Chinese Name: Fructus aurantii Immaturus
[source] it is the young fruit of Gouju, lime or Xiangyuan, a Rutaceae plant.
[plant morphology] 1. Gouju, see "Gouju" for details.
Small trees. Stems and branches triangular, smooth, spiny, 5-20 mm long. The leaves degenerate into simple leaflike, alternate, leathery; petiole has narrow long or inverted heart-shaped wings, 0.8-1.5 cm long and 3-6 mm wide; leaf blade is oblong, 5-8 cm long and 2.5-4 cm wide, apex short and obtuse, acuminate, or slightly concave head, base broad cuneate or obtuse round, entire or with inconspicuous wavy serrations, glabrous on both sides and oil spots, dorsal veins obvious. Flowers arranged in racemes, also solitary or clustered in leaf axils; calyx plate-shaped, 5-lobed, lobes broadly triangular, outside sparsely short hairy; petals 5, white, long elliptic, about 1.8 cm long, 6-7 mm wide, slightly retrovolved; stamens more than 20, filaments separated, growing out of stigma; ovary superior, spherical, about 12 locules, each containing ovules, style cylindrical Stigma capitate. The fruit is round and slightly flat. It is orange yellow when it matures. The peel is rough. The flowering period is April to May. The fruit is ripe in November.
Wild or cultivated. It is distributed in Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Guangdong, Guizhou, Sichuan, Jiangxi and other places.
The nearly mature fruit (Fructus aurantii) of this plant is also used for medicine.
③ Fragrant round, see "citron" for details.
[collection] from May to June, they were picked and dried in the sun; the slightly larger ones were cut into two parts and dried in the sun.
[medicinal materials] 1
It is the young fruit of the plant Lycium citri. It is round in shape and 2-3cm in diameter. Most of the products are cut into hemispheres. The surface of the fruit is green yellow, with numerous small oil spots and slightly raised wrinkles, covered with fine hairs. There are obvious style bases at the top and short fruit stalks at the base. The cross-section of the fruit is 3-6 mm thick, with 1-2 rows of brown oil spots scattered on the outside of the edge, 6-8 petals of the pulp sac, and the juice cells in the sac are dry and brown. In the near mature fruit, there are several seeds in each pulp, which are long oval in shape. The central column is solid, 4-6 mm wide, accounting for about 1 / 6 of the cross-section diameter. It's fragrant, juicy, slightly sour and bitter.
Produced in Fujian, Shaanxi, Guangxi and other places.
② Orange and Fructus aurantii Immaturus
It is the young fruit of the plant lime. The intact fruit is round and spherical, with a diameter of 0.3-3 cm. The appearance is grayish green or dark green, densely covered with most oil spots and slightly raised wrinkles, and scattered with a few irregular small yellow and white spots. The tip is slightly protruding, and the base has the mark of annular stipe. In the transverse section, the mesocarp is smooth, yellowish brown, 3-7mm thick, with 1-2 rows of punctate oil chambers scattered under the skin of the exocarp, and the pericarp is not easy to peel; the center is brown, with 7-12 pulp sacs, each pulp contains about 10 seeds: the diameter of the central column is 2-3mm. It has a strong aroma, bitter taste and slightly acid.
It is mainly produced in Sichuan, Jiangxi and Zhejiang. In addition, it is also produced in Guangxi, Hunan and other places. Those who produce Sichuan are called Sichuan Fructus aurantii Immaturus, while those who produce Jiangxi are called Jiang Fructus aurantii Immaturus.
③ Sweet and round Fructus aurantii Immaturus
It is the young fruit of plant fragrant circle, which is spherical, oblong or obovoid. Most of the products are cut in half, with a diameter of 0.5-3 cm. The surface of the smaller young fruit is covered with yellowish white villi, and gradually grows bald and rough, grayish reddish brown or dark brownish green. Sometimes irregular yellow and white turtle spots can be seen, and most oil spots and reticular raised coarse wrinkles are densely distributed. The big fruit has a ring-shaped money ring at the top and a ring-shaped fruit stalk at the base. In the transverse section, the mesocarp is rough, yellowish white, 4-8 mm thick, with 1-2 rows of punctate oil chambers scattered under the skin of the outer fruit, and the pericarp is not easy to peel off; the center is brown, with 10-12 pulp sacs, and several seeds in each pulp; the diameter of the central column is 2-5 mm. It has a strong aroma, sour and bitter. It is mainly produced in Jiangxi, Sichuan and other places. In addition to the above three kinds of commercial Fructus aurantii, the young fruits of sweet orange (Fujian), citron (Yunnan) and Pomelo (Guangxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan and Jiangxi) are also used as practical Fructus aurantii. See "sweet orange", "citron" and "Grapefruit".
[chemical constituents] the pericarps of both citrus and citrus plants contain volatile oil, and most of them contain flavonoid glycosides. The content of alkaloids, glycosides and saponins in Fructus aurantii Immaturus was 0.09%, 20.49% and 5.86%, respectively. The results showed that vitamin c-23.2-60.3 mg% was found in young fruit of sour orange, and neohesperidin 5.6-14.18%, naringin 1.5-4.0%, lacqueroside and honeysuckle glycosides were found in the peel of immature fruit (neohesperidin disappeared when the fruit was ripe).
[pharmacological action] ① effect on uterus
The decoction of Fructus aurantii Immaturus and Fructus aurantii Immaturus from three different areas (Sichuan, Jiangxi and Hunan) showed inhibitory effect on mouse uterus in vitro (pregnant and non pregnant), and excited rabbit uterus in vivo and in vitro (pregnant and non pregnant). It has also been proved that uterine fistula can make uterine contraction strong, increase tension, even appear ankylosis contraction. Tincture of Fructus aurantii and flow extract of Fructus aurantii can also stimulate rabbit uterus (in vivo and in vitro), but inhibit mouse uterus (in vitro). An alkaloid like substance isolated from aurantium aurantii and Chinese wolfberry also has contractile effect on rabbit uterus in vitro, especially in the uterus excited by pituitrin: the part of alkaloid removed has relaxant effect on rabbit uterus in vitro, and the relaxant effect is more obvious after being excited by pituitrin. Cirantin, isolated from the peel of Fructus aurantii Immaturus, can inhibit the activity of hyaluronidase around the ovary, which may be related to its contraceptive effect (preventing fertilization).
② The effect on intestinal tract
The results showed that Fructus aurantii Immaturus and Fructus aurantii Immaturus from three different areas had inhibitory effect on the isolated intestine of mice and rabbits, while most of the intestine of rabbits had inhibitory effect in vivo, and a few had no change. The tincture of Fructus aurantii Immaturus and its flow extract inhibited the intestinal tract of mice (in vitro) and rabbits (in vivo and in vitro). High concentration (1:1000) can inhibit the small intestine of rabbit and guinea pig in vitro, and can inhibit the effects of acetylcholine and histamine; low concentration (1:10000) can present excitatory effect after short-term inhibition, with increased amplitude and frequency. In anesthetized dogs, the decoction can also inhibit the intestinal motility, but it can excite the gastrointestinal motility in gastrostomy dogs.
③ Effects on heart and blood vessels
It is a small amount of excitation and a large amount of inhibition to isolated toad heart. This is true for the decoction of Fructus aurantii and Fructus aurantii, tincture of Fructus aurantii and liquid extract of Fructus aurantii. The results showed that the injection of Fructus aurantii decoction or alcohol extract into the vein of dogs could induce significant pressor effect. The decoction of Fructus aurantii and Fructus Liquidambar from three different areas has been proved by toad whole body vascular irrigation method to have the effect of slight contraction of blood vessels. It has significant and rapid pressor effect on anesthetized dogs. It does not have the phenomenon of "respiratory inhibition" and "post depressor" caused by adrenaline pressor, and the heart rate does not increase significantly. The pressor mechanism is related to the following factors: (1) activation of α - adrenoceptors, resulting in vasoconstriction of some organs; (2) enhancement of myocardial contraction and increase of cardiac output (isolated guinea pig heart perfusion and cardiopulmonary preparation). After reserpine treatment, the pressor effect of Fructus aurantii Immaturus was more significant. The results showed that it could significantly increase coronary flow in anesthetized dogs (the coronary flow could be increased by 289.4% with bubble flowmeter), the blood flow of brain and kidney also increased by 86.4% and 64.5% on average, which was significantly different from that of noradrenalin; the blood flow of femoral artery decreased, and the oxygen consumption of myocardium increased slightly, but not significantly, which was not parallel to the significant increase of coronary flow. In the ECG test of dogs and guinea pigs, the arrhythmia (ventricular tachycardia or atrioventricular block) caused by large dose of Fructus aurantii Immaturus is not serious. According to the above characteristics, it is suggested that it can be used for the treatment of cardiogenic shock. Alkaloids isolated from Fructus aurantii aurantii and Fructus Lycii can also increase the tension of vascular smooth muscle, especially after the action of pituitrin.
④ Other functions
The results showed that the content of cholesterol in serum and liver of rats fed with cholesterol containing diet was decreased. The alcohol extract of Fructus aurantii Immaturus has inhibitory effect on Mycobacterium tuberculosis h27rv in vitro, and its inhibitory concentration is 1:1000. The decoction has no effect on the trachea of guinea pigs. It has been reported that citrus juice can promote the fermentation speed of yeast (bread), and its activity does not decrease after boiling. Therefore, the main medical use of non enzyme component orange juice is that it is rich in vitamin C, and contains a considerable amount of vitamin A and B, while the peel does not contain vitamin C, but is rich in vitamin A, bitter in taste, and can strengthen the stomach. If children take a lot of pericarp, it can cause poisoning (abdominal pain, spasm).
[processing] Fructus aurantii Immaturus: clean impurities, soak them in water until 80% transparent, remove them, moisten them until there is no hard core inside, slice them and dry them in the air. Stir fry Fructus aurantii Immaturus: Sprinkle the bran evenly in the heated pot. When the smoke comes out, add the slice of Fructus aurantii Immaturus, stir fry until it is slightly burnt yellow, take it out, sift off the bran and let cool. (100 Jin of Zhishi tablet, 10 jin of bran)
① Ben Jing: "it tastes bitter and cold. "
② Wupu materia medica: "Lei Gong: acid, non-toxic. Li dangzhi: great cold. "
③ Bielu: "sour, slightly cold, non-toxic. "
④ "On medicinal properties": "bitter and pungent in taste. "
[channel tropism] entering spleen and stomach channels.
① "Lei Gong's treatment of medicinal properties": entering the heart and spleen meridians. "
② In the book of Materia Medica, it is said that "enter the Foot Yangming and Taiyin meridians. "
③ According to Bencao Zaixin, "it enters the liver and spleen meridians. "
Functions and indications: breaking Qi, dispersing fullness, purging phlegm and eliminating accumulation. Treatment of chest and abdominal distension, chest obstruction, pain, phlegm, edema, food accumulation, constipation, gastroptosis, uterine prolapse, anal prolapse.
① "In addition to cold, dampness and itching, dampness and dampness in the skin are the root of the meridians. "
② Bielu: "in addition to the chest and hypochondriac phlegm addiction, stop water, break solid, distension full, heart urgent pain, adverse Qi, hypochondriac wind pain, stomach qi, stop
Chinese PinYin : Zhi Shi
Fructus aurantii Immaturus
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