It is the ninth solar term of the 24 solar terms and the third solar term in summer. It is the beginning of Ganzhi calendar. Douzhisi, the sun's yellow longitude reaches 75 degrees, and the festival begins on June 5-7 of the Gregorian calendar every year. Mang seed means "grain crops with awn can be planted". In this season, the temperature rises significantly, the rainfall is abundant, and the air humidity is high, which is suitable for the cultivation of late rice and other cereal crops. Farming is bounded by the solar term "grain planting", after which the survival rate of planting is getting lower and lower. It is the reflection of ancient farming culture to the season.
The grain crops solar term is of great significance in farming, which guides farming. According to the lunar calendar, "Dou Zhi has been planted as mang Zhong. At this time, you can plant the valley with awn. If you pass this, it will be invalid, so it is called mang Zhong." It means that mangzhong solar term is suitable for planting grain crops with awn; it is also the demarcation point for planting crops, and it will be invalid after that. This is the truth of the folk saying "if you plant nothing, it is useless to plant more.". Mangzhong is a busy solar term, which is also known as "busy farming". This season is the time for planting rice in the South and harvesting wheat in the north.
Brief introduction of solar terms
Mangzhong, the ninth of the 24 solar terms, is the beginning of Ganzhi calendar. At this time, the handle of the Big Dipper pointed to position C (due south by East), and the sun reached 75 degrees of the Yellow longitude. "Mang" refers to some crops with mang, such as rice, millet, millet and so on; "Zhong" refers to "Zhong" of seeds and "Zhong" of sowing. The meaning of "grain crop with awn" is: "grain crop with awn can be planted, and it will be invalid after that.". Agricultural significance: guiding cultivation. Season: summer. Climate characteristics: abundant rainfall, strong sunshine, significantly increased temperature. Farming: rice and other cereal crops cultivation (South); wheat harvest (North).
It is suitable for cultivation of late rice and other cereal crops due to the significant increase of temperature, abundant rainfall and high air humidity. Due to the hot weather, it has entered a typical summer. The farming sowing is bounded by this season. After this solar term, the survival rate of crops is getting lower and lower. Grain planting is the season of Cereal cultivation, and late rice should be planted in this season. In the south of the rice planting area, "mang Zhong" is a busy season for transplanting rice seedlings. The northern region is dry land agriculture, and wheat is the main food crop. This season is the harvest time of summer wheat in the northern region. The arrival of "mang Zhong" indicates another round of busy farming. People in the south are busy transplanting rice, while people in the north are busy harvesting wheat.
The word "mang Zhong" can be found in the book "Zhou Li" of the Han Dynasty, which is the earliest record in the extant literature In the Eastern Han Dynasty, Zheng Xuan explained: "where zecao is born, it can be planted with mang seed, mang seed, rice and wheat. "In the Yuan Dynasty, Wu Cheng's work" Yueling 72 Hou Ji Jie "said:" the May Festival, that is, there are awns of seed, grain can be planted. " In the book, mangzhong literally means "rice crops with awn can be sown". Chen Sanmo, a scholar of the Qing Dynasty, said in his general examination of the chronological order that "Miscanthus is the end of grass.". Seed, seed. It is said that the grain with awn can be planted at this time, so it is called mang seed, which is the solar term of May. " It means that awn is the needle on the top of grass. It means to plant and sow. Mang seed is grain with awn. It can be sown at this time. Rice is generally planted in the southern region where paddy field is the main part. The northern region is dry land agriculture, and wheat is the main food crop. For the northern region, "mang Zhong" is the season of wheat maturity, so the meaning of "mang Zhong" is also interpreted as "the wheat with awn is harvested quickly, and the rice with awn can be planted". Wheat harvest is added, which involves not only rice sowing in the south, but also wheat harvest in the north.
The climate characteristics of Mangchong solar term are significant increase of temperature, abundant rainfall and high air humidity. China's precipitation is mainly brought by the southeast monsoon. The southeast monsoon brings water vapor to China. The southeast coastal area of China will get the water vapor brought by the southeast monsoon first and form rich precipitation, which will become the area with the most abundant annual precipitation in China. The southwest monsoon also brings precipitation to China, which can affect South China; when the southwest monsoon develops strongly, it can also go deep into the Yangtze River Basin. The rainy season in South China is from April to September, and the rainy months are synchronous with the hot months. The tropical and subtropical regions in southern China are typical of "simultaneous rain and heat".
Because the precipitation in China is mainly formed by the water vapor from the ocean brought by the southeast monsoon, the precipitation gradually decreases from the southeast coast to the northwest inland due to the influence of the summer monsoon. There is no rainy season in northern China. From late July to early August is the rainy season in North China, Northeast China and other northern regions, while Northwest China is the arid region with the least annual precipitation due to its deep inland and distant from the sea. From the seasonal distribution of precipitation, the southern region of China is a typical hot and rainy period. The precipitation in North China and Northeast China is mainly concentrated in the last ten days of July to the first ten days of August of the Gregorian calendar (about the period from hot summer to the beginning of autumn). Although the rainfall period is short and the rainfall is small, it is also characterized by "the same period of rain and heat", which belongs to "the same period of rain and heat". The climate type of synchronous rainfall and high temperature seasons, high temperature and humidity, is conducive to the growth of crops.
Monsoon climate is the main feature of China's climate. In summer, affected by the warm and humid air flow from the ocean, China has a lot of high temperature, humidity and rain. Qinling Huaihe River is a transitional area between rainy in the South and less rainy in the north. From Qinling and Huaihe River to the north, the rainfall decreases sharply. During the mangzhong solar term, the southeast monsoon belt in South China is stable, the South China area enters the Meiyu season, and the southwest area also enters the rainy season of the year from June. Generally, the period of the most rainfall in the whole year in northern China begins from the late July.
Taking a broad view of the whole country, except for some areas in the northernmost part of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau and Heilongjiang province that have not really entered the summer, people in most areas can generally experience the heat of summer. In addition, after entering June, the high temperature weather above 35 ℃ may appear in both the South and the north, and the high temperature weather above 40 ℃ may appear in the east of Huanghuai and northwest regions. The high temperature of 39.9 ℃ occurred in Tongren of Guizhou Province in 1981, and the high temperature weather of 38.4 ℃, 38.3 ℃, 35.4 ℃ and 35.6 ℃ occurred in Qiannan, Zunyi, Bijie and Guiyang in 2013. However, these high-temperature weather is just a flash in the pan, generally there will be no sustained high temperature.
"Mang Zhong" solar term is of great significance in farming, which guides farming. The climate of mang seed is characterized by a significant increase in temperature and abundant rainfall. This unique climate is suitable for sowing and transplanting. Farming to "grain" this season as the boundary, after this, the survival rate of sowing is getting lower and lower. Therefore, in agricultural production, we must seize the time to plant spring crops and transplant rice in time. If it is further delayed, the significant increase of temperature in "mang Zhong" solar term will shorten the vegetative growth period of rice, and the growth stage is vulnerable to drought and diseases and insect pests. Finally, the yield will not be high in autumn harvest. The folk called "mang Zhong" as "busy planting", and the agricultural proverb said "mang Zhong is busy, busy planting". It shows that at this time of year, it is the busiest season for farming. There is a folk proverb that "if you don't plant, it's useless to plant again", which means that it's a late sowing time, so you must rush to sow. Farming production is closely related to the rhythm of nature, which is the reflection of ancient farming culture for the season.
Solar term farming
”Mangzhong, also known as "busy planting" and "busy planting" among the people, is the season of sowing late rice and other cereal crops. For most parts of China, the arrival of Mangchong is the busiest time of the year. In Tongwei Xiaojing Shenqi, it is said: "on the 15th day after Xiaoman, dou zhisi is a grain crop, and may day. The valley of awn can be sown. The half month from grain planting to summer solstice is the peak of sowing, transplanting and seedling management of autumn crops. The folk saying "mang Zhong busy, under the late seedlings" is that mang Zhong is the busy season of transplanting. In grain growing season, rice and other crops grow vigorously and need more water. Moderate rainfall is very beneficial to agricultural production. In ancient China, the water supplement of agricultural crops depended on the precipitation in the sky and the rivers on the ground, and the farming was mainly concentrated in the areas with abundant precipitation and developed river network. Until now, farmers in these areas are still engaged in agricultural production according to solar term, temperature and precipitation. Mangzhong solar term is the beginning of the meridian moon in Ganzhi calendar. The meridian moon is in midsummer. At that time, all things grow and flourish. From the beginning of mangzhong to the great summer, it is the peak season for all things to grow wildly in a year.
During the grain planting season, the rainfall is abundant and the temperature rises significantly. Usually, there are tornadoes, rainstorms and gales at this time. For the south, it is the rainy season of the year. For example, in South China, the mangzhong solar term belongs to the early stage of the seasonal adjustment of the atmospheric circulation, that is, in the early stage of the adjustment of South China from the influence of the westerly weather system to the influence of the easterly weather system. At this time, the warm and humid air flow in the south is relatively strong, and the atmospheric water content is abundant, showing a phenomenon of high temperature and heavy humidity. Once this kind of air flow collides with the cold air, it is easy to cause strong wind Because the cold air is relatively weak, this kind of heavy precipitation moves slowly and lasts for a long time, which is easy to cause rainstorm and form strong "dragon boat water" and flood disaster. Grain planting season for the riverside, this period of time is one of the best
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