Hong Xiuquan (January 1, 1814 - June 1, 1864) was famous for his show. In order to avoid God's "Huo Huo Hua", Jehovah "Homonym" has been changed to the present name, the founder of Taiping Heavenly Kingdom. the late Qing Dynasty Leader of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom movement. Born in 1814 Guangdong Hua county Repeated years in Daoguang Imperial Examination No, but he firmly believes " Ancient business is done by people. "So we can learn early. Christianity The idea of equality in Teaching The original salvation song In order to establish ancient times, The whole world as one community The flourishing age. Hong Xiuquan launched the leadership in January 11, 1851. Jintian Uprising Founding number Taiping Heavenly Kingdom No. King 1853 capital Jiangning (now Nanjing) Renamed Tianjing On the principle of sovereignty, Hong Xiuquan addressed the Qing government and the Qing Dynasty. Imperialism Signed humiliating and humiliating Unequal treaties We will not recognize it and fight against imperialist aggression against China. The British government sent an envoy to Hong Xiuquan to say that if Hong Xiuquan recognized the interests of Britain in China, he would provide assistance to the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, but was refused by Hong Xiuquan. Because Hong Xiuquan refused to recognize unequal treaties and refused to sell state sovereignty, he turned the powers to support the Manchu government. In 1864, Hong Xiuquan died in Tianjing. After his death, the great Taiping Heavenly Kingdom movement failed under the joint killing of the Qing government and the Western powers.
The revolution of Taiping Heavenly Kingdom led by Hong Xiuquan swept across most of China, from 1851. Jintian Uprising By the fall of Tianjing in 1864, the peasant uprising led by Hong Xiuquan lasted for fourteen years, and the force developed to eighteen provinces, successively occupied more than 600 cities, which had a heavy blow to the reactionary forces at home and abroad and left a profound influence in modern Chinese history. The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom revolution can become the peak of Chinese peasant uprising for thousands of years, and it is inseparable from Hong Xiuquan's great contribution. Even the great democratic revolution pioneers in modern China. Sun Yat-sen Mr. Hong Xiuquan also called himself "Hong Xiuquan second", which shows its far-reaching influence on later generations.
Paul Mauriat's History
Hong Xiuquan was born in a farming family. At the age of 7, he went to Shu Shu School in the village to study four books, five classics and some other ancient books. In the village, the parents were optimistic about Hong Xiuquan. They could gain fame and fortune, but they failed in the three Guangzhou court trials in the boy's test. After third years of defeat in Guangzhou, they were 25 years old. One of the illusions of the old man said to him, "in heaven's decree, he is sent to the world to kill demons. Since then, Hong Xiuquan has been silent and behaved strangely. At this point, Hong Xiuquan was not reconciled to the failure of the examination. In six years later, in the spring of 1843 (Dao Guang twenty-three), he took part in the Guangzhou academy trial again, and ended up in the election.
Establishment of Sect
In 1836 (Dao Guang sixteen years), Hong Xiuquan read the Christians who had received examinations in Guangzhou. Liang Fa The book of persuading the world was moved by the Christian meaning of God after reading it, and it sprouted the idea of believing in God and pursuing equality for all. hold
The content of the book contrasts with the illusion that he had been ill at the time of illness. He believed that he had been punished by God, and had thrown away the book of Confucius and Mencius. He no longer became a Confucian scholar and converted to Christianity. Confucius The tablet is replaced by the tablet of God. Although he had never read the Bible, Hong Xiuquan began to publicize the Christian doctrine he understood, and called it "worshiping God" (also called the worship of God). Claiming to be the second son of God, Jesus's brother.
Hong Xiuquan initially missionary in Guangzhou, but failed to achieve great success. Hong Xiuquan then talked about his friends. Feng Yun Shan It destroyed Confucius's tablet, changed Christianity and spread teachings to the villagers. Later, he wrote a series of evangelism poems, such as the original salvation song, attacking all kinds of evil phenomena in the society and calling for the establishment of a new world of "one family under heaven and one share peace" according to the Christian doctrine. Hong Xiuquan used Christianity to transform social activities.
In 1844 (Dao Guang twenty-four years), Hong Xiuquan and Feng Yunshan transferred to the Guangxi area for missionary work. Soon after he returned to Guangdong, Feng left behind the development of local believers.
In 1845 (Dao Guang twenty-five years) to the next year, Hong Xiuquan wrote his original works, such as the awakening of the original Taoism, the original Taoism and the song of hundred Zheng.
In the early years of Dao Guang (twenty-seven years) in 1847, Hong Xiuquan studied in Guangzhou for a few months and asked for baptism. But the clergy believed that Hong Xiuquan did not know enough about Hong Xiuquan's doctrine and refused to do so. Hong then went to Guangxi to rendezvous with Feng Yunshan, and with the help of Feng Yunshan, he established "Guangxi Guiping in that year". God worship "Absorbed. Yang Xiu Qing , Xiao Chaogui , Wei Chang Hui 2000 members. The regulations and ceremonies of the God worship society were formulated one after another.
The contradiction between Hong Xiuquan's worship of God and the local government deepened day by day. Hong Xiuquan and others decided to oppose the Qing Dynasty in 1850 (Dao Guang thirty years) and intensify their preparations. The congregation came one after another in the second half of the year. Jintian Regimental battalion.
January 11, 1851 (ten in early December), Hong Xiuquan launched the golden field uprising. Taiping Heavenly Kingdom I call myself the king of heaven. 1853 (Xianfeng three years) capital of Nanjing, said Tianjing Promulgate Tian Mu system It also divided into western and Northern expeditions. salty
For six years, the East King who grasps the real military power. Yang Xiu Qing "Authoritarianism forces oneself", then the secret imperial edict. Wei Chang Hui The army returned to Beijing to kill Yang. Wei also expanded the situation and killed innocent people. When Hong Xiuquan was forced to resentment, he had to kill Wei. Shi Da Kai Govern.
In the early days of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, the military and political affairs were responsible by the military officers, and Hong Xiuquan retired to the post office for less. Feng Yun Shan , Xiao Chaogui Dead, the power lies on the hand of King Yang Xiuqing. After the capital of Tianjing, Hong Xiuquan advocated Confucian classics As a banned book, Yang Xiuqing did not agree, and forced Hong Xiuquan to give up by "father in heaven". The latter agreed that the four books and five classics could be printed and published after the revision, but until the death of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, it had not been published yet.
At that time, many people in the Qing Dynasty were weak because of opium popping and were hard to quit smoking, resulting in a large number of silver outflows, the national treasury empty, and people's livelihood. Hong Xiuquan made a good effect by prohibiting the opium trade through drastic penalties. On the principle of sovereignty, Hong Xiuquan did not recognize the unequal treaties of humiliation and humiliation signed by the Qing Dynasty.
See also : Tianjing disturbance
1856 (Xianfeng six years) June. Taiping Army Break through the Qing army Xiang Rong Jiangnan battalion, Jie Tianjing three years of Wai. After the death of Xiang Rong in August 9th, the news of his death soon spread to Tianjing, East King. Yang Xiu Qing At that time, the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom was in good condition, and there was another plot to compelled him to "long live" on the ground of "father's coming down to heaven".
The contradiction between King Hong Xiuquan and East King Yang Xiuqing is deepened day by day. Northern King Wei Chang Hui At this time, he asked the king to kill the East King. Hong Xiuquan knows North King Wei Changhui and wing king. Shi Da Kai Top swallow Qin Sun Gang Dissatisfied with the East King, later the East King attempted to kill his throne.
The king of heaven, the king of the North King, the wing king and the top heaven swallow Qin Qin Gang eradicated the East King. Wei Changhui arrived in Tianjing in September 1st and entered the city with Qin Qin Gang at night. He attacked the East Palace in the early morning of 2, and Yang Xiuqing and his family were killed. Tianjing Incident " Wing King Shi Da Kai After arriving in Tianjing, Wei Changhui was blamed for the killing. Two people broke up, and Shi Dakai fled out of the city that night. Wei Changhui then killed the family members of Shi Dakai in the wing palace. Shi Dakai started from Anqing to condemn Wei Changhui. At this time, Taiping troops outside Tianjing mostly supported Shi Dakai. The eastern king, the northern king and the Yan King were condemned. Wing Wang Shi opened in Tianjing government for a period of time, for Hong Xiuquan's jealous, Hong Xiuquan sealed his own brother. Hong Ren fa , Hong Ren Da To be king, to pin down Shi Da Kai Cause Shi Da Kai Dissatisfaction.
1857 (Xianfeng seven years) Shi Da Kai By suspicion, the army led off and left the king's command. After the Tianjing incident and the departure of the wing king, although Hong Xiuquan had mastered the power of the royal government, the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom began to go downhill.
Hong Xiuquan reuse Chen Yucheng , Xiu Cheng Li All the later generals will take part in the army, and take measures such as reducing endowments and strengthening religious propaganda. 1863 ( Tongzhi In the winter of two years, Tianjing was surrounded by the Qing army and the grain was exhausted. Hong Xiuquan refused. Xiu Cheng Li Breakthrough proposal, stick to Tianjing. Tongzhi three years died in April. The poetry of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom (such as poetry and imperial edict, notice, etc.). Modern history of China One of the data series and the historical materials of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom.
Wei Chang Hui about Yang Xiu Qing In charge of state affairs, he is unconvinced, respectful and respectful. In 1856 (six years in Xianfeng), Yang Xiuqing sent Wei Changhui to supervise Jiangxi, and Wei Changhui fought repeatedly. Because he was afraid of punishment, he secretly returned to Beijing with the leader of the army and went to the king's court to ask for love. 3000 Hong Xiuquan rebuked and said, "to send Lu to help Luzhou, he must make a good return. Wei Changhui was thrown into a desperate position. He made a desperate attempt to attack the East Palace, kill the East Palace and deploy more than 20000 people. Shi Da Kai From Hubei to Tianjing, reprimand Wei Chang Hui Killing innocent people. Wei Changhui wanted to harm Shi Kai Kai again. Shi Dakai fled to the palace of heaven, and Wei Changhui attacked the palace of heaven. Shi Dakai ran away all night, and Wei Changhui killed his family. After escaping to Wuchang, Shi Dakai went to war for forty thousand. Wei Chang Hui
Wei Changhui's indiscriminate killing of innocent people aroused public indignation. The heavenly king ordered that "unite with the heart" and put Wei Changhui to death.
After the incident, Hong Xiuquan sealed up. Yang Xiu Qing For "heavenly Father, Lord God, true God". Take the fifth sons to Yang Xiuqing and set the date of their victimization as "the ascension of the East King". The subjects must not forget.
The fall of Tianjing
The Qing army began to force Tianjing. Chen Yucheng and Xiu Cheng Li With the support of others,
During the past few years, the Taiping Army prevented many offensive movements of the Qing army. 1859 (Xianfeng nine years), brother Hong Ren Wei Arrived in Tianjing, Hong Xiuquan rejoice, Feng Ren for military division, dry king, the Prime Minister of the kingdom of heaven. Because Hong Ren Wei Hong Xiuquan failed to render meritorious service to the king. Later, Hong Xiuquan dispersed the powers of the king and began to overrule the king.
In 1861 (eleven years in Xianfeng), the admiral of the British navy. He Bo Counsellor Harry Parkes To Tianjing, he proposed to Hong Xiuquan to assist China in the process of dividing China equally. Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Beat the Qing Dynasty. Hong Xiuquan resolutely rejected the British proposal and maintained a clear and firm attitude in safeguarding territorial integrity and sovereignty. When the British saw that they could not benefit from the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, they turned to support the Qing Dynasty. In order to suppress the Taiping army, the Qing Dynasty colluded with foreigners and betrayed the interests of the state.
1862 (twelve years in Xianfeng) Chen Yucheng After bravery, Zeng Guo Quan The rate of Xiang troops pushed Yuhuatai to besieged Nanjing City, and the situation was on the turn. In his later years, Hong Xiuquan was conservative and fell into religious superstition. Xiu Cheng Li Knowing that Tianjing was unable to stay long, Hong Xiuquan suggested giving up Tianjing and turning to the Central Plains and being rejected by Hong Xiuquan. In the face of difficulties, Hong Xiuquan did not take proper countermeasures, but he told the officers and men that there would be heavenly soldiers coming down and driving away the Qing troops.
After that, both the Soviet Union and the Zhejiang base were covered. Hunan army led by Zeng Guofan and military force trained and commanded by Li Hongzhang After conquering, the camp outside Nanjing also fell into enemy hands. Hong Xiuquan was seriously ill at that time, and he refused. Xiu Cheng Li The idea of abandoning the city is expected to be a blessing to the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom and to defeat the Qing army. But with Tianjing's defense becoming more and more urgent, Hong Xiuquan's fantasy was shattered.
Died of illness
In June 1, 1864 (Tongzhi three years April 27th), Hong Xiuquan passed away. Its son Hong Tianguifu Inherit their position. His minister wrapped up his remains with splendid silk and wrapped it in the palace. The secret was not lost, and more than ten days later it was announced to the public.
In July 19th (June 16th), Tianjing (now Nanjing) fell into the Qing army, and the capital of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom was attacked and the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom was destroyed.
The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom movement led by Hong Xiuquan led to the Qing Dynasty. Green camp The system was completely abandoned, and Han landlords such as Zeng Guofan Li Hongzhang Became the backbone of the Qing Dynasty. At the same time, the Qing Dynasty was forced to introduce western advanced weapons to destroy the so-called rebellion, so the activities led by Hong Xiuquan also contributed to the late Qing Dynasty. Westernization Movement One of the important factors.
1859 (Xianfeng nine) Hong Xiuquan promulgated. Hong Ren Wei For the western capitalist countries. New Zealand A book. This is an important political platform of the late Taiping Heavenly Kingdom. It shows that his attitude towards capitalism is more open-minded and broader than that of the landlord ruling class of the same era.
Relying on the inciting power of the worship of God and the sharp social contradictions in the late Qing Dynasty, Hong Xiuquan created the Taiping army. In 1853 (Xianfeng three years), in February, the Taiping army was lowered from Wu Changdong to the south of the Yangtze River. In March 20th, the Taiping Army swept away thousands of miles, and long songs poured into Jinling and began to build "small heaven on earth". In the following 10 years, the Taiping army continued to fight in the west, North and East, and the war was more than half of China. The hurricane and the house are the ruins.
In the winter of 1853, Hong Xiuquan promulgated the " Tian Mu system "Proposed changes in the land system and other measures to reform the society. Its content reflects the demands of the peasants against feudalism and the strong desire to solve the land problem. The completeness and profundity of the content of the program made the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom revolution reach the highest ideological level reached by the peasant revolution of all dynasties in China. The policy of "sharing farmland with rice and having the same food" has brought forth the reform of social system.
The progressive thought. At the same time, he is still committed to establishing the political, economic, ideological and cultural system of the Heavenly Kingdom, trying to establish a new society which is consistent with its interpretation and transformation of the spirit of Christian theology.
After the capital of Tianjing, Hong Xiuquan actively implemented the foreign trade policy and carried out normal foreign trade. The foreign trade policy is actively developing, equality and mutual benefit, independence and independence, and in sharp contrast with the Qing government's closed door policy, surrender to foreign powers, and humiliation of state power. The attitude towards opium input is very strong. In 1854 (four years in Xianfeng), Yang Xiuqing said in his letter to the British writer, "not only Britain, but all nations are trading." All the four seas are brothers, and after the establishment of the port, the object of harm is forbidden. A blow to the aggressors. In 1863 (Tongzhi two years), Shanghai port exported 12 million pounds of tea, more than doubled in 1858 (Xianfeng eight years). In 1862 (the first year of Tongzhi), 180 ships in Shanghai declared customs duties, Shanghai port import tariff revenue was 3370114 two, and two wharf revenue was 51960 two, which was extremely prosperous.
In terms of costumes, the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom led by Hong Xiuquan is a rare peasant regime with clothing system in China. On clothing, it inherited both traditional heritage and innovation, and formed a unique dress and dress system.
In terms of ideology, Hong Xiuquan pointed the spearhead to the spiritual pillar of the feudal dynasty, opposing the feudal hierarchy and advocating equality.
Hong Xiuquan is extremely hostile. Manchu Ruler. Starting from the uprising in Jintian, Hong Xiuquan directed the struggle against the Qing Dynasty, and finally struck a heavy blow to the rulers of Manchu. The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom has carried out the policy of cutting braids and striving to get rid of the shadow of national slavery. This is encouraging for modern revolutionaries.
During his reign, Hong Xiuquan ordered Yang Xiuqing and Hong Rengan to preside over diplomacy. There are many friendly contacts with foreign countries.
The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom revolution led by Hong Xiuquan is the largest peasant uprising in China and even in the history of the world. Although the uprising finally failed, it had a very significant impact on the transformation of modern China. Mao Zedong praised Hong Xiuquan for representing the people who sought truth from the west before the birth of the Communist Party of China. Nowadays, Hong Xiuquan's former residence has become the patriotic education base of Guangdong province.
Hong Xiuquan's life is both a heroic epic and a historical tragedy. He started from Buyi and firmly believed that "ancient business is done by people". In 1856, Hong Xiuquan shouted in the dusk village of Jintian village, a peasant uprising which lasted for fourteen years and swept over eighteen provinces. It was also the largest peasant uprising in the whole history of China and even in the world history. It was raging in the north and south of the river, and it was a great blow to the corrupt Manchu government. Despite the limitations of history and class, the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom revolution finally failed, but the Taiping rebellion led by Hong Xiuquan still had a major impact on the transformation of modern China. The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom uprising even prepared favorable conditions for the revolution of 1911. Sun Zhongshan said Hong Xiuquan was the first person to fight against Qing Dynasty. Mao Zedong praised Hong Xiuquan for representing one of the people who sought truth from the west before the birth of the Communist Party of China. He was one of the first Chinese to seek truth from the West.
Hong Xiuquan and his Taiping Heavenly Kingdom left a valuable spiritual wealth for posterity, which provided the best samples and subjects for later scholars and writers. The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom History Museum in Nanjing now contains 2140 historical relics of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, 33 sets of first class collections, and a large number of original archives and books. Hong Xiuquan's former residence has become the patriotic education base of Guangdong province. Hong Xiuquan's former residence, Hongshi ancestral hall and Hong Xiuquan Memorial Hall became the three signboards of Hong Xiuquan's hometown tour. Hong Xiuquan's revolutionary spirit is forever in the annals of history.
After entering the twenty-first Century, the study of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom moved from one extreme to the other extreme. It began to become too biased. The idea of negating the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom and reversing Zeng Guofan's case was fired up. The argument that the religion of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom is a cult is very obvious in its argument. First of all, we should not study and understand the religion of Taiping Heavenly Kingdom. Instead, we should avoid the heavy burden, cut the historical materials, list the so-called historical facts one by one, and negate the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom by way of point by side. We can not deny all the people in the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom because of Hong Xiuquan's mistakes. The general negation of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom is not an objective study, but a random cutting and piecing together historical materials. For different time, different environment and different events, they should be commented separately.
The evaluation of Hong Xiuquan must be linked to the evaluation of Taiping Heavenly Kingdom. He founded the worship of God and led the largest and longest time peasant uprising movement in Chinese history, and established a revolutionary regime in Nanjing that was relatively opposed to the Manchu government. It has shaken the decadent ruling base of the Qing government and has the nature of anti imperialism. In this respect, Hong Xiuquan is also a hero. However, after he established the regime, he began to enjoy his success and failed to make progress. Eventually, the Taiping army struggled for power and gain and failed. In this respect, Hong Xiuquan has no desire to escape power and lack of foresight and willpower. But on the whole, Hong Xiuquan is still the hero of the time.
Historical book evaluation
" Draft History of Qing "In the past ten years, the founding of the country took over more than ten years in the army, and the north and the South fought against each other. At that time, the power of the world was exhausted, and it began to be suppressed. This is a sign of China's peril. Cheng Cheng Wang, who defeated the invaders, did not have to decide on the basis of the right moment. In the beginning, we must say God, set up missionary work. False "heavenly Father" should be the prophecy of "red sheep". The name is not regular, and the world is suspicious. Why is it so defeated?
Sun Yat-sen "Hong Xiuquan did not succeed, but the Qing people depreciated it as a bandit, and four of us (referring to Sun Zhongshan, Shao Bai Chen , Ulay , Yang He Ling The ambition of Hong Xiuquan is the same as that of us. Then four of us fell into the four major invaders of the Qing Dynasty.
Sun Zhongshan also said in the preface of the war history of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom: "Zhu Yuanzhang and Hong Xiuquan each played their own cloth and raised three feet of sword to expel ishu, namely in Nanjing. In the next few years, Zhu Ming's hometown of Han nationality was handed down hundreds of times, but the emperor sacrificed his life. In the past ten years, he died. No one knows all kinds of fallacies, but Zhu Feihong is a hero who covers success.
Chiang Kai-shek "Those who go to Hong Kong and the ancestors of the Hong Yang rise to the southeast, to resist the Qing Dynasty, and to lose their lives, but their national thoughts are magnificent and magnificent, which is a great memory in history."
KMT general based in South China "According to Hong Yang and Yang scholars, since the beginning of the field, there have been more than ten provinces, which lasted for more than ten years. Despite the ups and down, the rise and fall of the world, the great national thought, the great talent of extraordinary talent, the great revolutionary construction, and the new measures to make good government, Bing Bing Lin, There is still business. "
Zhang Taiyan Hell: for two hundred years, he suddenly met King Hong Xiuquan. Manchu fled to the hot river, and Zeng Guofan came to be a traitor. Hong family killed the Han family and remained emperor. "Song by the song"
Mao Zedong Hong Xiuquan and others represented "a character who seeks truth from the west before the birth of the Communist Party of China".
Su Shuang Bi Hong Xiuquan is an advanced figure who has learned from the West in modern history. Although "in the field of Hong Xiuquan's thought, there are both new capitalist ideological factors and strong traditional feudal colors", he formulated the new system of peasant's life, put forward a plan to solve the land problems, made new contributions in the course of history, and did not admit these, so he could not explain why he supported the development of Hong Ren. Capitalism The facts of the new chapter of Zi Zheng.
Ancestral temple couplets
Guangdong's Huai County ancestral hall couplet: "by Jia Yingxi Yang Mei, Zong de Zong Gong, the camp of the official, the foundation of the official Lu; Ji Hua Feng Guan Hua Yi, before and after, ploughing is also learning, and restore the legacy of Dunhuang"; in addition, there are other couplets of the Hongshi ancestral hall of the official Lu Bu Village. (Note: bayberry refers to Yang Meizhen, Jiaying Prefecture, one of the settlements of Hong nationality. Dunhuang refers to the place where the ancestors of the Hong nationality live. Hua Feng, Huashan, is named after Hua county.
Hongshi lived in Pengcheng during the Han and Wei dynasties. Xia Pei (today, ancient town, Suining County, Jiangsu), West Emperor Huai of Jin Chaos in Yongjia Central and southern migration Jingkou (now Zhenjiang), East Emperor Jin an Xin'an County Sui County (now the Chunan County of Hangzhou), and then toss and turn in all kinds of wars.
Via Jiangxi Wuyuan Fujian Ting Zhou Wait to enter Guangdong. Famous scholars in Southern Song Dynasty Hong Hao Great grandson Hong Pu As a county official in Jinjiang, Quanzhou, Fujian, her family moved to Jinjiang. At the end of the Yuan Dynasty, south of the Five Ridges was more stable, and Hong Pu's tenth grandchildren. Hong Guizhou Sheng From Fujian to Guangdong Chaozhou County Haiyang county (ancient county name) cloth heart (now Meizhou city) Fengshun county Feng Liang town Cloth Village.
According to historical records and Hong Xiuquan genealogy, Ming Cheng Zu Yongle During the four years, there were nine gentlemen of Hongshi (the first ancestor of the stone pits in Meixian District, Meizhou), and their wives were transferred from Fengshun to Guangdong. Cheng Xiang County Yang Meizhen, who later settled in Jiaying Zhou Shi Keng, built the "Mei Kui Di".
During the Qing Dynasty Kangxi, Hong Xiuquan's father came from his father. jiaying Stone Keng Castle (now Meizhou Meixian District stone pit) move to Hua county (now Huadu District) Guan Lu Bu Village Living (another saying is: first move to Fuyuan water village and then move to Guan Lu Bu Village, but there is no record of Fuyuan water village in the genealogy, only remember the official village of Lu Bu, and Hong Xiuquan's poem Tai Zhu Hong Yingguan and his wife's portrait poem Preface: Hongying is moved from Jiaying stone pit to Fuyuan water village in Hua county. )
Hong Xiuquan was the sixteenth generation after Hongshi moved to Guangdong, that is, the sixth generation after he moved to Guan Lu Bu Village in Hua county. Hong Xiuquan's ancestor hung Hao was a famous official in the Southern Song Dynasty and an anti gold patriotic national hero.
Remote ancestor: Hong Hao
Father: Hong Jing Yang
Elder brother: Hong Renfa
Second brother: Hong Renda
Another Moon Palace: Lai Lianying
The official book of history of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Taiping day "Ding" (1837) on the first day of March, best-known leader of the Taiping Rebellion "The imperial edict ascended to heaven" and saw him. father God has received the sacred mission of transforming the world. As the second son of God, he has a "palace of the moon" in heaven, and has given him a son when he ascended the heavens. Hong Xiuquan's wife Lai Lian Ying According to official records, the title is "another Moon Palace", her son. Hong Tianguifu She was called "the second mother." According to Hongtian fufu's confession in 1864 after Hong Xiuquan's death, "the old Heavenly King (Hong Xiuquan) has eighty-eight empress" and goes to heaven's "palace of the first moon", and Hong Xiuquan's harem should be 87.
1. Eldest son: Hong Tianguifu
2. The three son: Hong Tian Guang
3. The four son: Timmy Hung
4. The five son: Hong Tianyou
Hong Xiuquan was founded God worship In the process of writing, The original salvation song "," Xing Dao Xing Shi Xun "," The original way of life training The three document advocates the establishment of an ancient world of "heaven for the public".
" Yin Jian "
Holding three feet to set mountains and rivers, all around the world to drink together.
Get rid of evil spirits and return to the net.
The East and the West are effective, the sun and the moon sing the song of triumph.
Tigers roar, dragon world, peace and unity!
Holding the power of killing and killing, the evil spirit is left behind.
The eyes pass through the northwest, and the sound vibrate southeast of the sun and the moon.
The paw seems to be too small.
Wind and thunder encourage three thousand waves.
When birds come to dawn, they will be like me.
As the gold and birds are destroyed, the dragon and tiger are assisting.
"Heaven and earth"
The Dragon dive Cape frightened the sky, and temporarily jumped into the abyss.
Waiting for the gathering of winds and clouds, flying over Liuhe.
"Destroy the idol in Feng Yunshan library"
God is more God than heaven. Why is it so foolish?
Only for the heart of the sky, but can exceed the dust.
"Commanding Zeng Yu"
Astray, return to speed and whip.
If you throw away your feelings, you can go straight to the Ninth Heaven.
Controversy of characters
Cause of death controversy
· Die from illness
In March 1864, Tianjing After the encirclement, the food in the city was insufficient. Hong Xiuquan took the lead to eat sweet dew (grass) to relieve hunger and thus became ill. In June 1, 1864 (Tongzhi three years April 27th), Hong Xiuquan died. Tianjing The Qing army destroyed his body after the fall of the city.
· Die by poison
Li Xiucheng was the main general in the later period of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom. When he died, he was presided over in Tianjing,. Tianjing defending war Right. Tian Wang Fu The situation is more definite. Zeng Guofan Published in the Journal Xiu Cheng Li In his own account, he said Hong Xiuquan's death: "the king of Heaven (Hong Xiuquan) is anxious, and he is restless every day, that is, he died in April 27th when he was poisoned by poison." The latter half said, "the suicide of the king is more confusing." Zeng Guofan, the rival of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, said in his June 23, 1864 (July 26th) manuscript: "the first rebellion is in May of this year, and when the army attacked him, he died of poison."
According to the above information, most historians believe that Hong Xiuquan committed suicide by taking poison. Guo Ting Yi It is said that Hong Xiuquan's death is based on the theory of taking poison as a near truth. Concise text In the whole history of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, Hong Xiuquan pointed out that suicide is a fact. Luo Gang The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom's historical manuscript is based on Xiu Cheng Li According to the contents of Hong Xiuquan's statement, he thought that "death in April 19th (Tianli, June 1, 1864) died." But scholars at that time had a certain degree of doubt about Hong Xiuquan's suicide.
Merits and demerits
During the period after the founding of new China, the evaluation of Hong Xiuquan by academia is basically affirmative and commended. In 1964, Qi Ben Yu Provoke a criticism. Xiu Cheng Li The controversy has led to a flood of "left" ideological trend characterized by allusion to history in China. In the ensuing "Cultural Revolution", praising the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, praising Hong Xiuquan's practice has reached the peak. The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom peasant movement is said to be a new democratic revolution. Hong Xiuquan is known as a revolutionary leader, and even divided by Hong Xiuquan. Taiping Heavenly Kingdom The merits and demerits of historical figures. For a time, Hong Xiuquan's top Buddha light was called "eternal good man".
In China, whether Hong Xiuquan is a "national hero" or a "cult leader" is a "peasant leader" or "despotic tyrant".
Commemoration of future generations
The house where Hong Xiuquan lived before Guangdong was burnt down by the Qing army after the start of Jintian. In 1961, the Guangzhou cultural relics and archaeological team rebuilt the walls of the building. The structure of the building is made of mud brick and tile. There are five rooms and six rooms in the house. The house is north to south, 16.5 meters wide, 5.5 meters deep North and south, and 13 square meters per room. The first one in the west is Hong Xiuquan's house, and there are only beds, tables and stools in the room. The second houses are hung with portrait of Hong Xiuquan and Hong Yingguan, who have their own poems inscribed by Hong Xiuquan. The building was announced by the Chinese State Council in January 1988. National key cultural relics protection units Opening to the outside world in November 1991 Hong Xiuquan Memorial Hall Flower City Xinhua Town No. 52 Xinhua Road. The memorial covers an area of 13 thousand and 300 square meters and a building area of 1715 square meters. There are more than 70 artifacts and 238 pictures. And there is a Hong Xiuquan reservoir at 9 nhai Road East, Shiling Town, Huadu District, Guangzhou. The reservoir has beautiful scenery.
In 2006, " Hometown of Heavenly Kings The landscape was assessed as " New eight scenes of Huadu One of the attractions is " Former residence of Hong Xiuquan It also includes "Hongshi ancestral hall", "study hall", Hong Xiuquan's own longan tree, bodhi tree, water well and so on.
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