Islam, together with Buddhism and Christianity, is one of the world's three major religions. In China, it was called "Da Shi Fa", "Da Shi Jiao Du", "Tian Fang Jiao" and "Hui Jiao". The Arabic transliteration of Islam originally means "obedience" and "peace". People who believe in Islam are collectively referred to as "Muslims" (meaning "followers"). It originated in the Arabian Peninsula in the early 7th century and was created by Muhammad (about 570-632) of Mecca. It mainly spread in Asia and Africa, especially in West Asia, North Africa, Central Asia, South Asian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. Since the 20th century, it has spread to varying degrees in some areas of Western Europe, North America and South America. It has a history of more than 1400 years since it was founded. As a religious belief, ideology and cultural system, it has been introduced to all parts of the world and interacted with the local traditional culture. Under different historical conditions, it has affected the social development, political structure, economic form, cultural fashion, ethics and lifestyle of many countries and nationalities to varying degrees Ring. According to statistics, there are about 1.6 billion Muslims in the world (in 2018), accounting for 23.4% of the total world population in the same period. In more than 40 Islamic countries in Asia and Africa, Muslims account for the majority of the total population. Some countries regard Islam as the state religion.
Create and spread history
From the end of the 6th century to the beginning of the 7th century, the Arabian Peninsula was in a period of great changes, in which primitive clans and tribes disintegrated and class society formed. Due to the difference of natural environment, the social, economic and political development of the peninsula is extremely unbalanced. The residents of the peninsula are mainly Bedouin people who live on nomadism. They are divided into many clans and tribes. Each clan has its own side and lives by water and grass. They often fight for pasture, water and land. After years of war, social unrest, stagnation of production, intensified class division within the clan, tribal nobles came into being. They occupied a large number of oases and grasslands, had many slaves and livestock, and a large number of nomads were on the verge of bankruptcy. The Hijaz area along the coast of the Red Sea on the peninsula has been an important commercial artery for trade between the East and the West since ancient times. Located in the north-south traffic center of Gushang Road, Mecca has developed into a prosperous commercial town for the benefit of transit trade. The commercial nobles of Mecca gulesh tribe were in charge of the management of the korbai temple, the Arab Worship Center at that time. They made huge income from the market trade of korbai Temple Fair every year and monopolized the commercial trade of Mecca. The commercial nobles in cities and towns, together with the nobles of nomadic tribes, made exorbitant profits by operating caravans, trafficking in slaves, usury and other means, and exploited the urban poor, farmers and herdsmen with usury. A large number of small and medium-sized businessmen went bankrupt and became the debtors of commercial nobles, resulting in the aggravation of class antagonism and social and economic crises.
The invasion from outside and the change of traditional trade routes have intensified the economic crisis and social contradictions on the peninsula. Byzantine and Persian empires carried out a long-term plunder war on the peninsula in order to fight for and control the Arabian trade routes. Frequent wars and plunder have seriously damaged the social economy of southern Arabia, made the land desolate, destroyed irrigation projects, flooded roads, failed business and tourism, and sharply reduced the population, which has led to the rapid decline of rich Yemen. At the same time, in order to monopolize the trade between the East and the west, Persia abolished the trade route from Yemen to Syria via the western red coast of the peninsula, and opened another trade route to the Mediterranean via the Persian Gulf and the two river basins. The change of trade routes resulted in the economic recession in the southern and western parts of the peninsula, the sharp decline of transit trade in Mecca, Medina and other towns, the sharp decline of the income of the commercial nobility, the cut-off of many Bedouin and urban residents who rely on caravans, and the deepening of social crisis.
Release Time:2021-01-02 16:42:05
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