In the southern Junggar basin of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. It comes from the northern foot of Tianshan Mountain and flows northward into Manas Lake. It is about 450 kilometers long. There are many valleys in the upper reaches, flat plains in the lower reaches and developed meanders. After liberation, the reservoir was built, canal irrigation developed rapidly and became a famous cotton and grain producing area. It is also the famous Manas reclamation area in China.
Manas, Mongolian, means patrol.
The river runs through the mountain oasis desert system, and the surface process is complex. The main runoff sources of the basin are the melting water of ice and snow in the high mountains and the precipitation in the upper reaches. There are many canyons in the upper reaches, so the flow is turbulent. The meander in the lower reaches is developed and the plain is flat. The largest tributary is Qingshui River. After 1949, a reservoir was built on its reach, which made canal irrigation develop rapidly and became a famous cotton and grain producing area. The upper reaches of Manas River are rich in Jasper, "the jade is swarthy and green, with literary talent, and the big one weighs more than ten jin", so it was also called Biyu River in ancient times. During the reign of Emperor Qianlong in Qing Dynasty, a jade factory was set up here, which was called Manas jade. It was as famous as Hetian Yangzhi jade and was a tribute. Gold is produced in the river bed and on both banks, but there is little left today.
Manas River originates from glacier 43 of udaikeni River in yilianhaberga mountain in the middle part of North Tianshan Mountains, with a total length of 420 km. The glacier in the source area breeds 800 rivers including Manas River, with an area of 608 square kilometers. Manas River is the largest glacier in the inland area of Junggar.
Since the discovery of dinosaur fossils around the lake in the early 1960s, the lake, which has been silent for a long time, has gradually revived since the 1990s. According to Annas of Manas water conservancy, "before the founding of the people's Republic of China, floods often broke Longkou and dikes, causing floods. The situation of "small water is not enough, big water is not enough" has been formed Since January 1950, the comprehensive management of Manas River has been completed by the Eighth Agricultural Division of XPCC. The efforts of water saving since 1990s have improved the ecological environment of Northern Xinjiang. Manas River passes through Hejing County, Manas County, Shawan County, and hebukesaer Mongolian Autonomous County, flows through Shihezi City, the Pearl of Gobi, and flows through Karamay, the ancient oil city, watering 204000 hectares of land. In the 10700 square kilometer watershed, every stone is telling her history, and every life cannot leave her milk. People sent her into the "river course" made of cement and stone, led her to a higher place, and used her energy to build hydropower stations. From Hongshanzui pass upstream, cascade development has been realized. In Northern Xinjiang, separated by Tianshan Mountains, it is the largest inland river, although its annual runoff is only 1.3 billion cubic meters. In the history of the Yuan Dynasty, "Manas River" appeared for the first time. In the heyday of Qianlong, farming began on both sides of the river. Nomadism is the pride given by the river to the ancestors, and the thousands of years of nomadism has also cultivated the river. The posture of running is the posture of galloping. In the middle and lower reaches, when the people and the army began to settle down, there were still loud Kazakh pastoral songs in the mountainous areas of the upper reaches. After the county was set up in Qianlong period, the river became a barrier of Manas city. All merchants, officers and soldiers who go west and East have to pass through this river. In this current, you will smell the blood of the ancestors and see the backbone of the ancestors. The Dayue people, Wusun people, Sai people, Xiongnu people, Dingling people and Han people in history speak their own language, wear their own clothes, and have their own ways of eating and playing. The only thing that is the same is that they can't leave this river. This is the happiness and joy of our ancestors.
"Xinjiang map records" said: "mana, patrol also, Si called the person, there are patrols by the river is the name Yan." The place name of the hometown also follows the name of the river, so loud that it covers the river, so that most people in Xinjiang know the place but not the river. In the southwest margin of Junggar basin at the northern foot of Tianshan Mountain, Manas River flows intermittently. The oasis of life on both sides of the river rises and falls because of her. Without her, there would not be nearly a million living beings. Xinjiang's topography determines the fate of the rivers originating in the Central Tianshan Mountains. They can only become inland rivers. No matter how hard you struggle, you can't belong to the sea in the end. Deep in the basin is the famous Gurbantunggut Desert. Manas River flows into the basin from high mountains and finally disappears into the desert. Like Manas in the epic, the fate of Manas River is full of tragic beauty.
After entering the "gold plate jade bottom", Manas River flows through kuoerdun, to tiebusan and into Lucaogou. I've been to Lucaogou, a highway bridge in the valley. Looking down from Panshan Road, I can hear the roar of river water impacting rocks, which is very soul stirring. Not far away, the Manas River has flowed out of the forest meadow. Out of Dawa and Hongshanzui, Manas River completely washed out of the mountain. Manas River is more than 10 kilometers out of Hongshanzui pass. The channel is wide and scattered, and the main channel is wandering. On November 24, 1842, Lin Zexu said in his diary that " There is the Manas River in ten miles, which is crossed by cars and horses. It's a very wide and deep river. Today, it's worth winter and the water is weak. The river is divided into three channels. The depth of the river is as deep as the horse's belly. I don't know how vast it is in summer. " Many years later, this section of the Manas River has not changed much, and there have been no ferries. The tools they used to cross the river are said to be water carts or six stick carts. Anyway, this car is different from the general carriage, much bigger. The width of the river today is not much different from that at that time. The only difference is that there is no water. Even if there is water, it is a small stream, without the momentum of a river. After passing Manas County, Manas River first went west and then north, nurtured thousands of acres of red willow forest, and then went through Xiaoguai, Zhongguai and Daguai to reach the lowest point in western Junggar basin, ending his life. At the end of the Manas River, it was a lake.
No one can read a river, even though she opens everything in the sunshine of the western land. At this time, her green figure, like the autumn sky clouds, rippling in your heart, is how heartbreaking imagination. The Manas River is melting with the setting sun and the evening clouds. The golden river is full of twists and turns, which is euphemistic and moving. Those stories about rivers are immersed in the dark. The story has been happening and ending. Those who have gone with the blood of the water, have waded west of the loss, all day with the sound of water horse's hooves, the water figure, will sleep in the night.
Stories and legends
Those glaciers in the clouds and blue sky are the source of Manas River, from which the life of a river begins. The Manas river meanders among the mountains, turning from southeast to northwest, and then to the north, gently into the desert. Where she goes, there will be green. There are animals, birds and scaleless Alpine fish. Manas River flows through a section of the place, known as the "gold plate jade bottom.". Gold plate is due to the river bed and the two sides of the gold produced. Some gold holes dug in the Qing Dynasty tell the story of gold dream in the dust of years. "Jade bottom" is the bottom of the river bed contains a lot of Jasper, jade factory was set up in Qianlong period of Qing Dynasty. The gold seems to be gone, but the jade is not unique. Some people still carry a kettle of dry food and look for it in the river bed.
On November 6, 2019, according to the information of Shihezi Water Conservancy Bureau of the eighth division of Xinjiang production and Construction Corps, the Manas River in Xinjiang will be comprehensively managed.
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