China's three sand the three sand cities are located in the central and southern parts of the South China Sea, the southern part of Hainan Province, and the islands and reefs of the Paracel Islands, the Zhongsha Islands and the Spratly Islands. The land area is more than 20 square kilometers, with a total area of about 2000000 square kilometers. The city is located in the central and southern part of the city of Hainan. The three cities of Xisha are located in the 10 districts, with a population of 2500 and a population of 448 registered residence in Nansha District. The Municipal People's government is located in Yongxing Island, Xisha district.
Sansha is the southernmost prefecture level administrative region in China. It is also the city with the largest total area, the smallest land area and the least population in China. It has the honorary title of "national double support model city". Sansha city was shortlisted as one of the top 200 charming cities in the world in 2016.
In the Yin and Zhou dynasties 3000 years ago, the indigenous Luoyue people along the South China Sea began to contact with the Central Plains. Since then, Chinese fishermen have been sailing and fishing in the South China Sea all the year round. They first discovered the islands in the South China Sea, which are recorded in a special manuscript called "Geng Lu Bu" (or "Shui Lu Bu") and passed down from generation to generation as a navigation guide.
In the pre Qin period, Hainan Island and the South China Sea Islands belong to Baiyue area. Zan, a minister of Geography in the Han Dynasty, said: "from Jiaozhi to Kuaiji, there are different castes in Baiyue area."
Qin: in 221 BC, the first emperor of Qin ruled the country and divided the country into 36 counties, among which Nanhai County, Guilin county and Xiang county were set up in Lingnan area. According to records of Qin Shihuang, the three counties are mostly on the northern and western waters of the South China Sea, namely the Dongsha Islands and the Paracel Islands sea area.
Han Dynasty: in 111 BC, Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty sent Fubo general Lu bode and General Yang Fu of louchuan to pacify southern Guangdong, and then set up daner, zhuya, Nanhai, Cangwu, Yulin, Hepu, Jiaozhi, Jiuzhen and rinan counties in the area. Among them, daner and zhuya counties were located in Hainan Province. In the eighteen years (42 AD) of the Eastern Han Dynasty, Wu Fu, general of the south of Changsha, had been to "thousands of miles of Changsha", that is, today's Paracel Islands. In 1973, the South China Sea was first marked on the topographic map of China.
Three Kingdoms: Wu Sun Quan sent Kangtai and Zhu Ying to Funan (today's Cambodia) and other countries. The two envoys of Kangtai and Zhu visited some islands in the South China Sea and observed "coral island" carefully. Funan Zhuan is the first scientific description of the causes of coral island in the world.
Jin: in the Western Jin Dynasty, Pei Yuan recorded the diurnal tide and semidiurnal tide in the South China Sea. In the Eastern Jin Dynasty, Bao Liang, the prefect of Nanhai Prefecture, visited Nanhai and Nanhai islands regularly.
Southern Dynasties: Xie Lingyun of the Song dynasty recorded in the memorial to Emperor Wu that in about 410 and 411 ad, Liu Yu, Emperor Wu of the Song Dynasty, had a battle with Lu Xun. His main battlefield was the South China Sea Islands under his jurisdiction.
Sui: according to the book of Sui, from 607 to 610 ad, Suiti sent Chang Jun and Wang Junzheng to the country of red earth (now the southeastern part of Malay Peninsula, Thailand), passing the "Jiao Shi Shan" of Paracel Islands and the west side of Spratly Islands.
Tang: the geography records of the old Tang Dynasty records: the territory of Zhen Zhou (Sanya city of Hainan province) now "southwest to the sea 3000 miles" has obviously included the Paracel Islands. Volume 21 of hanchangliji records the jurisdiction of Lingnan Jiedushi during the reign of emperor Mu Zong of Tang Dynasty. It says: "the state of Lifu is as far as 3000 Li, separated by mountains and seas Duozhou island. " In Tang Dynasty, Nanhai islands not only became a part of Zhenzhou administrative division, but also were administrated by Lingnan Jiedushi.
Song Dynasty: inherited the administrative system of Sui and Tang Dynasties. In the Northern Song Dynasty Zeng Gong Liang's military system and national defense major "Wu Jing Zeng Yao" assigned the nine breasts (Paracel Islands) to the coastal areas of the Song Dynasty. In the Southern Song Dynasty, the chronicles of the Song dynasty recorded that the Southern Song Dynasty was two years old (AD 1277), and December was on the day of Bing Zi, and the emperor of the Southern Song Dynasty had been stationed in the Paracel Islands (seven seas).
Yuan Dynasty: the system of Song Dynasty was continued, and Chinese local governments continued to manage the islands in the South China Sea. In 1279, according to the order of emperor Shizu of the Yuan Dynasty, Guo Shoujing, academician of Tongzhi Taishi, went to the South China Sea to make a survey, which is called "Four Seas test". His journey "crossed zhuya to the South" and finally "measured the north pole of the South China Sea at 15 degrees", which is the embodiment of the exercise of jurisdiction in the South China Sea in the Yuan Dynasty. Related historical poems, such as "Sansha city" by Chen zhisui, said: "the ancient kingdom has a divine frontier, and the ancestors have many deeds. On the South China Sea in Xuanwei, there is a dust wave in Wanli town. " (seven years from the fourth year to the 1311~1320 years), Zhu Si Ben and Luo Hongxian's "Guang map" painted in Changsha (Paracel Islands) and Wanli Stone pond (Spratly Islands), indicating that the South China Sea Islands were still included in the version of the map in the Yuan Dynasty (1311~1320).
Ming: the administrative divisions of the South China Sea have become more and more stable. The Chinese government has not only fully included it in the territory, but also further confirmed that it belongs to the jurisdiction of Qiongzhou Prefecture. Xuan de five years (1430) compiled the "Zheng He charts" to draw the Paracel Islands and Spratly Islands in China Version. It is recorded in the "territory" article of Zhengde Qiongtai Zhi written by Tang Zhou in Ming Dynasty that Qiongzhou has "Qianli Changsha" and "Wanli Shitang". According to Wang Zo (1465~1505)'s "Qiong Tai foreign discipline", Wanzhou has jurisdiction over "Changsha and Shi Tang", indicating that the Paracel Islands and Spratly Islands of the South China Sea Islands are the jurisdiction of Wanzhou. It can be seen that in fifteenth Century, Paracel Islands and Spratly Islands were already part of Hainan Island.
Qing Dynasty: no matter in official documents or local chronicles, all the islands in the South China Sea were placed under the jurisdiction of Wanzhou, the capital of Qiongzhou. For example, Jin Guangzu's general annals of Guangdong, Jiang Tingxi's imperial collection of ancient and modern books, Hu Duan's Wanzhou annals, and Mingyi's Qiongzhou Prefecture annals provide us with sufficient, reliable and valuable information to understand the administrative divisions of the South China Sea Islands at that time. At the same time, the South China Sea Islands were mapped in the administrative region of China by the general map of the world published in 1724, the general map of the world published in 1755, the unified map of the Qing Dynasty in 1767 and the unified map of the Qing Dynasty in 1817. The Zhongsha Islands, the China's official map, was clearly designated as a Chinese government. The map was painted with a red rectangular legend as the first level administrative unit of the government. This is what we saw in the Qing Dynasty, namely "Nan'ao gas", "thousand li Changsha", "Wanli Stone pond" and "seven seas", namely the Dongsha Islands, the Paracel Islands and Zhongsha Islands of the South China Sea Islands. The earliest map that was included in China's territory with Spratly Islands and under the jurisdiction of the government. In the late Qing Dynasty, it was even clearer.
Wang Zhichun's "preqing distant Ji, the whole map of the seas" (1879) is called the world map of China centered by the author, and the South China Sea and South China Sea Islands are drawn in detail, and the "Qi Sha tou" (the Zhongsha Islands), the "Changsha" (Paracel Islands), the "stone pond" (South China Sea archipelago) and the seven seas are painted. In the geographical map of all provinces, prefectures and counties in China published in 1904, the islands in the South China Sea were plotted with double line checkerboard legend, which clearly indicated that they were government level administrative units in Guangdong. In 1910, the Qing government promulgated the regulations for the trial operation of Dongsha Island, which drew up the details of the administrative management of Dongsha Island, including "selection committee commissioner", "quantity and authority", "kuandinggua period", "establishment of bureau" and the budget and use of funds.
Republic of China: after the revolution of 1911, the Guangdong provincial government announced that the Zhongsha Islands in Southwest China should be under the jurisdiction of Hainan county (Sanya today). During World War II, Japan occupied Taiping island in Xisha and Nansha. After Japan surrendered, the Kuomintang government dispatched the two ships of the navy "Yongxing" and "Zhongjian" in November 24, 1946 to take over the Paracel Islands and build up the monument of Xisha. In December 12th, the two ships of Taiping and Zhongye were taken over by Spratly Islands, and the Spratly Islands administration office was set up on Taiping Island, and the troops stationed in the South China Sea belonged to the naval headquarters temporarily. In May 1947, the Ministry of defense held a meeting on the construction of the Nansha Islands. The meeting decided that the Hainan Island Special Administrative Region should administer Paracel Islands and Spratly Islands.
People's Republic of China: Hainan Island was liberated in May 1950. In terms of administrative division, the South China Sea Islands still belong to Guangdong Province, and the administrative relationship belongs to Hainan administrative region of Guangdong Province. Guangdong aquatic products office and Hainan administrative region have organized professional personnel to go to Paracel Islands and other sea areas to investigate aquatic resources. In the next few years, they built houses in Yongxing island on Paracel Islands and set up a small retail department to supply daily necessities.
In November 1955, Hainan bird fertilizer company was established in Haikou. In March 1956, 250 pioneers of new China's development of Xisha rushed to Xisha to exploit bird fertilizer resources. In January 1958, Xisha fisheries purchasing station was set up in Hainan administrative region; in the same year, Xisha fisheries production headquarters was set up in Yongxing island.
In 1959, Paracel Islands, Spratly Islands and the Zhongsha Islands office were established by the Hainan administrative region. In 1988, it was under the jurisdiction of the newly established Hainan Province.
In November 19, 2007, Mr. Zhang, a government official of the Propaganda Department of Wenchang municipal Party committee of Hainan Province, said that the State Council of People's Republic of China had approved the proposal of the Hainan Provincial People's government to upgrade the Xisha office and set up a formal county level city "three sand cities" to replace the Hainan Paracel Islands, Spratly Islands and the Zhongsha Islands office to manage the three groups. Mr. Zhang, a government official of the Hongkong Municipal Propaganda Department, said that she had been in charge of the three groups. Island. He also said that Wenchang, which is closest to the Paracel Islands, will assume the responsibility of the three cities.
Chinese PinYin : Hai Nan Sheng San Sha Shi
Release Time:2021-03-06 00:43:04
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