Shiwei (ancient Chinese nationality) generally refers to the Shiwei nationality
Donghu Shiwei nationality is an ancient nationality in Northeast China. He is also a boar and a Wei, or a Wei, or a Wei. It was recorded in the Northern Wei Dynasty. It originated from zhowei, a Mongol state in Dongyi, and was translated as Shiwei of Donghu Xianbei after moving to the north. Shiwei and Qidan originated from the same source, with Xinganling as the boundary, Qidan in the South and Shiwei in the north. It is located in the middle and upper reaches of Heilongjiang Province and Nenjiang River Basin. In summer, they lived in the city, and in winter, they drove water plants. The leader of each department is called "mohe'ai", which does not belong to each other. From time to time, envoys were sent to pay tribute to the Northern Zhou Dynasty and the Northern Qi Dynasty. Later, it was divided into five parts: nanshiwei, beishiwei, boshuwei (baozawei), Shenmo tashuwei and dashhuwei. They belonged to different groups and had different customs.
The origin of the name
Nanshiwei was gradually divided into twenty-five tribes, each of which was known as "Yu Mo Fu Mian Dou". The common man was hair, women hair, riding cart. Beishiwei is divided into nine tribes, the chieftains of which are called "qiyinmohe (Qiyuan Mongolia) Dou", and each of which has three "mohefu (Mongolian deputy)" as its deputy. He once sent tribute envoys to the Sui Dynasty. In the Tang Dynasty, Shiwei was widely distributed, with more than 20 units. Among them, "MengWu (Lu Si) Shiwei", which lives in the area of the Erguna River, is said to be the ancestor of the Mongols. It originated from the Eastern Mongolian State of Zaiwei. Today, the sun moon Fire Totem unearthed in the archaeology of the Mongolian State of Zaiwei King City in Dawenkou, Shandong Province, has the same origin as the Mongolian suoyongbu! The Mongolian boar Wei is good at raising pigs, and takes skin as Shiwei, so it is commonly known as Shiwei state.
Mongolian phonetic translation of Mongolia, free translation of mongulus; Shiwei transliteration for Zaiwei. Shi Wei had a close relationship with the Tang Dynasty. From time to time, he sent envoys such as Gong fengdiao to accept the official posts granted by the Tang Dynasty. In order to strengthen the management of Shiwei, Tang set up Shiwei Dudu Fu in Shiwei and appointed Shiwei leader as Dudu and Dudu. When the Tang Dynasty died of internal strife, the governor's office of Shiwei also disintegrated. Since the Northern Wei Dynasty, the various divisions of Shiwei began to pay tribute to the Central Plains kings. After the Turkic Khanate ruled the Mongolian Plateau, the Shiwei people became Turkic ministers. In the early Tang Dynasty, the Shiwei people were still in the typical primitive commune stage, "there was no monarch in their country" and "there was no tax". The leader of the tribe is called Mohave. The name of Shi Wei was first found in the historical records of the Northern Wei Dynasty.
The Shiwei nationality was found in Chinese literature, which began in the 5th century (Northern Wei Dynasty), and entered the 11th century (early Jin Dynasty). There was no record of Shiwei's activities in historical books, which lasted about 6 centuries. During this period, from about the 10th century, some tribes moved westward and southward, adopted a new title and embarked on a new road of development. In the late Middle Ages, the famous Mongolian people in Asia and Europe, that is, after the westward migration of the Mongolian and Wu tribes, Genghis Khan unified the development of all parts of the grassland.
Shiwei was first written as "Zhuwei". It was translated as "lost Wei" in the northern and Southern Dynasties, and it was translated as "Shiwei" in the Sui Dynasty. It was originally a Mongolian phonetic translation. It was used as a national name, which means "Shawei people". Fang zhuangyou and others said that Shiwei is a different translation or another name of the same name "Xianbei".
The origin of the Shiwei nationality is described in historical books as "Khitan" or "the Miao nationality of Dingling". Combined with the historical records of its geographical location, social production and customs, the main part comes from xianbeiyu culture department and is the descendant of Donghu. Wei Shu says that his language is the same as Kumoxi, Khitan and doumolou. Sui Shu records that his language is "illogical" and new Tang Shu says that his language is "Yiye". These different records also reflect that Shiwei is not a single ethnic community, but a multi-source ethnic complex, that is, it also contains self-taught, Turkic and Tungusic languages Some of the tribes or clans in Yan also have Donghu who are adherents of Wuhuan. If the region is roughly divided, the central part belongs to the Donghu ethnic group, the western part belongs to the Turkic system, and the eastern part belongs to the Sushen and Chen ethnic groups. It is precisely because of this situation that the academic circles have different opinions about the origin of his clan. There are different opinions about the origin of his clan, such as Xianbei, Wuhuan, Sushen, Dingling, or forming his own clan. There are also different opinions about the origin of his clan.
During the northern and Southern Dynasties, Shiwei was generally distributed in the Daxinganling area to the west of the Nenjiang River. With the growth of population and the deepening of the understanding of it by the people in the Central Plains, it can be seen that in the Sui and Tang Dynasties, the area started from the East Bank of the Nenjiang River and the upper and middle reaches of the Jieya River in the East, reached the shileka River Basin in the west, bordered Qidan in the Taoer River Basin in the south, and reached the southern foot of the outer Xing'an Mountains in the north.
Wei Shu, the first biography of the Shiwei tribe, did not account for its original tribal situation. Around the 7th century, it was divided into five parts. In the Tang Dynasty, there were at least 30000 households with a population of more than 150000.
In 544 (the second year of Wuding in the Eastern Wei Dynasty), the envoys of Shiwei faction, such as Zhang yandoufa, offered their gifts to the Eastern Wei Dynasty and began to contact the Central Plains Dynasty. Since then, nearly every year, envoys have been sent to contribute to the Eastern Wei Dynasty and the Northern Qi Dynasty.
Because Lu Shimao, the assassin of Yingzhou in the Northern Qi Dynasty, killed more than 800 people who lost Wei, the tributary relationship was once interrupted, and the two sides fought each other. After Wang Jun became an assassin, he adopted the policy of appeasement to ease the tense relationship, so Shi Wei made a pilgrimage to the North Qi in 563 (the second year of Heqing in the Northern Qi Dynasty) and 567 (the third year of Tiantong in the Northern Qi Dynasty).
North room Wei sent envoys to contribute, more than no one.
During the Sui Dynasty, the Turkic School of santutun ruled Shiwei.
Beishiwei sent envoys to establish contact with Sui Dynasty. Nanshiwei, boshuwei, Shenmo tashuwei and dashouwei had no contact with Sui Dynasty.
. During this period, Shiwei had frequent economic contacts with Korea, often exchanging local products for iron from Korea. After the rise of the Tang Dynasty, all the nationalities in Northeast China, who were originally Turks, were unable to accept the Turks, so they returned to the Tang Dynasty one after another. Shi Wei also sent envoys to contribute to the Tang Dynasty in the Wude period of the Tang Dynasty (618-626). In 629 (the third year of Zhenguan of Tang Dynasty), Shizhou was set up by Shiwei and Qidan tribes in Tang Dynasty, and overseas Chinese governed the territory of Shizhou and managed Shiwei and Qidan affairs. In the following year, the Tang Dynasty broke through the Turks, and Xue Wanshu, the governor of Yingzhou, carried out a policy of appeasement, which further strengthened the relationship between Shiwei and Tang Dynasty. During the period of Wu Hou in Tang Dynasty, post Turks rose, and Shi Wei was controlled by Turks, and his communication with Tang Dynasty was interrupted. When Shi Wei was in the Tang Dynasty in 707, he asked for help from the Tang Dynasty.
For this reason, Tang Zhiping Lu Jiedu, Zhenfu Shiwei, Qidan. At the end of Emperor Xuanzong of Tang Dynasty, an Lushan rebelled against Fan Yang and Shi Wei was threatened. The relationship between Shi Wei and the Tang court was interrupted again. It was not until the middle of Dali (766-779) that Shi Wei recovered. In order to strengthen the management of Shiwei, the Tang Dynasty set up Shiwei Dudu Fu in Shiwei, appointed Shiwei leader as Dudu and Dudu, and Shiwei area was officially included in the territory of Tang Dynasty. According to incomplete statistics, from Wude to the third year of Xiantong (862), Shi Wei made 46 dynasties in Tang Dynasty. During these dozens of tributaries, on the one hand, the people of Shiwei imported horses, leopards, Feng Diao and other things into the central plains; on the other hand, the envoys of the Tang Dynasty granted the generals, Lang generals and other officials to Shiwei. They also sent back silk, brocade and silver, which not only strengthened the close political relationship, but also played the role of mutual economic exchanges.
After the Tang Dynasty died of internal strife, during the Five Dynasties, the Central Plains was in chaos, and the rising Khitan sent troops to recruit Shiwei many times, which led to the disintegration of Shiwei.
The disintegration of the Shiwei nationality began at the end of the 9th century. This is because in the middle of the 9th century, after the Western suzerain Turk was conquered by Huihe, Huihe was conquered by xiajiasi, or moved westward, or fled southward, and soon a large number of xiajiasi people returned to the Western Tianshan Mountains, which created favorable conditions for Shiwei to move westward; in the south, Khitan took advantage of the civil strife of the Five Dynasties and moved northward in succession at the end of the 9th century, resulting in Shiwei's tribes moving westward or southward Khitan conquest. There is a recombination. Since then, some of them have been given new titles, some of them have retained their original names for a period of time, but they have changed their names under the changing situation. Known are: westward migration of Meng Wu, the size of such as the room Wei. Mengwushiweiyue migrated from the east of Erguna River to the west at the beginning of the 10th century, and finally arrived at buerhan mountain (today's great Kent mountain), the birthplace of Ornan River (today's Nen River). In Liao Dynasty, Menggu was named Menggu or sojiezi. After two or three hundred years of development, it developed into a Mongolian nationality with 16 tribes at the end of Jin Dynasty. In the late Tang Dynasty, it was called "Yuzhe" (which means "ruzhe") and in Liao Dynasty, it was also called Yujue (also known as Wugu). At this time, some tribes in the west of Daxinganling, such as yisaimei, were also called Wugu, which made the area have the Hailaer River Basin and the vast area to the north. At the end of Jin Dynasty, Mongolian people joined . Those who migrated to the South and the southwest were dashouwei, wusugu, and reconciliation. After the middle of Tang Dynasty, dashouwei went down from the south of the shileka river basin to the area of kuolian Haizi (today's Hulun Lake) and yuyuerbo (today's Beier Lake). It was called Dili in Liao Dynasty and Tatar in Jin Dynasty. After the rise of Mongolia, it was annexed by Mongolia. After the middle of the 8th century, wusugu and xishuwei had been transferred to Zhenwu near the sun of Yinshan due to military actions. After being frustrated militarily, they did not seem to return to their original places. In the Liao and Jin Dynasties, wusugu and xishuwei were called Yinshan Shiwei together with heichezi Shiwei. The title of heicheshiwei appeared in the late Tang Dynasty. He was a new title adopted by the Ministry of reconciliation and Nali in the process of southward migration. His new residence was in the area from Xilinhot, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region to Datong City, Shanxi Province, not long after he was conquered by Liao Dynasty. Its name gradually disappeared, and it was found in historical books in the name of Shiwei in Yinshan. Jin Dynasty was a member of Wanggu tribe, and it belonged to Mongolian nationality in the early 13th century.
After the above-mentioned changes, the Liao Dynasty still took the title of "Shiwei" mainly including Shiwei tribe and Tulu bushuwei tribe. Shiwei tribe is a group of Shiwei tribes that lived in the upper Nenjiang River and the north of Heilongjiang Province in Liao Dynasty
Chinese PinYin : Shi Wei
Chonggu meadow. Chong Gu Cao Dian
Shangxiang ancient road. Shang Xiang Gu Dao
Qilin Park. Qi Lin Gong Yuan
Huangpu Dajing Guandi Temple. Huang Pu Da Jing Guan Di Miao
Elixir box. Xian Dan He
Tencent building. Teng Xun Da Sha
Tomb of Song Jiaoren. Song Jiao Ren Mu
Changsha Huagu opera protection and inheritance Center. Zhang Sha Shi Hua Gu Xi Bao Hu Chuan Cheng Zhong Xin
Dai Temple. Dai Miao
Xushui Dawu Spring . Xu Shui Da Wu Wen Quan
Yangshao Grand Canyon. Yang Shao Da Xia Gu
Waterfront plank road. Hai Bin Zhan Dao