(collection of compendium)
ZafA is also known as "Yilin Jiyao".
[source] it is the upper part and stigma of saffron.
[plant morphology] saffron (pinhuijingyao), also known as saffron (yinshanzhengzheng) and saffron (pinhuijingyao).
Perennial herbs. The underground bulb is globular and covered with brown membranous scaly leaves. Leaves 9-15, white bulblet, sessile, narrow long linear, 15-20 cm long, 2-3 cm wide, margin reversed, hairy, base surrounded by 4-5 broad scales. The flower is terminal, 2.5-3cm in diameter; perianth is 6 pieces, obovate, lavender, tube is 4-6cm long, tubular; stamen is 3 pieces, anther is big, base is arrow shaped; pistil is 3 pieces, carpel is connate, ovary is inferior, style is long and thin, yellow, top three deeply split, protruding out of tube, hanging down, deep red, top of style is slightly expanded, with an opening in funnel shape. Capsule, long, with three blunt edges, about 3 cm long and 1.5 cm wide, reaching the ground when the fruit matures. Seeds numerous, globose, testa leathery. The flowering period is from the first ten days of November to the middle ten days of November.
Distribution of southern European countries and Iran and other places. It is cultivated in a small amount in China.
[collection] from September to October, pick the flowers in the morning on a sunny day, take off the stigma and dry them. If reprocessing, so that oil run bright, it is wet safflower. The quality of dried safflower is better. Store in a cool and dry place and keep in a sealed place.
(1) wet safflower
Stigma reddish brown, oily luster, slender linear, about 3 cm long, base narrow, gradually widened to the top, there is a short crack inside, the top edge is irregular dentate. Stigma often exists alone, sometimes three stigmas associated with a short style. The style is orange. When immersed in water, the stigma expands to a long trumpet shape, and the water is dyed yellow. The smell is sweet and the taste is bitter. To moisten and have luster, color red, yellow silk less is better.
② Dried safflower
It is curved filamentous, dark reddish brown, with yellowish brown parts. Easy quality, no luster and oil vortex feeling. The rest are the same as wet safflower.
The above herbs are produced in Spain, Greece and the Soviet Union.
[chemical constituents] the flower contains about 2% saffron, which is an ester of saffron acid and gentian disaccharide. It also contains dimethyl saffron acid, 2% saffron picolin and 0.4-1.3% volatile oil (mainly saffron aldehyde). Saffron aldehyde is produced by the hydrolysis of saffron. Crocin and crocin may be combined as original crocin and stored in crude drugs. It is also rich in vitamin B2. The corm contains glucose, amino acid and saponin.
[pharmacological action] ① effect on uterus
The decoction has excitatory effect on isolated uterus and in situ uterus of mice, guinea pigs, rabbits, dogs and cats. Small dose can cause tension or rhythmic contraction of uterus. Large dose can increase tension and excitability of uterus, increase automatic contraction rate and even reach spasm degree, so the pregnant uterus is more sensitive. In the experiment of uterine fistula in rabbits, it also has excitatory effect. After one dose, the effect is better It can last four hours. The order of action intensity of various extracts was: Decoction > ethanol extract > volatile components > ether extract. Small dose of ethanol extract can inhibit or excite the uterus, especially when it is applied to the uterus of non pregnant rabbits. Ergotoxine mesylate (adrenergic blocker) can partially block the effect of stimulating uterus, but atropine can't; therefore, it is considered that the effect on uterus is partly a direct effect on uterine myocytes and partly related to adrenergic receptors.
② Impact on circulation system
The decoction can reduce the blood pressure of anesthetized dogs and cats and maintain it for a long time. It also has an exciting effect on respiration. When the blood pressure was lowered, the volume of the kidney was reduced, which showed the contraction of the renal vessels. It has obvious inhibitory effect on isolated toad heart. It is found that water extract can cause rapid and complete cardiac arrest in diastole in isolated toad, rat heart and acute cat heart samples, which lasts more than ten minutes and is easy to recover. If it is used together with acetylcholine, cardiac arrest is more rapid and complete. There was no fibrillation during cardioversion, and the cardiac activity increased after cardioversion. However, the chemical analysis shows that potassium salt is related to the inhibition of heart. It should be noted that there is a large amount of potassium salt in saffron. Potassium salt can not only inhibit the heart and cause hypotension, but also stimulate the tension and contraction of smooth muscle such as small intestine, uterus, bronchus and blood vessels. Therefore, potassium salt should be removed first in the future pharmacological research of saffron.
③ Other functions
Crocus sativus could prolong the estrous cycle of mice. When the mice were fed with Crocus sativus 0.23-2% food for 3 weeks, the duration of total keratosis on vaginal smears was prolonged from 1-2 days to 3-4 days, and the effect disappeared rapidly after withdrawal of Crocus sativus. When the decoction was injected into the lymphatic sac of frog, there was a large amount of secretion in the skin glands. In the acute animal toxicity test, the median lethal dose was 20.7 g / kg.
[processing] remove impurities and yellow hairs.
Sweet and smooth.
① "Yinshan Zhengzheng" says: "it tastes sweet, flat and nontoxic. "
② "Pinhuijingyao": "it tastes sweet and slightly acidic, mild in nature and non-toxic. "
[Guijing] into the heart and liver channels.
Functions and indications: promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis, dispersing depression and resolving stagnation. It is used to treat melancholy, chest and diaphragmatic fullness, hematemesis, typhoid fever, panic, trance, amenorrhea, postpartum blood stasis, abdominal pain, tumefaction and swelling.
① "Yinshan Zhengji" says: "the master's heart is worried and depressed, and his breath is not dispersed. Eating for a long time makes his heart happy. "
② Pinhuijingyao: "it can disperse depression, regulate blood flow, widen the chest and diaphragm, stimulate the appetite, nourish the lower yuan, delight the color, and cure typhoid fever. "
③ "The compendium of Medical Sciences": "promoting blood circulation and treating palpitation. "
[usage and dosage] decoct soup, 1-2 yuan; or soak in wine.
[should avoid] pregnant women should not take it.
[prescription selection] 1. To treat all kinds of pimples: take one saffron each time, and pour it into the soup. Avoid eating oil, meat, salt and light congee. (collection of compendium)
② Treatment of typhoid fever madness, terror trance: ZafA is two points. Water a cup, soak a night, take it. (Yilin Jiyao)
③ For the treatment of hematemesis (no matter the deficiency or excess or the blood vomited by any meridian), there is a crocus and a ashless wine. Put the flowers into the wine and take them with juice. (collection of compendium)
The famous scholar's treatise on Ben Cao Zheng Yi: "safflower of Tibet is still similar to safflower of Sichuan, but its strength is more powerful than safflower of Sichuan. Nowadays, people only think that the function of promoting blood circulation is not enough. According to Linhu's compendium, there are saffron flowers. They are said to be melancholy in mind, and can promote blood circulation to cure palpitation. They can also disperse blood and have the same skill. In addition, yilinjiyao is also cited to treat febrile fever, fever, palpitation and trance, which still means eliminating phlegm and relieving stagnation. However, the ability of clearing away heat and conducting is similar, but its sweet smell is different from that of crocus. "
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