(Tang materia medica)
[synonyms] maolvzhi (baiyangzazu), Fujiao (dongyibaojian), Yujiao (Tongya).
[source] it is the fruit of Piper nigrum.
Evergreen Liana. Stems slightly swollen, nodes slightly 5. Leaves alternate, petiole 1.5-3 cm long, with shallow grooves on the top; leathery, broad ovate or ovate, long elliptic, 8-16 cm long, 4-7 cm wide, apex pointed, base nearly round, entire, dark green on the top, pale green below, 5-7 veins on the base, raised below. The flowers are unisexual, dioecious, and heterozygous, forming panicles on lateral stem nodes; the total pedicels are as long as petioles, and the panicles are about 10 cm long; each flower has a shield or cup-shaped bract, sunk into the axis, usually with lateral bracts; there is no perianth; male Ficus pumila is 2, with short filaments and 2-locular anthers; pistil ovary is round, 1-locular, without style, 3-5 stigmas, hairy. The berry is spherical, 4-5 mm in diameter, densely arranged, the ear cylindrical, green when young, red yellow when ripe. The seed is small. The flowering period is from April to October. The fruiting period is from October to April of the next year.
It grows in shady woods. It is distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, and introduced in South China and southwest China.
[collection] when the fruit at the base of the ear begins to turn red, cut off the ear, dry it in the sun or dry it, then it becomes dark brown, and take off the fruit, commonly known as "black pepper". If all the fruits have turned red, they should be picked, soaked in water for several days, wiped off the exocarp and dried in the sun, then the surface is gray white, commonly known as "white pepper".
(1) black pepper
Also known as: Heichuan. The fruit is nearly spherical, 3-6 mm in diameter. The surface is dark brown to grayish black with reticular wrinkles. There are stigma vestiges at the top and scars at the base. The epicarp and mesocarp are loose and easy to peel off. The endocarp is thin and hard. In the longitudinal section, most of the endosperm are yellowish brown or yellowish white, hard and slightly powdery. There are small embryos and endosperm near the top. The central color of the endosperm is usually lighter and there are gaps. It is aromatic, pungent and spicy. Large, plump, black, wrinkled skin and strong smell are preferred.
② White pepper
Also known as: Baichuan. It is a suborbicular nucleus with a diameter of 3-6 mm. The surface is gray white, smooth, the top is slightly flat or slightly concave, the base is somewhat raised, sometimes showing black brown spots. There are 10-14 longitudinal veins around. The characters of endocarp and seed are the same as black pepper. It is better to have a big, round grain, solid, white color and strong smell.
It is produced in Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan. Foreign products in Malaysia, Indonesia, southern India, Thailand, Vietnam and other places.
[pharmacological action] in normal people, 0.1g pepper was contained in the mouth without swallowing. The blood pressure and pulse were measured before and after the treatment. A total of 24 people were tested. The systolic blood pressure increased by 13.1 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure increased by 18.1 mmHg on average. They all recovered after 10-15 minutes. There was no significant effect on the pulse. Most of the subjects had body or head heat besides the pungent tongue A sense of humor. The effect of pepper is similar to that of pepper, but it is less irritative. It can be used as a wind expelling and stomach tonic for internal use, and as a stimulant and reddening agent for external use. Piperine has been used as an antipyretic and wind repellent. It has a weak antimalarial effect.
The water, ether or alcohol extracts of Piper nigrum were proved to have the effect of killing tapeworms in the test tube or the whole experiment on infected rats, but not on trematodes and nematodes.
Kava pepper has sedative and anticonvulsant effects. The ethanol extract of orange yellow pepper fruit has contractile effect on uterus, excites isolated intestinal tract, inhibits heart contraction (including contractile force and frequency) and reduces coronary flow in amphibians and mammals. All the above effects can be antagonized by atropine, so it belongs to M-cholinergic property, and has no n-cholinergic effect on rectus abdominis of frog.
[processing] clean up the impurities and screen out the dust. When used, break or grind into fine powder.
It is pungent and hot.
① Tang materia medica: "pungent, warm, non-toxic. "
② Daily use materia medica: "it tastes pungent and hot. Toxic. "
[channel tropism] entering stomach and large intestine.
① In the book of Materia Medica, it is said that "to start with, to follow yangmingjing". "
② "Ben Cao Hui Yan": "enter the Taiyin, Shaoyin and Jueyin meridians. "
③ "Into the lung, stomach two channels. "
Functions and indications: warming the middle, lowering Qi, eliminating phlegm and detoxifying. Treatment of cold phlegm and food accumulation, epigastric cold pain, nausea, vomiting, water, diarrhea, cold dysentery. And detoxify food.
① "Tang Materia Medica": "the main lower Qi, warm, to phlegm, in addition to the viscera in the cold. "
② "Haiyao Materia Medica": "to appetite Qi deficiency cold, food does not disappear, cholera gas adverse, abdominal pain, cold air up, harmony. "
③ Rihuazi materia medica: "regulate the five internal organs, stop cholera, cold pain in the heart and abdomen, strengthen the kidney qi, control cold diarrhea, kill all fish, meat, soft shelled turtle and grass poison. "
④ "Materia medica Mengluo": "it can treat postpartum blood gas pricking pain, and it can treat tumefaction and swelling pain caused by blood stagnation. "
⑤ "Compendium": "warm the intestines and stomach, in addition to cold and dampness, regurgitation, deficiency, cold accumulation, Yin poison, teeth floating hot pain. "
[usage and dosage] oral administration: decoction, 0.5-1 coin; or into pills, powder. External use: apply it at the end of the research or place it in the plaster.
[taboo] those with Yin deficiency and fire should not take it.
① "Haiyao Materia Medica": "it's not suitable to take more, it's harmful to the lung. "
② "The preparation of materia medica:" eat more hair hemorrhoids, dirty poison, toothache, eyes faint. "
③ According to suixiju diet, it is forbidden for pregnant women and those with Yin deficiency and internal heat, hemorrhoids of blood syndrome, or diseases of throat, mouth and eye. Mung bean can make its poison. "
[prescription selection] ① for the treatment of five visceral cold, cold air, heart and abdominal pain, spitting water: Pepper wine, also suitable for soup. (dietotherapy materia medica)
② Heart pain: Pepper 49, frankincense a money. Grind well, ginger for men, angelica for women, under the wine. (Shouyu shenfang)
③ Treatment of stomachache: seven big red dates (to nuclear), each with seven white pepper, thread, steamed seven times on the rice pot, a total of rammed into the ball, such as mung bean. Each take seven pills, warm water, such as strong with ten pills. After taking it, the pain stops, and the stomach is hot and hungry. It is safe to press it with porridge and rice. This cold food phlegm times all treat. (hundred grass mirror)
④ Treatment of nausea, vomiting, vomiting, a few days: Pepper three (end), ginger one or two (micro simmer cut). On the piece of medicine, take two large cups of water, decoct one, remove the dross, and take it three times at different temperatures. (Sheng Hui Fang)
⑤ Treatment of stomach and not afraid of diet: Pinellia (soup wash ten times), pepper. It is divided into fine parts, ginger juice and Wutong. Take three or fifty pills and ginger soup. (Bai Yi Xuan Fang)
⑥ Stomach: pepper flavor, vinegar immersion, drying, vinegar immersion regardless of the number of times, the more the better, grinding vinegar paste for the ball. Add ten pills of light vinegar soup to 30 or 40 pills. (key to syndrome differentiation and treatment)
⑦ Treatment of cold diarrhea and cholera in summer and Moon: ground pepper, big rice pill, Wuzi. Drink 40 pills per meter. (Yi Jian Fang for health)
⑧ Treatment of cholera diarrhea: Pepper 49, mung bean 149. Grind even, Papaya Soup takes one money. (ren Zhai Zhi Zhi Fang)
⑨ Treat malaria once a day, or every other day: white pepper, grind fine powder, put it in a small bottle, do not let down, and then use cicada molt to grind the powder, also in a bottle (cicada retreat to use the whole, even head, foot use). When using, the amount of each medicine should be as large as soybeans to synthesize one place. Use a piece of common plaster, put the medicine in the middle, and stick it on the back of Tianzhu point within two to four hours before the period. Tear off the plaster after healing. (Journal of traditional Chinese medicine (9): 5001956)
⑩ Treatment of calcium deficiency convulsions: white pepper 20, egg skin two. After baking, the powder was divided into 14 packages. One bag a day, take with boiling water. (selected materials of new medical treatment of Chinese herbal medicine, Inner Mongolia)
(11) treatment of small intestinal drenching, sand and stone difficult to come out, pain: pepper, sodium nitrite each one or two. On two flavor, pound for fine powder. Warm soup down two money dagger, and two clothes. (er'aosan, Shengji Zonglu)
Treatment of scrotal eczema: Pepper 10. Grind into powder, add 2000 ml water, boil. Wash the affected area twice a day. (compendium of simple prescriptions of herbal medicine)
⒀ treatment of wind insect toothache: pepper, Piper, etc. For the end, wax balls, pockmarks big. Use one pill each time and plug it into the hole. (Yi Jian Fang for health)
(14) for the treatment of wind, insect and cold, there are three kinds of toothache, groaning: Nine peppers and eleven mung beans. They are wrapped in cloth and crushed. They are wrapped in silk floss and made into one. The affected part is fixed, and saliva comes out. (Han Shi Yi Tong)
Cure frostbite: pepper 10%, Baijiu 90%. Dip pepper into the Baijiu and use it seven days later. Apply to frostbite, once a day. (selected materials of new medical treatment of Chinese herbal medicine, Inner Mongolia)
(16) treatment of centipede bite: pepper, grind and apply. How can you do that
[clinical application] ① in the treatment of infantile dyspepsia diarrhea
1. Oral administration: 1 g white pepper powder, 9 g glucose powder. 3-0.5g each time under 1 year old, 0.5-1.5g under 3 years old, generally no more than 2G, 3 times a day, 1-3 days as a course of treatment. In case of dehydration, rehydration is required. 20 cases of infantile simple dyspepsia diarrhea were treated, 18 cases were cured and 2 cases were improved. 2. External application: apply pepper powder to the umbilicus of children, apply warm umbilicus ointment externally, fix for 24 hours, and apply it again if it is not cured. Observation of 40 cases, all effective. Three acupoint injection: white pepper was crushed and distilled to make 50% injection. Acupoints: Tianshu and Zusanli. Each acupoint was 0.2 ml for children and 0.5 ml for adults. 42 cases were cured after 1-5 times of treatment (1-3 times in general).
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