Jiuquan Jiuquan, formerly known as Suzhou, is a prefecture level city under the jurisdiction of Gansu Province, an important node city in Gansu section of the Silk Road Economic Belt approved by Gansu Provincial People's government, and a provincial sub central city. As of November 2020, it has jurisdiction over one district, two county-level cities and four counties, with a total area of 192000 square kilometers. In 2019, the permanent population will be 1132200, and the urban permanent population will be 706900. There are more than 40 ethnic groups, including Han, Mongolian, Kazakh and Hui.
Jiuquan is located in Northwest China, northwest Gansu Province and the west end of Hexi corridor. It is adjacent to Zhangye City and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the East, Qinghai Province in the south, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in the West and Mongolia in the north. Since ancient times, Jiuquan has been a transportation fortress leading to Xinjiang and western regions. It is the cradle of modern aerospace, the birthplace of new China's petroleum and nuclear industries, and an important new energy base in China.
Jiuquan is one of the four counties of Hexi in the Han Dynasty and an important town on the silk road. It is named after "there is a spring under the city" and "its water is like wine". Jiuquan is the hometown of Dunhuang art, which has created a brilliant history and culture. At the same time, due to the movement of nature and human activities, it has created a fantastic natural beauty and magnificent cultural landscape. It has won the honorary titles of China's famous cultural tourism city and China's most influential international tourism destination.
Jiuquan City has Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes, Anxi Suoyang City, Jiuquan Park, Dunhuang Yadan National Geopark and other tourist attractions.
In ancient times, Jiuquan was the place where Qiang Rong lived. In the pre Qin period, Jiuquan was called Xirong, Xiqiang, Xiongnu right and the three dangerous places of the west, the West and Hexi. During the Qin Dynasty, the ruling area had not yet reached Jiuquan, and the Wusun, Yueshi, Xiongnu and other nationalities still occupied the area.
After the establishment of the Western Han Dynasty, Jiuquan and Dunhuang were still under the control of hunxie king, which was called Xiongnu Youdi. In the summer of the second year of Yuanshou (121 BC), Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty launched the second Hexi campaign. Since then, the Hexi area has been brought into the rule of the Western Han Dynasty, and Jiuquan county was set up. The county was located in Lufu county (later Jiuquan county). The four counties of Jiuquan, Zhangye, Dunhuang and Wuwei, which have been established successively, are known as the "four counties of Hexi" in history. In 8 A.D., Wang Mang became emperor, following the county system, with Fuping County (formerly Jiuquan county) and Dunde county (formerly Dunhuang county). In the Eastern Han Dynasty, Jiuquan had two prefectures, Jiuquan and Dunhuang. In 295 ad, Emperor Huidi of the Western Jin Dynasty changed "Lu Fu" to "Fu Lu".
In the third year of emperor kaihuang (583 AD), the chief of Jiuquan town was changed to be called Zhenjun. In the second year of Renshou (602 AD), the county was withdrawn, leaving only two levels of state and county. Jiuquan town was changed to Suzhou, and the chief of the state was Lashi.
Jiuquan county was established in the seventh year of Wude (624 A.D.), and the name of Suzhou was applied. In the first year of emperor Guangde of Tang Dynasty (AD 763), Jiuquan belonged to Tubo, and "Suzhou qianhufu" was built. In the 88th year of the fifth year of Emperor Xuanzong of Tang Dynasty (AD 852), it was occupied by Tubo. From the end of Tang Dynasty to the Five Dynasties (907-960 AD), Jiuquan belonged to Uighur.
In 1073, Xixia occupied Shazhou. After Li Yuanhao conquered Jiuquan, he changed Suzhou into Fanhe County, retained the establishment of Guazhou and Shazhou, and Jiuquan area was completely under the rule of Xixia. After the fall of Xixia, the Mongol Khanate occupied Jiuquan and changed Fanhe county to Suzhou.
In the Yuan Dynasty, in the seventh year of the Yuan Dynasty (1270), the general manager's office of Suzhou road was set up and stationed in Suzhou (today's Suzhou District of Jiuquan City). The local administrative agencies set up in Jiuquan today include Suzhou, Shazhou Erlu and Guazhou. In 1277, the Yuan government restored Shazhou to Suzhou road. In 1280, Shazhou was promoted as a road, and Guazhou was changed into a subordinate state under the jurisdiction of Shazhou road.
In 1372, the whole Hexi corridor was pacified by the Ming army, and Jiuquan was officially brought into the reign of the Ming Dynasty. In the 28th year of Hongwu (1395), Suzhou Wei, Weiyuan Wei and Weilu Wei were built in Jiuquan. In the Ming Dynasty, the northern garrison system evolved from the separate garrison of vassal kings to the garrison system of the nine side chief soldiers, and Gansu town was one of the important nine side towns.
After Beijing was established as the capital of the Qing Dynasty, Suzhou and jintana in the east of Jiuquan came under the rule of the Qing Dynasty, and the west of Jiuquan was still controlled by sutan in Turpan, Xinjiang. In April of the second year of Shunzhi (1645) in Qing Dynasty, Jiuquan followed the establishment of the Ming Dynasty, restored the establishment of Suzhou Wei in the eastern region, and implemented the system of military and political integration. After the 57th year of Kangxi (1716), Chijin, jingni, Liugou, Anxi and Shazhou five guards were successively established in the western region. From 1724 to 1759, the Wei Suo was abolished and the government, prefecture and county were established. In the 24th year of Qianlong reign, the governor of Gansu was set up, and the governor's office was stationed in Suzhou. Qianlong 37 years (1772), set up an Su Road, jurisdiction of Suzhou Zhili Prefecture and Anxi Zhili Prefecture.
During the period of the Republic of China, Jiuquan abolished Suzhou Zhili Prefecture and Anxi Zhili Prefecture in 1912, and set up an Su Dao and Dao Yin. In 1927, Anshu road was changed into Anshu administrative region, with seven counties including Jiuquan, Gaotai, Jinta, MaoMu, Yumen, Anxi and Dunhuang, and Yin was changed into "chief executive". In July 1935, ansu administrative region was changed into an administrative supervision region, township and Lu were abolished, and Bao and Jia were appointed. In May 1936, Gansu Province was officially divided into seven administrative supervision districts. Jiuquan was the seventh Office of the Commissioner of administrative supervision, leading seven counties, namely Jiuquan, Gaotai, Jinta, Dingxin, Yumen, Anxi and Dunhuang. In March 1938, Subei Administrative Bureau (county level) was set up, which was subordinate to the office of the seventh administrative inspector general of Gansu Province. Jiuquan was liberated in 1949.
On June 18, 2002, with the approval of the State Council (Guo Han  No. 53), Jiuquan Prefecture and county-level Jiuquan City were abolished and prefecture level Jiuquan city was established. Jiuquan City set up Suzhou District, the former county-level administrative region of Jiuquan City as the administrative region of Suzhou District. Jiuquan City governs Jinta County, Anxi County, Subei Mongolian Autonomous County, Aksai Kazak Autonomous County and the newly established Suzhou District. Yumen City and Dunhuang city at the county level in the former Jiuquan area are directly under the jurisdiction of the province (Jiuquan City).
As of November 2020, Jiuquan city is under the jurisdiction of
Jurisdiction: One District of Suzhou District, two county-level cities of Yumen City and Dunhuang City, two counties of Jinta County and Guazhou County, two autonomous counties of Subei Mongolian Autonomous County and Akesai Kazakh Autonomous County.
Municipal People's Government: Jiuquan Municipal People's Government in Suzhou District Fukang Road municipal building.
Source: < / I >
Jiuquan city is located between Altun mountain, Qilian Mountain and Mazong mountain (North Mountain) at the western end of Hexi Corridor in northwest Gansu Province. Its geographical location is between 38 ° 09 ′～ 42 ° 48 ′ N and 92 ° 20 ′～ 100 ° 20 ′ E. In the north, except for a small part of Mongolia, most of them are adjacent to Alxa League of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in the west, Haixi Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture and Haibei Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Qinghai Province in the south, and Zhangye City in the East. It is about 680 km long from east to west and 550 km wide from north to south, with a total area of 192 000 square kilometers, accounting for 42% of the area of Gansu Province.
The strata in Jiuquan city belong to three stratigraphic divisions (Tianshan Inner Mongolia, Tarim and North China), which are lower Proterozoic, Middle Proterozoic, Upper Proterozoic, Cambrian, Ordovician, Ordovician Silurian, Silurian, Devonian and Carboniferous.
Jiuquan city is high in the South and low in the north, which inclines from southwest to northeast. The Qilian Mountains in the south are a series of high mountain groups of 3000-5000 meters in height. From the east to the west, there are the main peak of Qilian, Taolai mountain, Daxue mountain, YEMA mountain, Aerjin mountain, danghenan mountain and Saishiteng mountain.
Jiuquan basin is 1350-1500m above sea level. The southern part of the basin is a part of the Piedmont inclined plain of the Qilian Mountains. The elevation is slightly higher, about 1500-1800 meters, and gradually decreases to the northeast, about 1340 meters to the north of jiashanzi. The fan-shaped alluvial plain belt to the north of Jiashan, which starts from the north wing of Jiashan in the South with an altitude of 1400 meters and ends at the south wing of Beishan in the north with an altitude of 1200 meters, is called Jinta basin. The Heihe river cuts the north mountain from the Tiancheng formation, and winds to the northeast, forming a valley plain in Dingxin. The elevation of the mountain is over 1300 meters, and the plain is 1100-1200 meters, which is called Dingxin basin. An, Dun and Yu basins are the vast alluvial plains of Shule River Basin, which are composed of a series of large and small basins and plains.
From east to west, there are Chijin basin, 1700 meters above sea level; Huahai basin, 1200 meters above sea level; yumenzhen plain, 1400 meters above sea level; bulongji plain, 1300 meters above sea level; Tashi basin, 1080 meters above sea level; Anxi delta plain, 1170 meters above sea level; Xihu Basin, 1080 meters above sea level; Dunhuang plain, 1100 meters above sea level; and plain depressions outside guyumen pass, below 1000 meters above sea level.
Over 4000 meters above sea level, the southern part gradually enters the permafrost area, with snow and ice all the year round. There are modern glaciers, which are the birthplace of rivers in this area. There are basins in the mountains, and the larger ones are suganhu basin, shibaocheng basin, changmabao basin, and many small valley basins. It is the golden section of the ancient Silk Road, which is bounded by Jiayuguan uplift belt, Jiuquan and Jinta basins to the East, and Anxi, Dunhuang and Yumen basins to the West.
Jiuquan city is located in the eastern part of Altun mountain and the western part of Qilian Mountain, with Dangjin mountain pass as the boundary. The main peak of Altun mountain is 5798 meters high. The Qilian Mountains are huge, with several parallel high mountains. From the northwest to the southeast, there are YEMA mountain, Daxueshan mountain, taolainan mountain, shaguolinnamujimuling mountain, YEMA mountain, shulenan mountain, danghenan mountain, yeniuji mountain, Chahan Obotu mountain, kaketumongke mountain, turgendaban mountain and Saishiteng mountain. Major mountains
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