Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture is located in the northwest of Yunnan Province, the middle reaches of the Nujiang River, because the Nujiang River runs through the whole territory from north to south. Nujiang Prefecture is the junction of China, Myanmar, Yunnan and Tibet, with a national boundary of 449.5 kilometers. Nujiang Prefecture is adjacent to Tibet Autonomous Region in the north, Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in the northeast, Lijiang City in the East, Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture in the southeast and Baoshan City in the south. The government is located in Liuku Town, Lushui city.
Nujiang Prefecture has a total area of 14703 square kilometers and a population of 520000. The proportion of minority population in Nujiang Prefecture accounts for 92.2% of the total population, of which Lisu nationality accounts for 51.6%. It has jurisdiction over Lushui City, Fugong County, Gongshan Dulong Nu Autonomous County, Lanping Bai Pumi Autonomous County and two minority autonomous counties.
Nujiang Prefecture is the only Lisu Autonomous Prefecture in China, among which Dulong and nu are the unique ethnic minorities in Nujiang. Nujiang Prefecture is the Autonomous Prefecture with the largest ethnic composition and the largest number of ethnic groups with a small population in China. On October 9, 2020, it was awarded the title of the fourth batch of national ecological civilization construction demonstration cities and counties by the Ministry of ecological environment.
In Han Dynasty, Nujiang Prefecture belonged to Yueyi, Yizhou and Yongchang counties.
In Jin and Wei dynasties, it belonged to Yongchang, Yunnan, Hexi and other counties.
In Tang Dynasty (Nanzhao), Lanping, Bijiang, Fugong and Gongshan belonged to Jianchuan Festival, while Lushui belonged to Yongchang Festival.
In the period of Dali, Lancangjiang county (later changed to Lanxi County) was set up in Lanping, which belonged to Mou Tong Prefecture; Bijiang, Fugong and Gongshan belonged to Lanxi County; Lushui belonged to Shengxiang county.
In the Yuan Dynasty, Lanzhou Tuzhi Prefecture was set up in Lanping, belonging to Lijiang road; Gongshan was subordinate to Linxi County, and belonged to Lijiang road with Bijiang and Fugong; Lushui belonged to yunlongdian Junmin mansion and Yongchang mansion.
In the Ming Dynasty, Lanzhou (Lanping) tuzhizhou, Bijiang and Fugong belonged to Lijiang military and civilian government; Gongshan was subordinate to Kangpu and yezhituqianzong in Linxi County, belonged to Lijiang military and civilian government; Liuku and laowotuqianzong were set up on the East Bank of Nujiang River in Lushui, belonged to Yunlong Prefecture; denggeng and luzhang tuqianzong were set up on the West Bank of Nujiang River, and Maozhao Tuba were set up in Baoshan County, Yongchang Prefecture.
In the Qing Dynasty, the local magistrate of Lanzhou was changed to the local magistrate and set up the local magistrate of Lanzhou. Lanzhou, Bijiang and Fugong belong to Lijiang Prefecture; Gongshan belongs to changputang District of weixiting; Lushui Liuku and laowotuqian belong to Yunlong Prefecture; denggeng, luzhang and maozhaotuqian belong to Baoshan County of Yongchang Prefecture.
After the revolution of 1911, the "nuqiu border settlement corps" of Yunnan Province separated into Nujiang River and established zhiziluo, shangpa and changputang border settlement offices. The "border settlement general office" was set up in Yingpan street of Lanping county to directly exercise military and political jurisdiction over this area. Denggeng, luzhang, Maozhao of Baoshan County, Liuku and Daxingdi of Yunlong County were merged to form luzhang administrative office .
In 1916, the colonial offices were changed into administrative offices.
From 1928 to 1933, the administrative offices were established in Lushui, Bijiang, Fugong and Gongshan, which were subordinate to Lijiang and Tengchong.
In 1950, it was divided into Lijiang district and Baoshan District.
On August 23, 1954, the Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Region was established, and the people's Government of the autonomous region was stationed in zhiziluo, Bijiang county. Bijiang (Bijiang County, Lisu Autonomous Region was abolished and restored to county, stationed in zhiziluo), Fugong (Fugong County, Lisu Autonomous Region was abolished and restored to county, stationed in shangpa Street), Gongshan (Gongshan County, Lisu Autonomous Region was abolished and restored to county, stationed in dangdangdang Village) and Lushui County (stationed in luzhang Street) originally belonged to Baoshan autonomous region were included in Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Region.
On October 1, 1956, the original Gongshan County was changed into Gongshan Dulong Nu Autonomous County.
On January 18, 1957, according to the constitution, Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Region was changed into Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture.
In 1957, Lanping county (located in lajijing), formerly in Lijiang Prefecture, was incorporated into Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture.
On June 4, 1961, in accordance with the provisions of the Sino Burmese Treaty of friendship and non aggression and the Sino Burmese border treaty, the Chinese government officially took back Pianma and established piangugang special zone, which is subordinate to Lijiang special zone. In September 1966, it was assigned to Lushui county and established Pianma township.
In 1973, the Revolutionary Committee of Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture moved from zhiziluo, Bijiang County, to Xinzhai Township, Liuku District, Lushui county. It has jurisdiction over Lushui (in luzhang Street), Bijiang (in Pihe commune), Fugong (in shangpa Street), Lanping (in LAJING Street) and Gongshan Dulong and Nu Autonomous County (in Cikai commune).
On September 24, 1986, with the approval of the State Council, the organizational system of Bijiang county was abolished, and the territory was assigned to Lushui county and Fugong County respectively.
On November 27, 1987, with the approval of the State Council, Lanping county was abolished and Lanping Bai and Pumi Autonomous County was established. The former administrative region of Lanping county was the administrative region of Lanping Bai and Pumi Autonomous County.
In 1988, Lanping county was changed to Lanping Bai and Pumi Autonomous County.
On January 5, 2004, the Ministry of Civil Affairs approved the relocation of Lushui County People's government from luzhang town to Liuku town.
In 2006, the total area of Nujiang Prefecture was 14703 square kilometers. With a total population of 520400, it has jurisdiction over 2 counties and 2 autonomous counties, including 9 towns, 17 townships, 3 ethnic townships, 10 neighborhood committees and 258 village committees.
In 2014, luzhang town in Lushui County, shangpa town in Fugong County, Cikai town in Gongshan Dulong Nu Autonomous County, and Jinding town in Lanping Bai Pumi Autonomous County were listed as national key towns.
In 2016, the reply of the Ministry of civil affairs of the people's Republic of China on approving Yunnan Province to abolish Lushui county and establish a county-level Lushui city (min Han  No. 176): with the approval of the State Council, it is agreed to abolish Lushui county and establish a county-level Lushui city. The former administrative region of Lushui county is the administrative region of Lushui City, and the people's Government of Lushui city is located at No. 1, Longjiang Road, Liuku town. Lushui city is under the jurisdiction of Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture.
Nujiang Prefecture governs one county-level city, one county and two autonomous counties: Lushui City, Fugong County, Gongshan Dulong Nu Autonomous County and Lanping Bai Pumi Autonomous County. The state government is located in Liuku Town, Lushui city.
Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture is located in the northwest of Yunnan Province, between 98 ° 09 ′ - 99 ° 39 ′ E and 25 ° 33 ′ - 28 ° 23 ′ n. It is adjacent to Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture, Lijiang area in the East, Myanmar in the west, Baoshan area in the south, Chayu County, Linzhi City, Tibet Autonomous Region in the north, with a border of 449.467 km. The largest vertical distance between North and south of Nujiang Prefecture is 320.4 km, and the largest horizontal distance between East and West is 153 km, with a total area of 14703 square kilometers. Liuku Town, Lushui City, is 614 km away from Kunming.
Except for Tongdian and Jinding in Lanping County, where there are a small amount of relatively flat mountain trough land and river alluvial flat land, most of them are high mountains and steep slopes, with less arable land and less than 4% reclamation coefficient. The slope of 76.6% of the cultivated land is above 25 degrees. Among the arable land, 28.9% is in high mountain area, 63.5% in mid mountain area and 7.6% in valley area.
In the inner part of the prefecture, the north is higher than the south, and the North-South trend of danlika mountain, Dulong River, Gaoligong Mountain, Nujiang River, Biluo snow mountain, Lancang River and Yunling mountains are arranged in sequence, forming a long and narrow Alpine Canyon landform. The highest point in the territory is gawagapu, the main peak of Gaoligong Mountain, with an altitude of 5128 meters, and the lowest is Nujiang River Valley, with an altitude of 738 meters.
Nujiang Prefecture is located in the longitudinal valley of Hengduan Mountains in the South extension of Qinghai Tibet Plateau, which is the "roof of the world". There are 11 species, 29 soil genera and 55 soil species in Nujiang Prefecture, among which 29 are paddy soil and 35 are dryland soil, forming horizontal, vertical and regional distribution characteristics.
The soil in Lushui, Fugong and Gongshan counties (cities) of Nujiang Prefecture is acid, while that in Lanping county is alkaline. The soil is rich in organic matter and potassium. There are mainly red soil and red soil in the river valley below 1500 meters above sea level; yellow red soil and yellow brown soil in the mid mountain area at 2000 meters above sea level; brown soil and dark brown soil in the high mountain area at 2500-3000 meters above sea level. More than 3000 meters, followed by gray brown forest soil and alpine meadow soil.
The weather changes greatly in the state, and the climate is different. The climate of Nujiang Prefecture has the common characteristics of low latitude plateau monsoon climate with small annual temperature difference, large daily temperature, distinct dry and wet seasons, and no obvious division of four seasons. At the same time, due to the influence of landform and latitude differences, it has cold in the north, warm in the middle and hot in the South; cold in the high mountains, warm in the mid mountains and hot by the river; rainy season starts early in some areas, short in dry season and long in warm season, There is no early spring, and the three-dimensional climate shows the unique climate characteristics of Tuo.
The lowest altitude in Nujiang Prefecture is 738 meters, and the highest is 5128 meters. The significant altitude difference and complex regional environment affect the redistribution of heat conditions, and the temperature varies from place to place. Generally, in the low hot valley below 1400 meters above sea level, the temperature is the highest and the heat is abundant. The annual average temperature is 16.8 ℃～ 20.1 ℃, the hottest month temperature is 21.7 ℃～ 24.7 ℃, the coldest month temperature is 11.1 ℃～ 13.6 ℃, the annual extreme minimum temperature is - 28 ℃～ 3.7 ℃, and the accumulated temperature is 5530 ℃～ 5019 ℃ greater than or equal to 10 ℃. In the middle and high mountain area between 1800 and 2300 meters above sea level, the annual average temperature is 15.1 ℃～ 11.1 ℃, and the lowest temperature is 10 ℃ The temperature in hot month is 19.3 ℃～ 17.8 ℃, the coldest air temperature is 9.1 ℃～ 3.2 ℃, the extreme minimum temperature is - 2.8 ℃～ 10.2 ℃, which is greater than or equal to 10 ℃ accumulated temperature 5019 ℃～ 3223 ℃; the annual average temperature is above 11.0 ℃ and the hottest temperature is above 17.8 ℃
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