Wuwei, referred to as "Liang" for short, is a prefecture level city under the jurisdiction of Gansu Province, an important node city in Gansu section of the Silk Road Economic Belt approved by Gansu Provincial People's government, a national historical and cultural city, and a central city of Hexi corridor. By 2019, it has jurisdiction over one district, two counties and one Autonomous County, covering a total area of 32300 square kilometers, with a permanent population of 1825000 and an urban population of 790500, inhabiting 45 ethnic groups including Han, Tibetan, Hui and Mongolian.
Wuwei is located in Northwest China, the middle of Gansu Province, the east end of Hexi Corridor, Lanzhou in the East, Xining in the south, Yinchuan and Inner Mongolia in the north, and Xinjiang in the West. It is an open city named by the State Council, a regional central city determined by Gansu Province, and an important traffic pass city in the West. Wuwei has many places of interest, natural landscape and historical culture complement each other, and has been named as the national historical and cultural city, China's excellent tourist city and China's wine city.
Wuwei has a long history. As early as four or five thousand years ago, there were Rong, Cui, Yueshi, Wusun and other northern nationalities living together. It has been more than 2200 years since Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty sent General Huo Qubing to fight in Hexi to defeat Xiongnu and highlight the "martial arts and military power" of the Han Empire. Because Wuwei is located in the hub of the ancient Silk Road, it is the economic hub of the ancient Central Plains and the western regions, the fusion and spread of the Central Plains culture and the western regions culture, the pass of the western section of the Silk Road, and the metropolis where Chinese and foreign businessmen gather, all dynasties have set up prefectures in Wuwei.
In 2014, Wuwei bonded logistics center was officially approved by the state ministries and commissions, and became the first special customs supervision area in Gansu Province. In December of the same year, the first China Europe train "Tianma" opened by Wuwei. In 2016, Gansu provincial Party committee and provincial government decided to build Gansu (Wuwei) international land port, marking the establishment of Gansu (Wuwei) international land port It should be upgraded to the strategic level of opening up and developing export-oriented economy in the whole province.
Wuwei has a long history of human activities. As early as four or five thousand years ago, there were Rong, Cui, Yueshi, Wusun and other northern nationalities living here.
In the second year of Yuanshou (121 BC) of the Western Han Dynasty, Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty sent Hushi general Huo Qubing to go on an expedition to Hexi and defeat Xiongnu. In order to show the "martial arts and military power" of the Han Empire, he set up Wuwei County in the former XiuTu King's territory, which belongs to the Department of governor of Liangzhou.
During the Han and Tang Dynasties, Liangzhou was the largest ancient city in Northwest China next to Chang'an. During the Sixteen Kingdoms period of the Eastern Jin Dynasty, it was the former Liang, the latter Liang, the South Liang and the North Liang. The great Liang capital in the early Tang Dynasty was built here, and later it was the county, prefecture and government. It was also a hub of economic and cultural exchanges between the Central Plains and the western regions in ancient times, a pass in the western section of the "Silk Road", a metropolis of Chinese and foreign businessmen, and once became a Buddhist Center in northern China. The famous Liangzhou CI (Qu), Xiliang music and Xiliang JIS were all formed and developed here, which played an important role in preserving ancient Chinese traditional culture and spreading western region culture.
Wuwei is known as "the world's key, the state's Fan Wei", "dream Liangzhou, the northwest capital", "Yongliang capital, the hometown of Liangguo", so it is a national historical and cultural city.
Evolution of organizational system
Zhou was the land of Yongzhou, occupied by Xirong before the spring and Autumn period, and Qin was the pasture of Yueshi. In 174 B.C., the Huns occupied Hexi. The Huns established the city of gaizang, and then the king XiuTu established the city of XiuTu (Tuge) in Gushui.
In the spring of the second year of Yuanshou (121 BC), Huo Qubing defeated the Xiongnu. The government of the Western Han Dynasty set up a county in Hexi. In order to show the martial arts and military power of the Han Empire, Wuwei County was set up in the former XiuTu King's territory, which was subordinate to Liangzhou governor's department. It led guzang, Zhangye, Wuwei, XiuTu, TCI, luanwao, PuYao, Aowei, Cangsong and Xuanwei, with guzang (now Liangzhou District) as its governing place.
In June 194, the first year of emperor Xiandi's Xingping reign in the Eastern Han Dynasty, Yongzhou was replaced. Wuwei County was governed by Yongzhou and led by 14 counties. It was a thousand person official of guzang, Zhangye, Wuwei, XiuTu, TCI, Luanyao, PuYao, Yiwei, Xuanwei, Cangsong, Zhuyin, Zuli, XianMei and Zuoqi.
In October of the first year of Huangchu (220), Emperor Wen of the Wei Dynasty of the Three Kingdoms, Liangzhou was reset to govern Wuwei County and guzang county. Wuwei County was led by guzang County, Xuanwei County, Wuwei County, TCI County, Cangsong County, XianMei County, Liluo County, Zuli County, XiuTu County, luanwiao County, Puying County, Zhangye County, Wuyin county and gawei county.
In the early Western Jin Dynasty, it was subordinate to Liangzhou and governed seven counties, namely guzang, Xuanwei, TCI, Changsong, XianMei, Liqi, Fanhe. In May of the second year of Jianxing (314), Zhang Shi established Qianliang, Jianyuan Yongan, and set up six states including Liangzhou, Hezhou, Shazhou, Dingzhou, Shangzhou and Qinzhou. Wuwei County belongs to Liangzhou, with nine counties of lingguzang, Zuli, Xuanwei, TCI, Cangsong, XianMei, Liqi, Fuyin and Fanhe. In October of the 11th year of emperor Xiaowu of the Eastern Jin Dynasty (386), Lu Guang changed the Yuan Dynasty to Tai'an, and his capital was guzang, which was known as Houliang in history. Houliang governs 26 counties such as Wuwei, and 7 counties such as guzang, Zuli, Xuanwei, TCI, XianMei, Liqi and Fuyin. In the first month of the first year of Long'an (397), the emperor of Jin'an, the bald Wu Gu of Xianbei nationality in Hexi called himself the governor of Dadu, the great general, the great Danyu, and the king of Xiping. At the beginning of the founding of the Yuan Dynasty, the capital of Xiping (now Xining, Qinghai) was built for Nanliang. In November 408, the fourth year of Yixi reign of Jin'an emperor, bald sandalwood was called Liangwang. The capital city was moved to guzang, and 14 counties including Wuwei County and Hanchuan garrison were set up. Wuwei County is subordinate to Liangzhou, with seven counties including lingguzang, Zuli, Xuanwei, TCI, XianMei, Liqi and Fuyin. In May of the first year of Jin'an emperor Long'an (397), duanye founded Beiliang and set up three prefectures: Liangzhou, Qinzhou and Shazhou. Wuwei County is under the jurisdiction of Qinzhou, and still leads seven counties, namely guzang, Zuli, Xuanwei, TCI, XianMei, Liqi and Fuyin. In the fourth year of Long'an (400th year) of Jin'an emperor, Li Li founded Xiliang, and set up two counties of Kuaiji and Guangxia with ten thousand overseas Chinese from Han Dynasty. The remaining families were divided into three counties of Wuwei, Wuxing and Zhangye. Wuwei County is still led by seven counties, namely guzang, Zuli, Xuanwei, TCI, XianMei, Liqi and Fuyin.
In 439, the fifth year of Taiyan reign of Taiwu emperor in the Northern Wei Dynasty, tuobatao personally conquered Hexi and destroyed Beiliang. According to the northwest, the territory is still Wuwei County, which belongs to Liangzhou. Wuwei County leads Linzhong county and Xiangcheng County. Liangzhou is in the forest. In 535, Emperor Wen of the Western Wei Dynasty destroyed the Northern Wei Dynasty and established five counties, namely Wuwei, Changsong, Wei'an, Fanhe and Guangwu, according to Liangzhou. There are four counties of lingguzang, Linzhong, Xiangcheng and XianMei in Wuwei County. In 558, the second year of emperor Xiaomin, Emperor Shizong of the Northern Zhou Dynasty, he set up the Liangzhou general manager's office, administrated guzang, and unified Wuwei and Guangwu counties. There are eight counties in Wuwei County, including lingguzang, Changsong, Baishan, Liqian, Anning, Guangcheng, Zhanghe and Yanzhi.
In the first year of Emperor Wen of Sui Dynasty (581), Wuwei County was abolished and Liangzhou general manager's office was set up. In the early year of Daye (605), Emperor Yang of Sui Dynasty abolished the general manager's office of Liangzhou and restored Wuwei County. The county governed guzang county and led guzang, Changsong, Fanhe and Yunwu counties. In the second year of Wude (619), Emperor Gaozu of Tang Dynasty abolished Wuwei County and set up Liangzhou general manager's office to govern guzang. In the seventh year of Wude (624), Liangzhou governor's office was abolished and replaced by Liangzhou governor's office. In the first year of Zhenguan (627), Emperor Taizong of Tang Dynasty divided the whole country into 10 Daos, and Liangzhou belonged to Longyou Daos. Wuwei County belongs to Liangzhou, and its jurisdiction is still established in the Sui Dynasty. In 742, the first year of Tianbao, Emperor Xuanzong of Tang Dynasty, Liangzhou was changed into Wuwei County, with jurisdiction over guzang, Shenniao, Tianbao, Changsong and Jialin counties. In the first year of Qianyuan (758), Emperor suzong of Tang Dynasty changed Wuwei County to Liangzhou. In 764, Liangzhou was occupied by Tubo and set up Xiliang mansion. In the fourth year of emperor AI's Tianyou reign (907), Zhu Wen abolished emperor AI and established Houliang. After that, the Yellow River Basin was replaced by Houliang, later Tang, later Jin, later Han and later Zhou, which is known as the "Five Dynasties" period in history. During the "Five Dynasties", although Xiliang Prefecture led Shenniao and Jialin counties, and had set up a section envoy or a post-mortuary envoy between them, it was always under the independent regime of Tubo and its own officials.
In the first year of song Taizu's Jianlong reign (960), the Tubo tribes set up independent regimes in Xiliang Prefecture, such as zhefunge branch of Xiliang Prefecture and panluozhi, the leader of Liugu Department of Xiliang Prefecture. In autumn and July of the second year of Zhidao reign of Emperor Taizong of the Song Dynasty (996), the Northern Song Dynasty governed Xiliang Prefecture, and led five counties, namely guzang, Shenniao, Fanhe, Changsong and Jialin. In the first year of Ming Dynasty (1032), Li Yuanhao captured Ganzhou and Liangzhou. From then on, Hexi belonged to Xixia. In 1036, renzongjingyou set up Xiliang mansion in Wuwei, which was under the jurisdiction of Gansu military department (governing Ganzhou). There is no record of its history.
In 1278, Emperor Shizu of the Yuan Dynasty set up Yongchang Road in Yongchang Prefecture and made Xiliang Prefecture a state. Yongchang Road belongs to Gansu Province, which governs Xiliang Prefecture and Zhuanglang County. In 1372, ganzhouwei (now Zhangye) and zhuanglangwei (now Yongdeng) were set up to command Hexi area. In the first month of the 12th year of Hongwu (1379), the command department of Shaanxi Xingdu was set up in Zhuanglang to command the Hexi garrison. In the 26th year of Hongwu (1393), the commander of Shaanxi Xingdu moved from Zhuanglang to Ganzhou. It has jurisdiction over Ganzhou 5 guards (Ganzhou left back, right back, avant-garde, full back and center back) and Yongchang, Liangzhou, Zhuanglang, Xining, Linhe and other guards.
In the early Qing Dynasty, it inherited the Ming system and became Xining road. It has jurisdiction over Liangzhou Wei, Zhenfan Wei, Yongchang Wei, Zhuanglang Wei and Gulang garrison. In 1663, it was changed to Liangzhuang road. In 1724, Liangzhou Wei was changed to Wuwei County, Yongchang Wei to Yongchang County, Zhuanglang Wei to Pingfan County, Zhenfan Wei to Zhenfan County, and Gulang Shouyu Qianhu to Gulang county. Home Liangzhou Fu, Wuwei County, under the Liangzhuang road. Lingwuwei, Yongchang, Zhenfan, Gulang, Pingfan five counties and Zhuanglang tea horse hall. In the 37th year of Qianlong (1772), Liangzhuang road was changed to Ganliang Road, and Wuwei County was governed. Liangzhou Prefecture is subordinate to Ganliang Road, leading Wuwei, Yongchang and Zhenfan
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