[synonyms] Shui Xie, mang Yu, Hu Xie (Ben Jing), Ze Zhi (Dian Shu), and Xie (BIE Lu), swan egg, Tian Tu (collection of medicinal materials).
[source] Rhizoma alismatis of Alismataceae.
[plant morphology] Alisma orientalis, also known as Ixeris (the book of songs), Shu, Sheng (1) 4 Jian (Erya), Shui? CAI (salvaging materia medica), Shui Ze, er Ze.
Perennial swamp plant, 50-100 cm high. There are tubers under the ground, spherical, up to 4.5 cm in diameter, with brown skin and dense fibrous roots. The leaf blade is elliptic to ovate, 5-18 cm long and 2-10 cm wide, apex acute or short, base broadly cuneate, rounded or slightly cordate, entire, both sides smooth and glabrous, with 6-7 veins. The flower stems grow from the leaves, the total pedicels are usually 5-7, whorled, integrated into large whorled panicles; the small pedicels are different in length, arranged in umbels; the bracts are lanceolate to linear, sharp; the sepals are 3, green, broadly ovate, 2-3 mm long, 1.5 mm wide; the petals are 3, white, obovate, shorter than the calyx; the stamens are 6; the pistils are many, free, ovary obovate, laterally flat, style lateral I'm a student. Achenes numerous, flat, obovate, 1.5-2 mm long, 1 mm wide, brown. The flowering period is from June to August. The fruit period is from July to September.
Born on the edge of a swamp. Distributed in Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Hebei, Henan, Shandong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Xinjiang and other places. It is widely cultivated in Sichuan and Fujian.
The leaves (Alisma orientalis leaves) and fruits (Alisma orientalis fruit) of this plant are also used for medicine. Please refer to the special section for details.
[collection] when the leaves wither in winter, the tubers are dug, the leaves and fibrous roots are removed, washed, dried with low fire, and then the fibrous roots and thick skin are knocked off.
[medicinal materials] the dried tubers are spherical, oblong or obovate, about 4-7 cm long and 3-5 cm in diameter; the surface is yellowish white, and the ones that have not been completely peeled are light brown; there are irregular transverse annular depressions, scattered with numerous protruding fibrous root traces, especially dense at the bottom; the quality is solid, and the broken surface is yellowish white with granules. The air is slightly fragrant and the taste is slightly bitter. It is better to be big, hard, yellow and white, and powdery.
It is mainly produced in Fujian, Sichuan, Jiangxi, Guizhou, Yunnan and other places. Among the commodities, the products from Fujian and Jiangxi are called "Alisma orientalis", which is large, round and smooth; the products from Sichuan, Yunnan and Guizhou are called "Alisma orientalis", which is small and rough. Generally speaking, the quality of Alisma orientalis is better.
[chemical constituents] five triterpenoids were isolated from tubers: Alisol a, Alisol B, Alisol acetate a ester, Alisol acetate B ester and epialisol a; volatile oil (containing furfural), small amount of alkaloids, asparagin, a phytosterol, a phytosterol glycoside, fatty acids (palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid); resin, protein and a large amount of amylase Powder (23%).
(1) diuretic effect
In the diuretic experiment of rats, Alisma orientalis in different seasons and different medicinal parts had different effects. The diuretic effect of Rhizoma alismatis produced in winter was the highest, and that in spring was slightly lower. Rhizoma alismatis produced in winter had a little diuretic effect, but Rhizoma alismatis (the seedlings that are not alive) and Rhizoma alismatis produced in spring had no diuretic effect. Different processing methods have different diuretic effects. The results showed that raw Alisma orientalis, wine and bran processed Alisma orientalis had certain diuretic effect, while salt Alisma orientalis had no effect; but in Wuling powder (Alisma orientalis, Poria cocos, Atractylodes macrocephala, Cinnamomum twig in the ratio of 4:3:3:2), both raw Alisma orientalis and salt Alisma orientalis had diuretic effect. Alisma decoction can increase urine output, sodium and urea excretion in healthy people. The effect of oral administration is very weak in rabbits, but intraperitoneal injection of Alisma fluid extract has diuretic effect. Alisma orientalis contains 147.5 mg% of potassium. It can be seen that the diuretic effect of Alisma orientalis is related to its large amount of potassium salt. Alisma orientalis can reduce the amount of urea and cholesterol in blood.
② The effect on lipid metabolism
The component t (184.108.40.206) in Alisma Plantago L., a closely related variety of Alisma orientalis, has therapeutic effect on fatty liver induced by low protein diet in rats. Its effect is equivalent to that of choline and lecithin, but it is different from that of choline and lecithin according to the analysis of lipid in serum and liver after treatment. Intraperitoneal injection can reduce the lipidemia caused by oral administration of cottonseed oil in rats, prevent and treat the liver damage caused by carbon tetrachloride in rats, and can slightly reduce the blood cholesterol of experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits, and alleviate the development of lesions.
③ Other functions
Intravenous injection of Rhizoma alismatis extract in anesthetized dogs can reduce blood pressure. Subcutaneous injection of extract 6 g / kg has mild hypoglycemic effect in rabbits, but subcutaneous injection of decoction 5 g / kg has no such effect. Alisma orientalis can inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro.
[processing] Alisma orientalis: remove the impurities, divide the size into different grades, soak in water until 80% transparent, take out, dry in the sun, moisten until the internal and external humidity is even, slice and dry in the sun. Salt Rhizoma alismatis: take the rhizoma alismatis tablets, spray with salt water, mix well, slightly moisten, put in the pot, stir fry gently until the surface is slightly yellow, take out and dry. (100 Jin of Alisma orientalis tablets, 2 jin of salt and 8 Yin, add appropriate amount of boiled water to clear)
"Lei Gong Paozhi Lun": "fine file, soak in wine for one night, percolate out, dry and appoint suddenly. "
Sweet and cold.
① Ben Jing: "it tastes sweet and cold. "
② Bielu: "salty, nontoxic. "
⑨ "On medicinal properties": "bitter taste. "
④ "Qi level, taste sweet. "
⑤ "Materia medica Mengluo": "sweet and sour, cold Qi. "
[channel tropism] entering kidney and bladder channels.
① "Tangye Materia Medica": "start with the Taiyang and Shaoyin meridians. "
② "Enter the sun and Shaoyin meridians" in the supplement of Materia Medica Yanyi. "
③ "Lei Gong processed medicine solution": into the bladder, kidney, Sanjiao, small intestine four channels. "
④ "Into the kidney, spleen. "
Functions and indications: diuresis, dampness and heat release. It is used to treat adverse urination, edema, fullness, vomiting, diarrhea, phlegm, beriberi, gonorrhea and blood in urine.
(1) Diuresis and dampness infiltration: it is used for the syndrome of less urine, edema, diarrhea, damp heat and turbid. In the treatment of gastric water stoppage, Atractylodes macrocephala is often used. The treatment of urethral astringent pain, adverse urination, often with Akebia, Poria cocos.
(2) Clearing and purging kidney fire: it is used for yin deficiency and fire hyperactivity.
① "Ben Jing" says: "the main wind cold dampness Bi, milk difficult, eliminate water, raise five zang organs, Yiqi power, fat and healthy. "
② Bielu: "tonifying deficiency and impairing five kinds of labor, eliminating five visceral fullness, starting Yin Qi, stopping ejaculation, thirst, leaching, removing water from bladder and triple energizer. "
③ According to the theory of medicinal properties, "it governs the kidney deficiency, and the essence comes out from itself. It can treat five kinds of gonorrhea, promote bladder heat, and lead straight to the water channel. "
④ Rihuazi materia medica: "it can cure five kinds of fatigue and seven kinds of injuries, such as head rotation, ear deficiency, muscle and bone contracture, dredging the small intestine, stopping bleeding and urination. "
⑤ "Medical Qiyuan": "treat urination, remove the sweat in the underworld. According to the secret of indications, remove the old water, nourish the new water, facilitate urination, eliminate edema, and relieve thirst. "
⑥ Li Gao: "to leave dirt in the heart, the heart water ruffian. "
⑦ "Gangmu": "seeping damp heat, phlegm, stop vomiting, diarrhea, colic, beriberi. "
[usage and dosage] oral administration: decoction, 2-4 Qian; or into pills, powder.
[should avoid] it is forbidden to take it if the kidney is deficient and the essence is smooth.
① Ben Cao Jing Ji Zhu: "the clam fearing the sea, the clam.". "
② Bielu: "bianqueyun, take more patients' eyes. "
⑤ "Introduction to medicine": "it is not applicable to those caused by drenching, thirst, edema and kidney deficiency. "
④ According to the classic of Materia Medica, "the patient has Yin deficiency without dampness and drink, and the kidney qi is deficient, the essence of Yang declines, the kidney qi is not solid, the essence is smooth, the eyes are painful, and the deficiency cold is the discharge, which should be avoided. "
[prescription selection] 1. For the treatment of swelling and edema: Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae and Rhizoma alismatis are 50% and 50% respectively. For the fine powder, Jianfu three money, Poria soup tune down, or pills can also serve 30 pills. (Baizhu powder in Su Wen Bing Ji Bao Ming Ji)
② Under the treatment of heart, there is a branch of drink, and its bitterness is dizzy: Rhizoma alismatis five Liang, Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae two Liang. On the two flavors, two liters of water, boiling a liter, sub warm clothing. (Zexie Decoction in Synopsis of the Golden Chamber)
③ Diarrhea, leukorrhea, leucorrhea, leucorrhea. Water - cup, ginger five pieces, wick ten stems, fried eight minutes, warm. (San Bai San in the compendium)
④ Treatment of pregnancy all over the body edema, asthma, constipation, urine red astringent: Alisma orientalis, cortex mori (fried), betel nut, red Poria cocos each five points. Take it in ginger water. (Alisma powder, a good prescription for women)
⑤ Treatment of damp heat jaundice, face body yellow: wormwood, Alisma each one or two, talc three money. Take it in water. (Qian Jin Fang)
⑥ Treatment of cold and damp beriberi, there are cold and heat: Alisma, papaya, bupleurum, Atractylodes, Polyporus umbellatus, Mutong, millet each five money. Take it in water. (authentic surgery)
⑦ Treatment of children clam, diaphragmatic heat, salivary tide: alismatis a point, cicada clothing (all) 21, yellow gelatin (a large palm, burning burning). For the fine end. Each take a money, warm rice soup tune down, day into two service, no more service. (xuanming Lun Fang, Zexie SAN)
⑧ For the treatment of wine wind, the body is lazy, sweating is like a bath, and the wind is evil with less Qi: Alisma orientalis and Shu are ten points each, and the milu is five points. He, with three fingers, for the meal. (plain questions)
⑨ For the treatment of wind deficiency, sweating and chilly wind: Alisma orientalis, Fangfeng (peeled), oyster (calcined red), Atractylodes lancea (soaked in rice hogwash, peeled, fried) each one or two points, GUI (peeled) three points. On the five flavor, pound for fine powder. Each take two money dagger, warm porridge drink, no time. (Alisma powder in Shengji Zonglu)
⑩ Treatment of kidney wind sores: Alisma, Gleditsia, boiled, baked for the end, refining honey for the pill, such as Tung. Hollow, to warm wine under 15 pills to 20
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