(Yunnan Chinese herbal medicine)
[synonym] maliguo (Yunnan herbal medicine), maliguo, shanputao (Yunnan herbal medicine selection), yangshiguo, shinianguo (Yunnan Simao herbal medicine selection).
[source] it is the fruit of Putao hainanensis and Putao breviflora.
[plant morphology] 1. Hainan Putao, also known as ebony, wukoushu, wuguanmu, Wumo and Heimo.
Trees, 6-15m high. Branchlets terete or slightly compressed, bark rough, light brown. Leaves opposite, leathery, broadly elliptic to oblong elliptic, 7-9 cm long and 4-6 cm wide, apex acute, base broadly cuneate to rounded, entire, lateral veins slender and dense; petiole 2-3 cm long. Cymes arranged in panicles, axillary, sometimes terminal, up to 11 cm; flowers white, fragrant, without pedicel, 3-5 at the top of inflorescence branchlets; calyx tube gyrate, top often truncate; petals 4, abscission; stamens many, free, 4-5 mm long. The berry is oblong or olive to orbicular, purplish red to black, 1-2 cm long, with one seed. It blooms in spring.
Born in the open forest or wilderness. Distributed in Yunnan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian and other places.
② Putao, a short herb
Trees, 7-15m high. Branchlets yellowish brown, terete or slightly compressed. Leaves opposite, leathery, oblong or oblanceolate, 8-16 cm long and 3-6.5 cm wide, apex acute acuminate and obtuse, base obtuse or cuneate, entire, glabrous and glandular punctate on both sides, pale brown below when dry, veins fine, parallel, slightly raised on both sides; petiole 8-20 mm long. Panicle terminal, short, branched, 5-8 flowers, white fragrant, about 2 cm in diameter; calyx lobes 4, persistent, about 5 mm long, 6 mm wide, suborbicular, apex obtuse, calyx tube obconic; petals separated, broadly obovate, about 1 cm long, apex rounded; stamens extended, about 2 cm long, anthers short, broadly elliptic; style 2-2.5 cm long. Berry obovate globose, ca. 2 cm in diameter; 1 seed. The flowering period is from April to August.
It grows in the open forest of low mountain in subtropical wilderness. Distributed in Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan and other places.
The bark of the above plants (Ilex latifolia) is also used for medicinal purposes. Please refer to the special section for details.
[collection] autumn and winter. Dry in the sun.
[chemical constituents] the fruit of Hainan Pu Tao contains glucose, fructose, maltose, cyanidin rhamnoside, Petunia glucoside, malvacaine glucoside and folic acid. The seed contains Putao glycoside, paragallic acid, tannin ≤ 19%, gallic acid 1-2%, chlorophyll, fatty oil, starch, resin, sugar and trace volatile oil. The flower contains terpenoids acetyloleanolic acid, gallic acid, quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin.
(1) hypoglycemic effect
In the early years, Indians reported that the seeds of Hainan Putao could treat diabetes clinically. The results showed that the alcohol extract of seeds had hypoglycemic effect on male rabbits, and its intensity was similar to D860 but slightly weaker. In alloxan induced diabetic rats, oral administration of seed alcohol extract (at the same time as or 5 days after injection of alloxan) for 7-27 days could reduce blood glucose to normal, urine glucose disappeared and polydipsia improved. For normal rats, a small or large amount of the above-mentioned extracts can make the blood glucose rise first and then fall, while a medium amount can increase the blood glucose. Daily intraperitoneal injection of a small amount can also slightly reduce blood sugar. Once a large amount of oral, does not affect blood glucose levels, such as continuous oral for 3 days, blood glucose first slightly increased or then slightly decreased. It has significant and lasting hypoglycemic effect on dogs by subcutaneous injection of water extract, but no effect by oral administration, and bark extract has no hypoglycemic effect.
② Other functions
Leaf feeding animals have weak estrogenic effect. The volatile oil of leaves has antibacterial effect in vitro. The warm infusion of fruit infusion in rabbits has expectorant effect (phenol red method), which has no antitussive effect on mice (ammonia water spray cough method), bronchial perfusion test in vitro shows no bronchial relaxation effect, and has no antipyretic effect on artificial fever rabbits. 25 g / kg. There was no significant effect on ECG within 2 hours.
[nature and taste] Yunnan Chinese herbal medicine: "astringent, warm. "
[function indications] Yunnan Chinese herbal medicine: "relieving cough and relieving asthma. Treatment of cold asthma, allergic asthma. "
[prescription selection] ① to treat cold asthma and allergic asthma: take 20 pieces of wild Holly fruits (about one dollar) at the end of research, take them in broth, three times a day; or take them with one or two stewed meat, six times a day, three times a day. When fruitless with stem, leaf a money, grind the end, with salt free broth delivery service or water fried service. (Yunnan Chinese herbal medicine)
② Treatment of asthma and tuberculosis: dried wild Holly fruit, grind into powder one or two, stew pork one jin, do not put salt, take 12 times, three times a day; can also use powder two, boiled water swallow, three times a day. (selected Chinese herbal medicines in Yunnan)
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