0.169% arachidic acid, 0.6145% phytosterol and a small amount of palmitic acid and stearic acid.
(1) cardiotonic effect
Jujube glycoside A and long capsule jujube glycoside showed increased myocardial contractility, prolonged diastolic period, decreased heart rate and ECG changes in the hearts of frogs, rabbits and cats, which proved that jujube glycoside A and long capsule jujube glycoside had a typical cardiotonic effect, and their action properties were similar to those of helianthin K. Jujube glycoside a can improve the myocardial tension and increase the contractile amplitude of the heart in eutopic cats. The contractile amplitude of the latter increases by 200-250% and that of the former by 60%. Both of them can slow down the heart rate by acting on the innervating and vagus nerve centers of the heart. Jujube glycoside a can make the heart output in the preparation of heart and lung in failing guinea pigs and cats It also has good cardiotonic effect in clinic. The extract of Corydalis rotundifolia and Corydalis longissima has been proved to have cardiotonic effect by the experiments of frog heart, cat heart, heart lung preparation and electrocardiogram.
② The effect on experimental myocardial lesion
Jute glycoside A and long capsule jute glycoside can alleviate the clinical symptoms and prevent the development of myocardial sclerosis in rabbits with experimental myocarditis. The latter can improve myocardial energy metabolism in dogs with coronary circulation disorder caused by hypophysis and thrombin. The former can quickly restore the blood circulation and accelerate the process of myocardial repair in dogs and rabbits with myocardial infarction caused by ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery; in dogs with acute coronary circulation insufficiency, the reliability and treatment range of jujube glycoside a are superior to that of suzumabin. When combined with saponins isolated from Dioscorea zingiberensis in the Soviet Union, it can not only inhibit the rise of cholesterol, but also prevent the development of atherosclerosis in rabbits with experimental atherosclerosis. Clinically, it can also improve atherosclerotic heart disease. When hypophysis and thrombin were used to treat coronary insufficiency in experimental atherosclerotic rabbits, the therapeutic effect of hesperidin on acute capsule manifestation of circulatory disorder was mainly to improve tissue respiration and oxidative phosphorylation. In experimental atherosclerotic rabbits, pituitary gland and thrombin can further decrease cytochrome oxidase and succinate dehydrogenase in myocardium, while cannabinoid and Jujuboside A can prevent it and increase myocardial enzyme content. Ligation of the coronary artery in the formation of myocardial infarction, both show therapeutic effect.
③ Effect on blood vessels and blood pressure
The effects of hesperidin and juxtoside a on the coronary blood flow of isolated cat hearts were not constant. The former 0.01 mg / kg slightly decreased the coronary sinus blood flow at the initial stage, then increased significantly, and increased the myocardial oxygen consumption. If combined with theophylline, theophylline could cancel the initial decrease of coronary blood flow and increase the coronary blood flow and myocardial oxygen uptake It has a synergistic effect. The results showed that the low concentration of hesperidin had no effect on the blood vessels of rabbit ears, but the high concentration of hesperidin made them contract, and the effect was more obvious on the atherosclerotic rabbit ears; the low concentration of hesperidin a made them expand, but the high concentration made them contract. The effect of hesperidin a on the pressor of the heart in eutopic cats was not significant, but it was obvious in experimental atherosclerotic rabbits, and the duration was twice as long as that in healthy animals; a small dose of hesperidin a only increased the pressor for a short time, while a large dose of hesperidin a caused obvious and stable pressor effect.
④ Other functions
Jujuboside and Jujuboside A have sedative effect on the central nervous system. The diuretic effect of the two drugs on healthy and atherosclerotic rabbits varies with various conditions, but the general trend is to increase the urine volume. Clinically, both drugs have diuretic effect on patients with cardiac insufficiency. If the cat diuretic is given in advance to promote the discharge of electrolyte, the heart rate irregularity of capsule jujube can easily occur. The results showed that hesperidin could improve the ability of myocardial oxygen uptake, but the toxic dose of jujube glycoside a decreased it. Jujube glycoside a could increase the arterial oxygen content of patients. The results showed that the content of glycogen in myocardium of rats was increased and the toxic dose was decreased, but the change was reversible. Both of them can inhibit the ATPase necessary for cation transport in cell membrane.
⑤ Absorption, elimination and accumulation
The effect of jujube glycoside a by intestinal administration was low and irregular. The maximum tolerated dose of hesperidin by rectal administration was 10 times higher than that by intravenous injection. The elimination rate of jute glycoside a was 26.9%, which was lower than that of yangmianaoside (54-61%). The accumulation of jute glycoside a was also very low. It had no accumulation in 24 hours, which was lower than that of daucosteroside K (15%), yangjiaoaoside (41%) and suzulanoside (25%). The accumulation of hesperidin was 26% in 24 hours and 10% in 48 hours.
⑥ Biological activity and toxicity
The biological activity of jujube glycoside A is 0.083 ± 0.0039 mg / kg (cat method), and the biological activity of jujube glycoside A is higher than that of costeroside K, which is similar to that of suzulanoside; the biological activity of jujube glycoside A is close to that of costeroside K. The pigeon method was the best method to determine its biological activity. The therapeutic range of jujube glycoside a (preparation of guinea pig and cat heart and lung, determination of therapeutic dose / lethal dose, toxic dose / lethal dose) is larger than that of helianthin K and g. the ratio of maximum tolerable dose to minimum lethal dose is 1:2, the ratio of long capsule jujube glycoside is 1:3.8, the ratio of helianthin K is 1:2.6, and the ratio of capricosteroside is 1:2. Jujube diglycoside (a mixture of hesperidin and glucosinolate) may be a cardiac glycoside with moderate action. Its biological activity is 0.14 ± 0.008 mg / kg (cat method), and its 24-hour accumulation is 61.8 ± 6.5%. It is better than hesperidin in some aspects. In guinea pigs, pretreatment with jujube glycoside A and jujube diglycoside followed by administration of daucosteroside g showed additive effect. If the order of administration was opposite, it would play Super additive effect.
[sexual taste] it is hot and poisonous.
[functions and indications] 1. Yifangjiting: treating cough and injuring lung. "
② "Guangxi medicine plant directory": "anesthesia, strong heart, treatment of blood avalanche. "
[optional formula] to treat women's dry blood tuberculosis and irregular menstruation: take jute seed for five to six yuan, fried in water. (Jiangxi herbal medicine manual)
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