Lei Zhen (June 25, 1897 - March 7, 1979), male, Han nationality, was born in Changxing, Zhejiang Province. His ancestral home is leifan village, zhoudang Town, Luoshan County, Henan Province. In 1916, he went to Kyoto Imperial University of Japan to study, and joined the Chinese revolutionary party in 1917. He returned to China in 1926 and served as a principal of a middle school. Then he was transferred to the editorial board of the Legislative Affairs Bureau of the national government. He was a subordinate of Wang Shijie. In 1932, he served as the chairman of the presidium of the Nanjing Party Congress of the Chinese Kuomintang. Since July 1934, he has served as the director of the general affairs department of the Ministry of education of the national government. During the Anti Japanese War, he won the trust and promotion of Chiang Kai Shek and served as Deputy Secretary General of the National Political Council. In 1949, he went to Taiwan and funded Free China. In 1960, Lei Zhen was sentenced to 10 years' imprisonment for strongly advocating the establishment of an opposition party to participate in the election to check and balance the ruling party. He was released from prison in 1970 with the same fighting spirit. He died in Taiwan in 1979 at the age of 82. On September 4, 2002, Taiwan officially declared the case of Lei Zhen vindicated.
On March 7, 2006, Lei Zhen foundation for democracy and human rights was established.
On March 7, 2012, the 33rd anniversary of Lei Zhen's death, Lei Zhen Memorial Hall and Lei Zhen Research Center was established in Taipei Political University.
Life of the characters
Study in Japan
Lei Zhen was born in Changxing County, Zhejiang Province in 1897, and his ancestral home is Henan Province.
In 1916, Lei Zhen, 19, was admitted to Imperial University in Kyoto, Japan.
In 1917, while studying in Japan, Lei Zhen joined the Chinese Revolutionary Party (the predecessor of the Chinese Kuomintang) under the introduction of Dai Jitao and Zhang Ji.
In 1923, he graduated from the Department of political science of Kyoto Imperial University and immediately entered the university to study the constitution.
In 1926, when the Northern Expedition broke out, Lei Zhen, 29, returned home from abroad. With Dai Jitao's recommendation, he quickly entered the national government and successively served as editor of the Bureau of legal system, editor of the Bureau of compilation and translation, and director of the general affairs department of the Ministry of education.
In the autumn of 1937, Hu Shi formally made friends with Lei Zhen. Hu Shi represented Peking University and Lei Zhen represented the Ministry of education. At the Lushan meeting in the same year, the dialogue between the two broke up unhappily. Lei Zhen advocated "the war of resistance against Japan", while Hu Shi advocated "bearing humiliation". But because Hu Shi lived in the dormitory of the Ministry of education at that time, he was able to get along with each other day and night. Lei Zhen's opinions were more radical, while Hu Shi was more moderate. Throughout his life, Lei Zhen respected Hu Shi.
In July 1938, the first session of the first National Political Consultative Conference was held in Wuhan. Wang Jingwei was the president of the conference and Lei Zhen was the director of the discussion group.
In 1940, the National Council for political participation was established, and Lei Zhen became the Secretary General. In addition to Lei Zhen's political ability, Dai Jitao, Wang Shijie's support and Chiang Kai Shek's trust, Lei Zhen just caught up with the needs of Chinese politics at that time.
In January 1946, Lei Zhen became the Secretary General of the Political Consultative Conference, responsible for consulting the opinions of all parties, welcoming Zhou Enlai and other Communist Party delegation to Nanjing to strive for mutual cooperation between the Kuomintang, the Communist Party and other parties.
In mid November 1946, before and after the opening of the National Congress, Lei Zhen was responsible for negotiating the participation of the Youth Party and the Democratic Alliance's democratic and social party in the National Congress, and served as Deputy Secretary General of the National Congress.
In 1947, Lei Zhen was elected a deputy to the national assembly. In April of the same year, he became the executive yuan of Zhang Qun's cabinet and served as a member of the administrative committee. He left at the end of 1948.
In March 1949, Hu Shi, Lei Zhen, Wang Shijie, hang Liwu, Fu Sinian and others gathered in Shanghai to discuss a publication to publicize freedom and democracy, "so as to save people's hearts.". The name of the publication is Hu Shi's "free China". He went to Xikou to report to Chiang Kai Shek and got his approval, but failed because the army of the Communist Party of China crossed the Yangtze River and threatened Shanghai. Lei Zhen assisted Tang Enbo in the garrison work in Shanghai and Xiamen, and participated in the reform of the Chinese Kuomintang.
On October 22, 1949, the day after he arrived in Taiwan from the mainland, Lei Zhen devoted himself to the work of founding the journal. He once again discussed with hang Liwu about running the journal and was supported by Hang Liwu. At that time, hang Liwu was the Minister of education, who came forward to support the establishment of free China.
On November 20, 1949, the first issue of the journal was officially published in Taipei. On the afternoon of that day, people came to order it. Hu Shi's nominal publisher in the United States, with President Lei Zhen as the actual person in charge, is responsible for funding, soliciting contributions, writing, proofreading, and presiding over committee meetings. The first general manager is Mao Zishui, the vice general manager is Wang Yuxiu, Nie Hualing is the executive, and the distribution manager is Ma Zhiyu. Under the background of Chiang Kai Shek's declaration of political reform determination to obtain US aid, liberals were widely used.
In 1950, Lei Zhen was employed by Chiang Kai Shek as a national policy adviser. Naturally, the publication was encouraged and funded by the top management of the Chinese Kuomintang. Soon after its founding, it had military subscribers. This is the "honeymoon period" between Lei Zhen and Chiang Kai Shek after he arrived in Taiwan. Lei Zhen went to Hong Kong twice in 1950 and 1951 on behalf of Chiang Kai Shek to comfort the anti Communist personages and to inquire about the development of the third force in Hong Kong.
》At the beginning, he spoke from the standpoint of "supporting Chiang Kai Shek and opposing the Communist Party" and had a close relationship with Chiang Kai Shek.
At the beginning of June 1951, free China published an editorial written by Xia Daoping, "the government must not incriminate the people", commenting that the government's financial speculation may lead to extortion by the executive officers. For the first time, there was a speech conflict with the intelligence department, which caused the first speech storm. In October, the magazine published an editorial saying that freedom of speech is a natural human right, and discussed the relationship between public opinion and democratic politics. Then it criticized "party education" and "youth national salvation League", which led to the political department's order to ban reading the magazine. With the aid of the United States, the importance of the Liberals weakened, and the relationship between Lei Zhen and Chiang Kai Shek gradually faded.
In 1953, Lei Zhen was removed from the post of national policy adviser.
In May 1954, the magazine published a letter to the readers, rescuing the education crisis, questioning that the party oriented education seriously interfered with the normal school education, and pointed out that the "youth salvation League" was an illegal organization. In his anger, Chiang Kai Shek ordered the cancellation of Lei Zhen's party membership.
》His speech gradually turned into a "democratic and anti Communist" argument
Freedom and human rights examine the administration of the government, criticize Chiang Kai Shek's authoritarian rule, and the relationship with Chiang Kai Shek is increasingly tense.
On October 31, 1956, Chiang Kai Shek celebrated his 70th birthday. The magazine, which had already infuriated Chiang Kai Shek, launched a sensational "birthday special issue", which published articles by Hu Shi, Lei Zhen, Xu Fuguan, Mao Zishui, Wang Shijie, Tao Baichuan and other scholars. It was "the total number of liberal people's advice to Chiang Kai Shek, and the people who dare not speak". The special issue was very popular, with 13 additional editions, which attracted the party, league and military journals We have a collective siege. After being comprehensively suppressed, Lei Zhen completely broke with the KMT and proposed to promote unity between the opposition parties and form an opposition party on this basis. From April 1957 to may 1960, the magazine published more than 20 articles in succession, including "opposition party! opposition party! opposition party! 》This article has become a theoretical fulcrum for promoting the establishment of the opposition party.
In 1957, a summary of the constitution was published in Hong Kong. Free China comprehensively discusses Guoshi with a series of editorials on "today's problems". The first "counter attack on the mainland" written by Yin Haiguang touches political taboos. The last "opposition party problem" advocates that "opposition party is the key to solve all problems".
In 1958, he participated in the "China Local Autonomy Research Association" initiated and organized by 78 people including Li Wanju, Wu Sanlian and Gao Yushu. The organization could not be established without the permission of the administrative organ.
In 1960, Lei Zhen and the opposition in Taiwan and Hong Kong signed a joint agreement to oppose Chiang Kai Shek's three consecutive term as president in violation of the constitution. Lei Zhen and others secretly drafted the draft declaration on the founding of the Democratic Party of China (Draft), announcing that a new party would be established at the end of September. On May 4, Lei Zhen published "why we urgently need a strong opposition party", strongly advocating the establishment of an opposition party to participate in the election to check and balance the ruling party. On May 18, non members of the National Party of China held an election improvement review meeting, advocating the establishment of a new party and calling for fair elections to achieve real democracy. It was decided to organize a "forum on the improvement of local elections" with immediate effect, and then to organize the Democratic Party of China. Lei Zhen served as the convener of the Forum on the improvement of local elections, and served as the spokesman with Li Wanju and Gao Yushu. From July to August, four regional symposiums were held, which were closely monitored by information management units. On September 4, the Chinese Kuomintang took the initiative to arrest Lei Zhen, Fu Zheng, Ma Zhijia and Liu Ziying, which shocked the outbreak of the "Lei Zhen case" at home and abroad. On October 8, the Taiwan government sentenced Lei Zhen to 10 years' imprisonment for two charges of "knowing the bandits but not reporting them and publicizing them.". Hu Shi, who was in the United States, went back to Taiwan to plead with Chiang Kai Shek, but Chiang ignored him.
In 1961, on Lei Zhen's 65th birthday, Hu Shi missed Lei Zhen in prison. He wrote guiyuanpu written by Yang Wanli, a poet of the Southern Song Dynasty, as a gift: "mountains are not allowed to run by a stream, and the stream is noisy day and night. When you get to the foot of the front hill, the Tangtang stream flows out of the front village. " Tang Degang said: "Mr. Hu's cowardly nature was revealed in the so-called thunder case. His old man's sad face seems to be twenty years old, which I have never seen before. It looks pitiful. Later, I read his self mocking diary of Lei case, and I realized that the old scholar was useless. "Although I don't kill Biren, he died because of me.". Hu Shi has always felt guilty about this matter. " Under Chiang Kai Shek's authority, even later
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