[source] Pogostemon cablin or the whole plant of Agastache rugosa.
[plant morphology] 1. Pogostemon cablin, also known as Zhixiang.
Perennial herb, 30-100cm high, fragrant when kneaded. Stem erect, stout, tetragonal, densely covered with grayish yellow villous, upper part much branched. The leaves are opposite, broadly ovate, ovate or ovate elliptic, 5-10 cm long and 1.5-4 cm wide. The lower leaves are smaller, apex obtuse, base broadly cuneate or subcordate, margin irregularly obtuse serrate, both sides densely covered with grayish white pubescence, most along the veins; petiole 2-3 cm long, densely covered with grayish yellow pubescence. Cymes densely paniculate, terminal or axillary, 2-8 cm long, 1-2 cm in diameter; calyx 5-lobed, calyx tube 6-8 mm long, longer than bracts: corolla lip shaped, purplish red, about 8 mm long, lobes 4 (lower lip 3-lobed), subequal, apex obtuse, entire; stamens 4, protruding, filaments bearded; ovary superior, stigma 2-lobed. Nutlets elliptic, smooth. The flowering period is from January to February. But it rarely blooms.
It is cultivated in Guangdong and Yunnan.
② Agastache rugosa, also known as: row vanilla, wild Agastache rugosa.
Annual or perennial herbs, 40-110 cm high. Stem erect, tetragonal, reddish, sparsely puberulent and glandular. Leaves opposite; elliptic ovate or ovate, 2-8 cm long, 1-5 cm wide, apex acute or shortly acuminate, base rounded or slightly cordate, margin irregularly obtuse serrate, teeth rounded; glabrous or subglabrous above, scattered glandular spots, pubescent below; petiole 1-4 cm long. Cymes clustered into terminal racemes; bracts large, broadly linear or lanceolate, puberulent; calyx 5-lobed, lobes triangular, with longitudinal veins and glandular dots; corolla labiate, purple or white, ca. 8 mm long, upper lip square or ovate, apex slightly concave, lower lip 3-lobed, bilateral lobes short, middle lobe fan-shaped, margin undulate denticulate, corolla externally puberulent; stamens 4, 2-strong The ovary is 4-lobed, the style is inserted in the center of the bottom of the ovary, protruding out of the flower, and the stigma is 2-lobed. Nutlets obovate triangular. The flowering period is from June to July. The fruit period is from October to November.
It grows on hillside or roadside and distributes in Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Hebei, Henan, Shandong, Shaanxi, Anhui, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Guangdong, Fujian, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, etc.
The root of this plant (Huoxiang root) is also used for medicine. See special section for details.
[collection] Pogostemon cablin is harvested from June to July when it grows and flourishes. It is harvested twice a year in Hainan. The first time is from May to June, and the second time is from September to October. After removing the fibrous roots and soil, it is dried for 2 to 3 days and piled up. After 2 days of drying, it is dried again and then dried again. Agastache rugosa was harvested in June to July for the first time and in October for the second time. Dry in the sun or in the shade after harvest. Only with the old stem, medicinal material name "huogeng".
(1) Pogostemon cablin
The dry whole grass is 30-60 cm long, with opposite branches. The old stem is slightly tetragonal columnar, with blunt round four corners, about 4-10 mm in diameter. Its surface is grayish brown or grayish green, with less Tricholoma, hard quality, not easy to break, rough section, yellowish green, and white pith in the center. The tender stem is slightly square, densely covered with Tricholoma, brittle and easy to break, with gray green section. The leaves are grayish green or yellowish green, mostly shrunk or broken, and both sides are densely hairy, soft and thick. It is fragrant, full-bodied, slightly bitter and pungent. It is better to have thick stem, strong fruit, green cross section, thick and soft leaves and strong aroma.
Made in Guangdong. It is generally considered that the quality of this species is better.
② Agastache rugosa
Also known as: Patchouli (Diannan materia medica), duhuoxiang. The dry whole grass is about 60-90 cm long. The stem is tetragonal columnar, with ridges at four corners, about 3-10 mm in diameter, yellowish green or grayish yellow on the surface, few or nearly hairless trichomes, light and brittle, and white pith in the center of the section. The old stem is hard, lignified and hollow. The remaining leaves are gray green, shrunk or broken, with hairs on both sides; thin and brittle. Sometimes there is a cylindrical inflorescence at the end of the branch, soil brown, florets with short stalks, corolla shedding, nutlets hidden in the calyx. It is fragrant and tasteless. It is better to have green stems, many leaves and strong fragrance.
It is mainly produced in Sichuan, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Hubei, Yunnan, Liaoning and other places.
[chemical constituents] Pogostemon cablin contains about 1.5% volatile oil, and its main component is patchoulol, accounting for 52-57%; other components are benzaldehyde, eugenol, cinnamaldehyde, patchoulol, patchouli pyridine, epiguaidine; there are also many other sesquiterpenes, such as caryophyllene, β - elemene, allochenene, γ - patchouli, β - guruine, α - guaiene, valenene, α - guruine The results showed that the contents of β - glucagon, γ - pichenylene, δ - guaiacene, α - patchoulonene, dihydro acorene, etc.
The volatile oil content of Agastache rugosa is 0.28%, and the main component is methylpiperonol, accounting for more than 80%. It contains anisole, anisaldehyde, d-limonene, p-methoxycinnamaldehyde, α - pinene, β - pinene, octanone-3, octanol-3, p-cymene, octen-1-ol-3, linalool, l-caryophyllene, β - elemene, β - CARENE, α - tuninene, β - farnesene, γ - pichene, dihydrocaryophyllene, etc. The air dried material of Agastache rugosa is produced in Northeast China. The whole herb contains 0.54% volatile oil, and contains trace tannin and bitterness.
[pharmacological action] ① antifungal action
In vitro experiment, Huoxiang Decoction (8-15%) had inhibitory effect on Trichophyton schlegeli and other pathogenic fungi; ether extract (3%) and alcohol extract (1%) of leixiang could also inhibit a variety of pathogenic fungi, and the antifungal effect of water extract was similar to that of decoction; Trichophyton interphalangealis and Trichophyton plantaris were inhibited at 15% of decoction, while ether extract (3%), alcohol extract (5%) and water extract (3%) The extract of Agastache rugosa has stronger antibacterial activity than the decoction.
② Anti Helicobacter pylori effect
The Chinese Herb Decoction (15 mg / ml) has inhibitory effect on Leptospira, but it can only kill the Leptospira when the concentration is increased to 31 mg / ml.
③ Effect on gallbladder
Oral administration of Huoxiang Decoction and X-ray cholecystography proved that Huoxiang had no contractile effect on gallbladder.
[processing] Agastache rugosa: remove the impurities, remove the residual roots and old stems, first remove the leaves and put them separately, then moisten the stems with water, cut them into sections, dry them in the sun, and mix them with the leaves. Stem of Herba Epimedii: take the old stem, soak it with water, slice it and dry it in the sun.
[flavor] pungent, slightly warm.
① "Southern vegetation shape": "taste spicy. "
② Bielu: "Weiwen. "
③ "Pearl bag": sweet and bitter. "
[channel tropism] entering lung, spleen and stomach channels.
① "Tangye Materia Medica": "start with the Taiyin meridian. "
② "Lei Gong processed medicine solution": "into the lung, spleen, stomach three channels. "
③ New materia medica: "entering the heart, liver and lung meridians. "
Functions and indications: quickening Qi, harmonizing middle Qi, dispelling filth and dampness. Treatment of cold, heat, cold and heat, headache, abdominal distension, vomiting, diarrhea, malaria, dysentery, halitosis.
① Bielu: "treat Fengshui toxin swelling, remove evil Qi, treat cholera and heartache. "
② "Ben Cao Tu Jing": "it is the most important medicine to Treat Spleen and stomach vomiting. "
③ "Zhenzhu capsule" says: "it can nourish Wei Qi, benefit stomach qi, enter diet, and treat vomiting and cholera. "
④ "Tang Ye Ben Cao": "warm and quick Qi. Lung deficiency has cold, upper energizer dampness, drinking, bad breath, decoction gargle. "
⑤ "Materia Medica": "dispersing cold dampness, summer dampness, stagnant heat, damp heat. Treatment of external cold evil, internal injury diet, or diet injury cold dampness stagnation, mountain haze miasma, not soil and water, cold and heat for malaria and other diseases. "
⑥ New materia medica: "dispel exterior, dispel pathogenic factors, remove dampness and wind, clear away heat and quench thirst. Treatment of vomiting, cholera, malaria, dysentery, scabies. Stem: can treat throat obstruction, phlegm, cough. "
[usage and dosage] oral administration: decoction, 1.5-3 yuan; or into pills, powder. External use: gargle with decocting water; or apply at the end of research.
[taboo] 1. In the book of Materia Medica, it is forbidden to use the method of "Yin deficiency and fire hyperactivity, stomach weakness and stomach heat nausea, middle Jiao fire hyperactivity and extreme heat, febrile disease and febrile disease, Yang Ming stomach excess, nausea and distention". "
② "Ben Jing Feng Yuan" says: "its stem consumes energy, and the user will judge it. "
[prescription selection] ① treatment of typhoid, headache, cold and heat, cough, cold and abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, Qi diarrhea and cholera, deficiency of viscera, mountain haze, malaria, deficiency and swelling all over the body, blood gas tingling before and after birth, infantile malnutrition: one or two pairs of Da Fu PI, Bai Zhi, Zi Su, Fu Ling (peeled), two or two pairs of banxiaqu, Bai Zhu, Chen PI (peeled), Hou Pu (peeled, ginger fried), kugeng (peeled), three or two pairs of Huoxiang (peeled) Licorice (roasted) in half. For the fine powder, each take two money, a water, ginger three pieces, jujube one, with fried to seven points, hot service. If you want to sweat, cover your clothes, then fry them and take them. (Huoxiang Zhengqi powder in Ju Fang)
② Treatment of summer month diarrhea: talc (fried) two liang, agastache two and a half, clove five. For the end, each take one or two money, Xi rice swill transfer service. (Professor Yu's experience formula)
③ Treatment of cholera diarrhea: tangerine peel (white), agastache leaves (earth). Equal, each serving five money, water one and a half, fried to seven, warm, regardless of the time. (Bai Yi Xuan Fang Hui Sheng SAN)
④ Treatment of malaria: Alpinia officinarum and Agastache rugosa each half. On the end, divided into four uniform, each service with a bowl of water, fried to a cup, warm, not determined to take. (Huoxiang powder in Jifeng Puji recipe)
⑤ Deodorization: wash Agastache rugosa, fry the soup, rinse with water from time to time. (pick Yuan Fang)
⑥ Treatment of infantile chancre ulceration, purulent blood, halitosis, mouth swelling: patchouli, into a little alum for the end, rub on the root of teeth. (materia medica of Southern Yunnan)
⑦ Treatment of fetal dyspnea, gas does not rise and fall, vomiting acid water: Cyperus, agastache, licorice each two money. For the end, each take two money, into a little salt, boiling soup tune service.
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