[synonyms] shaonao (Shenxiao Fang), chaonao (pinhui Jingyao), naonao (Ben Jing Feng Yuan), younao and Shunao (collection of medicinal materials).
[source] it is a granular crystal from the roots, stems, branches and leaves of Cinnamomum camphora. For the plant morphology, please refer to "camphor wood".
[preparation method] generally, the old trees are cut down from September to December. The roots, trunks and branches of the old trees are cut into pieces by sawing (the leaves can also be used), and then they are put into a distiller for distillation. The camphor and volatile oil contained in the camphor wood are distilled with water vapor. After cooling, the crude camphor is obtained. Refined camphor powder was obtained by sublimation of crude camphor. The camphor powder was pressed into the model to form transparent camphor block. Should be sealed in China, put in a dry place. The old trees with more than 50 years of growth have the most abundant yield; the young branches and leaves have less brain, and the yield is low.
[medicinal material] the pure product is snow-white crystalline powder or colorless and transparent hard block. The crude product is yellowish and bright. It is easy to volatilize at room temperature, and can emit a smoky and bright flame when ignited. The gas is strong and pungent, with a pungent taste at the beginning and cool at the end. It is better to be white, pure, transparent, dry and free of impurities.
It is mainly produced in Taiwan, Guizhou, Guangxi, Fujian, Jiangxi and Sichuan. In addition, it is also produced in Guangdong, Zhejiang, Anhui, Yunnan and Hunan. Taiwan has the largest output and good quality, which is called "Taiwan ice".
[pharmacological action] ① local action
Camphor has mild irritation and antiseptic effect on skin. If you rub hard, you will get red; if you rub lightly, you will get peppermint. There is a sense of coolness, which is due to the stimulation of cold receptors. It also has a mild local anesthetic effect. For gastrointestinal mucosa, camphor has a stimulating effect, so that the stomach feel warm and comfortable, a large number can produce nausea and vomiting. Camphor liniment has analgesic and antipruritic effects in clinic. Oral administration has the effect of expelling wind and slight expectorant.
② Effects on central nervous system
Camphor's systemic effect is mainly to excite the central nervous system, especially for the high-level central nervous system. Camphor acts on the motor area of cerebral cortex and brain stem, causing epileptic seizures. The general dose of camphor has no obvious effect on respiration. In the case of extreme inhibition, some respiratory excitations can be seen, mainly due to the reflex excitations caused by stimulating receptors during subcutaneous injection.
③ Effect on circulatory system
Camphor preparation was once widely used as cardiotonic, but the results of various reports are very inconsistent, so far there is no final conclusion. It has no digitalis or adrenaline like effect. It has no effect on normal myocardium, but high concentration can inhibit it. In the isolated heart, the excitatory effect can be seen only when the heart fails. To vasomotor center, only when its function is extremely low, can it have exciting effect, visceral vasoconstriction and skin vasodilation, and blood pressure rise. Therefore, it is considered that it is effective for patients with circulatory collapse or acute heart failure, but some people doubt or deny its efficacy. It has been reported that camphor oxide, a water-soluble metabolite of camphor in animals, has obvious cardiotonic, pressor and respiratory stimulatory effects.
④ In vivo process
Camphor is easily absorbed by mucous membrane, subcutaneous and muscle. Oral absorption is also fast. In the liver detoxification quite quickly, oxidation into camphor alcohol, and then combined with glucuronic acid and excreted from the urine.
[toxicity] Taking camphor preparation by mistake can cause poisoning. Oral administration of 0.5-1.0 G can cause dizziness, headache, warm feeling, even excitement and delirium. More than 2.0 g in a temporary state of sedation, that is caused by the excitation of the cerebral cortex, leading to epileptic spasm, and finally due to respiratory failure and even death. Oral administration of 7-15 g or intramuscular injection of 4 g can be fatal. The treatment of poisoning is usually symptomatic treatment, because of its fast detoxification in the body, it can often be saved.
It is pungent and hot.
① Pinhuijingyao: "it tastes bitter and pungent, warm and has little poison. "
② "Compendium": "pungent, hot, non-toxic. "
[Guijing] 1. Bencao Zaixin: "entering the heart and spleen meridians. "
② Summary of materia medica: "entering foot Jueyin meridian. "
Functions and indications: Tongqiao, insecticidal, analgesic and purulent. Treatment of abdominal pain, beriberi, sores, scabies, toothache, traumatic injury.
① "Puji Fang" says: "it can be used to treat various diseases, such as ulcers, flapping injuries, rheumatism, beriberi, etc. "
② "The essence of pinhui" says: "it is mainly used to kill insects, remove scabies, treat fire sores in soup, and fight against filthy Qi. "
③ "The compendium of medical science and technology" states: "pass through orifices, promote stagnation of Qi, treat evil Qi, cholera, heart and abdomen pain, cold and damp, beriberi, scabies, wind pruritus, dental caries, kill insects, remove beriberi in shoes. "
[usage and dosage] oral administration: add powder, 2-5% or dissolve in wine. External use: grind the end to scatter or adjust to apply.
[should avoid] Qi deficiency should not be taken.
"Don't see fire. "
[prescription selection] ① for the treatment of abdominal pain caused by Sha: camphor, myrrh and frankincense. Grind well and take three li with tea. (justice of Materia Medica) 10 g of refined camphor, 50 ml of brandy or sorghum. Soak for one day, dissolve and take 1 ml each time. (Modern Practical Chinese Medicine)
② Treatment of beriberi swelling and pain: camphor 2 liang, Aconitum 3 Liang. For the end, vinegar paste pill, marble big. Each pill is placed in the heart of the foot, and then heated with low fire. The clothes are surrounded and sweat is salivating. (Yi Lin Yao Ji)
③ Cure scabies have pus: camphor eight money, sulfur one money five minutes, Sichuan pepper one money (fried), alum - money. At the end of the study, the sesame oil should be evenly mixed, not too thin. Spread it on the new coarse summer cloth, wrap it well, and tie the thread tightly. First, needling the scabies to remove the pus, then heating it with the charcoal fire, pressing it on the affected area several times a day. When it can't remove the pus again, rub it with the medicine bag. Camphor powder
④ Treatment of pediatric alopecia: shaonaoyiqian, Huajiao Erqian, Zhima Erliang. For the end, after washing it. (simple formula)
⑤ Cure adults and children full of erosion: camphor three money, pepper two money. At the end of the research, put it in a copper pot, cover it with a bowl, and apply salt mud around the bowl. Put it on the fire for a few minutes, then lift the medicine to the bowl, scrape it and blow it into the mouth. (prescription of traditional Chinese medicine in Guizhou)
⑥ For the treatment of rotten feet in old age, itching caused by skin borers, and pain caused by rotten skin, the itching is becoming bigger and bigger, and it is difficult to converge: Camphor and Cortex Phellodendri (end) are equally divided. Then take a pinch of bean paste and evenly spread it on the affected area. Tie it tightly with a cloth for seven days. The affected area itches and becomes better after a few days. (Journal of traditional Chinese medicine 25:101927)
⑦ Cure acne: camphor five, six money, pig fat, scallion white. A total of mash, thick apply sore, oil paper wrapped, old cotton tie tight, a day for a change, not visible wind. (camphor cream from experience Collection)
⑧ For the treatment of sores and ulcers, pull them to the two armpits in front of the chest, the lump is as big as mustard seed, or pull them to the two eyebrows, and those who can't be cured in four or five years: camphor three coins, realgar three coins. It's the end. First, cut the root of Schizonepeta tenuifolia into pieces, boil the soup, wash it warm for a long time, and then remove the blood with a needle. Then, wash it three or four times. Then, mix camphor, realgar powder and sesame oil, sweep it up, let it come out of the water, and wash it the next day. Avoid wine and color. (camphor pill in the mystery of the cave)
⑨ Treatment of soup fire sores, pain: Camphor and sesame oil research application, such as sores wet, dry mixed with pain, fire poison does not enter. (pinhui Essentials)
⑩ Cure chilblain: chaonao three money, pig fat one or two. First, refine the lard, remove the residue, then pour the refined lard into the pot, pour it into the chaonao, refine it over low heat for more than ten minutes, then put it into the pot, cool it to paste, put it in a bottle, seal it for use, and apply it for three or five times. (health, 26 October 1958)
(11) treatment of toothache: shaonaoyiqian, cinnabar Yiqian. For the end, each with a little rub pain. (Shen Xiao Fang)
(12) treatment of tooth worm pain: camphor, Huangdan, soap (peeled, nuclear), etc. Grind well, honey pill, plug in the hole. (Yu Jushi's selection of strange prescriptions)
Chinese PinYin : Zhang Nao
Black bone. Hei Gu Tou
Nitraria serrata. Chi Ye Ni Hua Cao
Wood root. Mu Gen
Harrow seven. Ding Pa Qi
Safflower seedling. Hong Hua Miao
Puzhou black bean sauce. Pu Zhou Chi
Cassia root. Qi Da Gu Gen
Black bone vine. Wu Gu Teng
Blood full grass. Xue Man Cao
One leaf silver grass. Yi Ye Di
Carve vegetables. Zan Cai
pork. Zhu Rou