Wang Heng (October 6, 1562 to March 4, 1609) was born on September 9, Jiajing 41 and died on January 29, Wanli 37. Chen Yu, the name of Goushan, the owner of the other department, was born in Taicang prefecture (now Taicang, Jiangsu Province) of Suzhou Prefecture in southern Zhili. He was the son of Wang xijue in Wanli period and the father of Wang Shimin in late Ming and early Qing Dynasty.
In the Shuntian rural examination in the 16th year of Wanli (1588), Wang Heng was the son of Wang xijue, a bachelor, and the son-in-law of Shen Shixing, the first assistant at that time, was also elected. Some officials impeached the chief examiner and thought that he was suspected of cheating. Although Wang Heng won the first place in the subsequent re examination and was allowed to participate in the examination, the officials still refused to give up, in order to avoid his father Wang xijue falling into a bigger party struggle. Wang Heng did not take the exam again during his father's reign. In the 29th year of Wanli (1601), after Wang xijue became an official, Wang Heng went into the imperial examination hall again and was awarded the title of editor of renhanlin Academy. After resigning, he retired and died early in middle age.
Wang Heng is the author of Goushan collection and other works. At the same time, he is also a famous dramatist of Nanju in Ming Dynasty. He has written many famous dramas such as Yu Lun Pao, true puppet and no alternative.
(photo source: Wang Heng's portrait in Taicang, collected by Nanjing Museum)
Becoming famous as a teenager
In 1561, Wang Heng was born into an official family. His father, xijue, was a bachelor in Wanli period and the head of the cabinet. His mother was Zhu. Wang Heng was a brilliant young man, and he was fond of learning erudite. He was especially good at ancient poetry and was taught by famous teachers. He also learned poetry from Wang Shizhen, a great literary giant with the same family name. Therefore, the biography of poetry anthologies of the liechao Dynasty called him "rich in learning, good in writing, scattered in China and moving in the sea". In the fifth year of Wanli (1577), the event of Zhang Juzheng seizing love made young Wang Heng famous all over the world. In Chen Jiru's Taishi Chenyu Jixu, he said: "in the early days of Jiangling, the emperor Wensu fought for his funeral and saved Wu and Zhao Taishi. Chen Yu and "return to the word" to call it. Duke Wen Su said: "if I don't return, I will not be laughed by a young man.". Chen Yufang is fourteen. He is famous as the capital Qian Qianyi's "biography of poetry anthology of liechao" and "Wang Xiuheng" in Ding Ji also said that Wang Heng "wrote the poem of he GUI Lai on the 14th year of his life to satirize Jiangling and write it in the pavilion.".
Bereavement of wife
When Wang Heng was a teenager, he married his father's daughter, Jin. The Jin family was virtuous and polite, and soon passed away. Wang xijue wrote: "his youngest daughter, Yu Ziheng, is a Yuanpei. The virtuous filial piety has the female virtue, unfortunately dies in 1584, the Xu family, whom Wang Heng married, died again. In 1585, Wang Heng remarried the daughter of Feng Juren in Huating. In 1593, the Feng family died again. Wang Heng and Feng lived together for nine years with deep feelings. In his book, he wrote: "people are not wood and stone. Who can be like this. Since the death of his wife, I have been lost and I don't know what to send. If you want to send it by metaphysics, but you can't, if you want to send it by writing, but you can't He used to be a savage and forced to wear a Confucian crown. He used to be a foot monk and forced to live in harmony with his family. As a result, he was frightened by the bait, fell in love, regretted his poverty and was helpless. He did not dare to hate his life. "
The imperial examination is wasted
Wang Heng's illustrious life experience in the imperial examination was deeply affected, just as his good friend Chen Jiru said in the preface of the collection of Mr. Goushan: "unfortunately, he was born in xiangmen, covered by his family status, and bound by decades of fame." In the sixth year of Wanli (1578), Wang Heng failed in Yixing at the age of 18. In his preface to Li maocai's works, he said: Yu Yu was able to get rid of his frustration, but since Wuyin, his works have moved three times. Wang Heng was fond of poetry when he was young, but in order to cope with the imperial examination, he had to start specializing in eight part essay. In the 13th year of Wanli (1585), he was young and full of ambition. At the age of 24, he and his classmate friend Chen Jiru from Songjiang went to Nanjing to take an exam, but he didn't expect to be No.1. This hit him a lot. However, he was confident that he had never met bole. He decided to study "ancient and modern sports" and "world affairs" again in order to fight again. in the autumn of the 16th year of Wanli (1588), Wang Heng ranked first in the Shuntian rural examination, while Wang xijue was a bachelor. In the first month of the 17th year of Wanli (1589), Gao GUI, a guest doctor of the Ministry of rites, asked for a second examination because he was suspected of cheating in the Department. There was no Wang Heng in the suspected examinee, but Gao GUI added at the end of the article: "the son of Wang xijue, who is now an assistant minister, has so many talents, can't he be above the blue clouds? When people suspected that Wang Heng was half faithful, they also begged and tried Wang Heng and Mao Yigui, who were the top of the list, together. The minister's mind was also clear. ". Wanli ordered all the examiners to revise the test paper. All the examiners agreed that Wang Heng's talent was compelling and worthy of the name. Before Chunwei, Wang Heng participated in the re examination, still ranked first, and was allowed to participate in the examination. But then Rao Shen, the head of Yunnan Department of the Ministry of punishment, dismissed Wang xijue and Shen Shixing on the ground of the rural examination case. Wang xijue and Shen Shixing had to go to Shangshu. Emperor Wanli was so angry that he ordered the Zhenfu department to investigate Rao Shen and dismiss him for the people. Gao GUI was also demoted to two levels and transferred to the frontier. On the one hand, Wang Heng advised his father to go up to shujiu Yanguan, on the other hand, he said that he should not take the exam to avoid the dispute. Wang xijue also vowed that as long as he was an official in the court, his son Wang Heng would no longer take the exam, so as to avoid the suspicion of guatian Lixia. After that, Wang Heng went back to his hometown of Taicang to "close a room" and "thank guests for reading". At that time, he wrote a poem and said to himself, "growing up and killing officials, feeling like flowers after spring". This kind of contradiction, depression and helplessness can be seen. In the 26th year of Wanli (1598), Wang Heng's mother was critically ill, and Wang Heng was forced to take part in the examination. After the first examination, Wang Heng had no intention to continue the examination and rushed home to serve his mother. In the 29th year of Wanli (1601), it has been ten years since Wang xijue resigned and returned to Taicang to recuperate. In order to prove that he did not rely on big trees to enjoy the cool, Wang Heng went to Beijing for the second time. He ranked second in the imperial examination and then won the second place in the palace examination. Wang Heng showed his innocence to the world with his excellent talent and learning. Because Wang xijue was also the leader of the list at that time, the government and the public talked about "father and son being the leader of the list". After Wang Heng ascended the throne, there was a poem that said: "the colorful clouds once again support the jade steps, and the Zhu cocoons hang in front of the ink. Once in a while, the official name is combined in three languages, such as the word of Wen surname. The price comes from the withered bones of the horse, and the color comes from the beautiful eyebrows. Reversing the ten-year dream of Beijing, I look back on the apricot blossom for a moment. " Since then, Wang Heng was awarded the Imperial Academy editor. Because Wang Heng felt that he could not contribute to the imperial court because he was "good at border affairs", he was quite disappointed in his official career, so he simply took the opportunity of serving Jiangnan and resigned to return to his hometown. After returning to Taicang, Wang Heng lived a life of reading and writing, and never became an official again.
spend one's remaining years in one's hometown
After Wang Heng resigned and returned to Taicang, he lived in Chunshui boat. He had frequent contacts with literary celebrities at that time, such as poems and poems, and with dramatists Tang Xianzu and Tu Long. On the 29th of the first month of the 37th year of Wanli (March 4, 1609), Wang Heng suffered from a head disease and died one year earlier than his father, which made Wang xijue send the white haired man to the black haired man. When he was sad, he wrote the article of sacrifice to heaven.
The collection of Mr. Goushan (also known as the collection of Goushan) consists of 27 volumes, including five volumes of poems, seven que poems, four volumes of preface, two volumes of records and two volumes of epitaphs. The rest are biographies, commentaries, strategies, memorials, sacrificial writings, jipostscripts and letters. Friends Chen Jiru, Tang Shisheng, Lou Jian and Lu Guangming wrote prefaces. Jiyou manuscript, Chunqiu Zuan Zhu, Volume 4, Qinhan Renwen Xuanyu, Volume 6, Guitian Ci, Zhuzi Lei Yu and refutation of the Analects of Confucius
Yu Lun Pao is a play which exposes the malpractice of imperial examination. It is also based on the records of Wang Wei in Ji Yi Ji by Xue Yongqiang of Tang Dynasty. "Real puppet" describes Du Yan, Prime Minister of Song Dynasty, wearing casual clothes to watch people playing puppets and being insulted. After the Imperial Envoys to point out the identity of Du Yan, city people before and after Gong's face. In wunaihe, Maitreya Buddha turned into Mr. Hulu, selling divination in the street, but he didn't ask divination. "Rebirth fate" has not been handed down, "Pei Zhan he he" has not been handed down, "Chang'an Street" has not been handed down
There are about 380 poems by Wang Heng, which can be roughly divided into three categories according to the subject matter: landscape travel notes, making friends and giving farewell, and imperial examination officialdom. In the imperial examination category, Wang Heng has "vowed to abandon this way, and sharpen the mediocrity of words and deeds", "I give up my son with short hair without covering my lips". Pay homage to your parents and show off to your neighbors. County uncle does not pursue, the bell drum invites the guest. In the Tenth Five Year Plan period, one's name and surname were firmly lost. Try to observe Qiu Liyan and read how often he sighs. " And so on. Wang Heng's poems include sending Wang Fu Zi to Guiyang, sending Sun Jian Tian to Ren Yi Feng, and sending General Li to Ganzhou. In the category of landscape travel notes, Wang Heng has such poems as "traveling to Tianchi after the rain", "visiting Sanyi temple in the ancient city", "guoliuhou Temple" and "watching the sea".
Achievements of Zaju
1、 Criticism of imperial examination in drama. The whole play of Yu Lun Pao by Wang Heng focuses on describing all kinds of ugly and strange phenomena in officialdom, and all kinds of characters in officialdom become the objects of criticism in Wang Heng's works. It is not only about Wang Wei's mind, but also about Wang Heng's real feelings, which shows his attitude of breaking away from the imperial examination officialdom, thus criticizing and negating the imperial examination thoroughly. Second, the description of the two sides of human nature, to avoid the single characterization of the Yuan Dynasty drama. there are also differences between Wang Heng's Officialdom description and Yuan Dynasty's zaju. In Yuan Dynasty's operas, the boundaries between barnyard grass and evil, loyalty and treachery are very clear. Good officials are good officials, corrupt officials are corrupt officials, and playwrights have a clear attitude towards them. Wang Heng was born in the cabinet's first assistant family, and was familiar with all kinds of figures in officialdom. Therefore, his works are more critical of officialdom and all living beings combined with officialdom, and the critical reflection of Zaju is more profound.
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