(materia medica of Southern Yunnan)
In addition, it is also known as the folk medicine of Yunnan Province.
[source] leaves of Solanaceae tobacco.
[plant morphology] Tobacco
Annual herb, 1-2m high. Stem erect, stout, base lignified, upper branched, covered with mucilaginous hairs. The leaves are very large, elliptic lanceolate, 10-30 cm long, 8-15 cm wide, apex acuminate, base slightly extended into a winged petiole, or slightly auricular, more or less amplexicaul, entire or with microwave shape, above green, below light green, mucilaginous. Panicle or raceme, terminal; flowers with bracts and stalks, stalks 4-5 cm long; calyx green, oblong, ca. 2 cm long, lobes lanceolate, apex acute; corolla funnel-shaped, ca. 3-5 cm long, throat slightly expanded, tube pink, rarely white, outside soft hair, lobes 5, apex acute, red; stamen 5, filaments as long as corolla or slightly short; pistil 1, flowers Stigma is long, stigma is round, ovary is superior, 2-locular, ovule is many. Capsule ovoid, ca. 15 cm long, slightly beyond persistent calyx. Seeds small, many, yellowish brown. The flowering period is from August to October.
It is distributed in temperate and tropical regions. There are many planters all over China.
[collection] usually in July, when the leaf changes from dark green to light yellow and the leaf tip droops. The leaves can be picked several times because of their ripening sequence. After picking, the leaves can be dried in the sun or dried. Then, the leaves can be dried after moisture regain and fermentation.
[herbal medicine] the dried leaves are ovate or elliptic lanceolate, with short petioles and wings. The upper part is yellowish brown, and the lower part is light. The main part is broad and protruding, with purulent hairs, and slightly moist, it is adhesive. It has special aroma, bitter and spicy taste.
It is mainly produced in Shandong, Anhui, Fujian, Hunan, Hubei, Shanxi, Sichuan and Guizhou.
[chemical constituents] it contains about 1-9% alkaloids, rutin, organic acids (malic acid, citric acid), fat, resin and inorganic matter. It also contains γ - sitosterol glucoside and cycloborneol.
Fourteen kinds of alkaloids were isolated from tobacco leaves, of which 12 have been identified. Nicotine, quinoline and dehydrotoxine are the main alkaloids.
The content of nicotine in leaves was the highest, accounting for 64% of the total content of nicotine in the whole tobacco plant, and the rest was 13% in roots, 18% in stems and 5% in flowers.
[pharmacological action] nicotine is the main component in tobacco, accounting for 93% of the total alkaloids, and about 1-2% in ordinary cigarettes. The other components are not significant because of their low content. Nicotine has no use in medical treatment, mainly for toxicological significance; the death rate of acute poisoning is similar to that of cyanide. The lethal dose for adults is about 50 mg. A cigarette contains 20-30 mg. However, some children still survived after swallowing several cigarettes. Because the nicotine in the cut tobacco was absorbed slowly, the first part could produce severe vomiting, and the remaining part would be vomited out. Smoking is a very common habit. The addicts think that a cigarette can eliminate fatigue and inhibition, and improve work efficiency. In fact, it only gives some spiritual satisfaction to the smokers. In the objective experiment, smoking can only reduce the performance of mental or physical activities, especially activities that need high accuracy, such as shooting or throwing basketball. However, unlike morphine and opioids, there are no painful withdrawal symptoms. The amount of nicotine inhaled each time is not only related to the content of cigarette products (such as cigarette rolls, cigars, pipe shreds, etc.), but also related to the depth and speed of smoking. If two thirds of cigarettes are smoked within 10 minutes, about 0.2 mg nicotine can be inhaled. If two thirds of cigarettes are smoked within 5 minutes, about 2 mg nicotine can be inhaled. Excessive smoking can cause various toxic reactions. Because of its irritation, it can cause chronic pharyngitis and other respiratory symptoms. The incidence of bronchitis in addicts (more than 20 cigarettes per day) was 4-7 times higher than that in non-smokers. Lung cancer seems to be related to smoking. Among patients with lung cancer after 45 years old, those who smoke more than 25 cigarettes a day are about 50 times more than those who do not smoke. In gastrointestinal tract, it is easy to get dyspepsia, nervous stomach disease, ulcer disease and constipation. The relationship between smoking and hypertension is still uncertain, but it is generally believed that arrhythmia such as extrasystole is associated with coronary artery disease. And occlusive thromboangiitis, almost all in heavy smokers, excessive smoking can also cause headache, insomnia and other neurological symptoms. Nicotine is easily absorbed on the mucous membrane. If you put two drops on the dog's tongue, you can die of poisoning within 1-2 minutes. It can also be absorbed from the whole skin surface and cause poisoning.
It is pungent, warm and poisonous.
① "Diannan Materia Medica": "it is pungent, warm and poisonous. "
② Ben Cao Hui Yan: "bitter and pungent in taste, hot in Qi, poisonous. "
[function indications] it can relieve pain, detoxify and kill insects. It is used to treat food stagnation, fullness, pneumatosis, pain, carbuncle, sores, scabies, snake and dog bites.
① "Diannan Materia Medica" says: "it can treat heat toxin sores, carbuncle and gangrene, nameless swelling toxin, all heat toxin sores, or poisoning by eating cattle, horses, donkeys and mules. "
② Ben Cao Zheng: "it is used to treat exterior, expel all Yin evil, cold poison, mountain haze, miasma, rheumatism evil, close the wound, muscle and bone pain; it is used to treat interior, strengthen stomach qi, dispel Yin turbid cold stagnation, eliminate swelling and persistent food, stop vomiting and cholera, remove the accumulation of insects, relieve stasis, stop pain, move Qi, stop blood stasis, lift depression and fall, and reach Sanjiao. "
③ "Medicinal property research": "to stop bleeding from injury. "
④ Li Chenghu's pharmacognosy: "the extract can be used as an enema to expel pinworm. "
⑤ "Modern Practical Traditional Chinese medicine": "treatment of scabies and other parasitic skin diseases. "
⑥ Flora of Guangzhou: "it is used to treat Kaschin Beck pain, flaccidity, numbness, partial wind, headache and snakebite. "
⑦ "Mindong Materia Medica": "disperse blood stasis and detumescence, kill insects and detoxify. For women with cold cells, irregular menstruation, sores, carbuncle poison, lumpy swelling, rabies bite, leakage tube, fire injury. "
[usage and dosage] for internal use: decoct soup, mash juice or light up smoking; for external use: decoct water or grind powder to adjust and apply.
[should avoid] lung disease cough and hematemesis and all throat syndrome should not be taken.
① Ben Cao Zheng: "this material property belongs to pure Yang, and is good at dispersing. It is only suitable for those with Yin stagnation. It is not suitable for those who have more yang qi and more irritability and fire, and those who have deficiency of Qi and short breath and more perspiration. "
② "Ben Cao Hui Yan": "do not use it for those who vomit blood due to yin deficiency and have dry lungs. "
③ "Mindong Materia Medica": "pregnant women should not take it. "
[selected formula] ① for the treatment of unknown swelling toxin, mouth sores and poisoning: mash and apply fresh tobacco leaves and brown sugar. (Fujian Chinese herbal medicine)
② Back carbuncle treatment: fresh tobacco three to five money, fried in wine; another fresh leaves and fresh razor clam meat mashed topical. (Fujian Chinese herbal medicine)
③ Zhihenghe: fresh leaves of wild tobacco and rice pestle, hot compress the affected part. (Mindong materia medica)
④ Treatment of gold sores: on the end of the smoke. (collection of good friends)
⑤ Treatment of snakebite: first, remove the evil blood with wind, and apply it with raw tobacco; if there is no fresh leaf, apply it at the end, that is, smoke oil and ash. (Cihang Living Book)
⑥ Treatment of rabid dog bite: hold the fresh leaves of wild tobacco, wash them, mash one tbsp of ground juice, and stew them with red wine. (Mindong materia medica)
⑦ Treatment of women's cell cold, irregular menstruation: wild tobacco stew service. (Mindong materia medica)
⑧ Early treatment of mastitis: soak fresh tobacco leaves with hot wine and apply to the affected area. (Fujian Chinese herbal medicine)
[discussion by famous experts] 1. In the book of Materia Medica, tobacco is also a medicine that can benefit the nine orifices. Menjishi said that this medicine is very pungent and can be burned by fire. Take the smoke and inhale it into the throat, which can resist the cold of frost, dew, wind and rain. Such as qi stagnation, food stagnation, phlegm stagnation, drink stagnation, all cold stagnation of the disease, suction that pass. Those who vomit blood due to yin deficiency and whose lungs are dry and tired should not use it casually. If they eat it occasionally, and their Qi is closed, stuffy and faint as if they are dead, then they are not good at it. Therefore, it is not suitable for people with deficiency of Yin. "
② "Ben Jing Feng Yuan": "tobacco, in the recent Mu Ke Neizhang pill, can be used occasionally to obtain effect, and the effect of its Xin Wen San Leng Ji Yi also can be taken. Don't smoke with borneol. Use fire to relieve fire and smoke more. After smoking, be careful not to drink hot wine, which can ignite the fire and burn the Tibetan government. For those who have been poisoned by tobacco for a long time, and the lung and stomach are unclear, they should be treated with Shatang decoction. "
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