(materia medica Menghong)
[synonym] Aristolochia root (behind elbow), tuqingmuxiang, duxinggen, doulinggen (Tang materia medica), yunnangen (materia medica tujing), duxingmuxiang (compendium of Materia Medica), tutuxiang (materia medica Zheng), qingtengxiang (Herba medica Bianfang), sheshengen (classified herbal medicine), bailiangjin, Tushe (experimental study of traditional Chinese Medicine), tiebiandan (Shaanxi traditional Chinese medicine annals), shayao (traditional Chinese Medicine)（ Jiangxi herbal medicine manual.
[source] the roots of Aristolochiaceae and Aristolochiaceae. Please refer to "Aristolochia" for plant morphology.
[collection] when the stems and leaves withered from October to November, the roots were dug, the fibrous roots and soil were removed and dried in the sun.
[herbal medicine] the dried roots are cylindrical or flat cylindrical, slightly curved, 5-15 cm long and 0.5-1.5 cm in diameter, with yellowish brown surface, wrinkles and fine root marks. The cross section is not flat, the cambium ring is obvious, the ray of the xylem is milky white, fan-shaped or inverted triangle, the xylem is divided into several pieces, the xylem is light yellow, there are small holes. It is fragrant, bitter and spicy. It is better to be strong, solid, powdery and fragrant.
It is mainly produced in Zhejiang, Jiangsu and Anhui. In addition, it is also produced in Guangxi, Hunan, Hubei and other places.
In addition to the above varieties, the roots of Aristolochia grandiflora (see "cinnabar Lotus" for the original plant) and Yunnan Tuxiang are also used as medicine in a few areas. The former is used in Gansu Province, while the latter is used in Yunnan Province.
[chemical constituents] the root of Aristolochia contains essential oil, the main component of which is aristolochic ketone, aristolochic acid, allantoin, glaucomatic acid, Magnolia alkaloid, eugenin A and C, etc.
(1) antihypertensive effect
The crude preparation of qingmuxiang (Aristolochia Aristolochia root) can cause certain antihypertensive effect on various animals, whether intravenous or oral, and the general decoction has stronger effect. Intravenous injection of anesthetized animals often causes sudden drop, intramuscular injection is slower, and oral administration is slower. The hypotensive effect on normal anesthetized dogs was slight. After the formation of defensive conditioned reflex, the higher nervous activity of the rats was disturbed. At the same time, pituitrin (2 units / kg) was injected intramuscularly. After the blood pressure was increased (about 30-40 mmHg), qingmuxiang was given by gavage, which also had antihypertensive effect. The principle of antihypertensive action of crude preparation or refined extract was analyzed. It was considered that the antihypertensive action of crude preparation or refined extract was not directly inhibiting heart or dilating blood vessels (it had contractive effect on isolated rabbit ear blood vessels), but related to the integrity of sympathetic nervous system rather than vagus nerve. It also has no direct effect on the vasomotor center. After that, Magnolia alkaloid was further extracted from it. After intravenous injection of 2 mg / kg Magnolia alkaloid into anesthetized cats, the hypotensive effect appeared immediately, and the blood pressure decreased by 50-60% for 90-120 minutes. For renal hypertensive dogs, intravenous injection of 6 mg / kg Magnolia alkaloid also had obvious hypotensive effect, especially for diastolic pressure. According to the cat's blink membrane test, the intensity of Magnolia alkaloid is about 1 / 3-1 / 2 of C0. On isolated rat diaphragmatic nerve specimens, it has curare like effect, and its potency is about 1 / 100-1 / 200 of curare. As it is a quaternary ammonium alkaloid, it is not completely absorbed in the intestine, so the oral dosage is about 10 times larger than that of injection. Although Magnolia alkaloid or Blumea Blumea preparation had no effect on adrenaline, it was reported that the decoction could antagonize the pressor effect of ephedrine. It has been reported that acupoint injection can also cause hypotension in rats. Different acupoints have different effects.
② Effect on gastrointestinal tract
Qingmuxiang is used to treat abdominal pain in the folk. Its crude preparation can also cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting and dizziness. The emetic effect of qingmuxiang is mainly caused by the ether soluble acidic components. The essential oil can also induce emesis, but its effect is weak. The two components do not depress blood pressure, so the side effect can be eliminated after refining.
③ Other functions
Qingmuxiang crude preparation has sedative effect on mice. The refined extract had no effect on chemoreceptors in rabbit uterus, cat spleen and lower limbs. At high dose, it has some effects of antimalarial and Shigella in vitro.
[processing] remove the impurities, separate the large and small strips, soak them in water, take them out, moisten them until the internal and external humidity is even, slice them and dry them.
Hard work, cold.
① Tang materia medica: "it tastes hard, cold and poisonous. "
② Rihuazi materia medica: "non toxic. "
[channel tropism] entering lung and stomach channels.
① In the book of Ben Jing Feng Yuan: "enter the foot Shaoyin. "
② "Seeking truth from Materia Medica" says: "it's special to the lung. "
Functions and indications: promoting Qi, detoxifying and detumescence. Treatment of chest and abdominal pain, Sha disease, enteritis, dysentery, hypertension, hernia, snakebite, carbuncle, sore, skin itching or wet rotten.
① Tang materia medica: "master accumulation. The heat swelling and snake venom of all kinds of poisons are sealed with mud by water and rub. It is effective to treat the swelling on the third and fourth day. "
② "Rihuazi Materia Medica": "treating blood gas. "
③ "The book of materia medica:" it can treat the lower diaphragm of Qi and stop the tingling. "
④ Compendium: "benefit the large intestine. Treatment of head wind, itching, alopecia. "
⑤ "Ben Jing Feng Yuan": "treat carbuncle swelling, phlegm, gas coagulation pain. "
⑥ Yilin zuanyao: "treating injuries, detoxifying. "
⑦ Huiyue medical mirror: "it can disperse Qi, so it is necessary for hernia family. "
⑧ "Clearing fire poison, unblocking stagnant Qi. "
⑨ "Cao Mu Bian Fang": "published, in addition to the wind. (treatment) rheumatic paralysis, waist and foot pain, injury caused by falls. "
⑩ Classification of herbal medicine: "eliminate fullness and distension, apply sore poison. "
(11) Nanjing folk herbs: "treat abdominal pain and stomachache. "
(12) Guizhou folk medicine collection: "treat abdominal pain, watery diarrhea, fish loach disease. "
[usage and dosage] oral administration: decoction, 1-3 yuan; or powder. External use: grind the end to adjust to apply or grind juice to spread.
[taboo] patients with deficiency cold should take it carefully.
① Tang materia medica: "don't take it too much, you can't stop spitting. "
② "Ben Jing Feng Yuan": "cold cough in the lung, cold phlegm for asthma, stomach deficiency, fear of cannibalism, do not take it, with its pungent fragrance away also. "
[prescription selection] ① for enteritis, abdominal pain and diarrhea: three coins for tuqingmuxiang, one coin and five cents for betel nut and one coin and five cents for Coptis chinensis. We studied the details together. Three to six minutes each time, rinse with boiling water. (Modern Practical Chinese Medicine)
② Treatment of heatstroke abdominal pain: qingmuxianggen (fresh) three to five money. Mash the juice and serve it with warm boiled water; you can also serve it with one or two bucks of green wood Vetiver root, grind it and serve it with warm boiled water. (Jiangxi herbal medicine)
③ Treatment of hypertension: qingmuxianggen (fresh) 22. Decoct in water and use brown sugar as the guide. (Jiangxi herbal medicine)
④ Treatment of snakebite: one or two of tuqingmuxiang and two of xiangbaizhi. At the end of the study, each with three money, sweet wine or warm water delivery service; another with unlimited amount, adjust the wound. (experimental study of traditional Chinese Medicine)
⑤ Treatment of snake bite and fecal poison: kenmuxiang, realgar. At the end of the study. Mix wine and wipe the part. (records of Sichuan Traditional Chinese Medicine)
⑥ Treatment recurrence: Aristolochia root mashed, wrapped with spider web. (behind the elbow)
⑦ Zhizhi: fresh green wood, chopped, mashed with appropriate amount of honey, applied to the affected area. (prescription of Jiangxi folk herbal medicine)
⑧ Treatment of skin sores: qingmuxiang, grind into fine powder, and apply sesame oil. (prescription of Jiangxi folk herbal medicine)
⑨ Treatment of spider sores (herpes simplex): soil green wood, research very fine powder, persimmon paint (i.e. persimmon oil) transfer coating. (experimental study of traditional Chinese Medicine)
⑩ Treatment of toothache: a fresh piece of green wood, put the toothache bite. (Handbook of commonly used Chinese herbal medicines in Northeast China)
[clinical application] 1
The root of Aristolochia Aristolochia has good analgesic effect on stomachache caused by ulcer, gastritis, gastrospasm and other reasons. According to the observation of more than 2000 cases, the effective rate is more than 95%. Generally, the effect can be maintained for 6-8 hours. Usage: 1.5G-2G small snake ginseng root, wash it, chew it in mouth (or grind it into powder first), take it with boiled water or wine. Two small snake ginseng root 1 ~ 2 liang, slice, soak in 1 jin wine for 2 ~ 3 days; take 5 ~ 10 ml each time. 3. Make 3% tincture from the root of small snake ginseng, 3 ml each. All the above preparations were taken orally at the time of onset, or three times a day.
② Treatment of hypertension
First class extract: soak with 80 ° ethanol, filter and recover ethanol to make it occupy 10% of the flow extract. Each milliliter contains 1 gram of crude medicine. Take 5-10 ml each time, 4 times a day. Gradually reduce the dosage and the times of taking medicine after the condition gets better. Two months is a course of treatment. Among 50 cases, 20 cases had diastolic blood pressure drop more than 20 mmHg, 17 cases had diastolic blood pressure drop 10-19 mmHg, and 13 cases had poor effect. The clinical symptoms were also improved in varying degrees: 6 cases with blunt pain in the heart area were all disappeared; shortness of breath, insomnia, headache and dizziness were mostly improved or disappeared. The hypotensive effect of the product was not obvious until the third week. If the blood pressure drops and the drug is stopped, it can still be maintained for a period of time without recovery. If the dosage or frequency of taking medicine is reduced, it can also play the role of maintaining the dosage. Two refined extract tablets: each tablet contains 6 grams of Euonymus odoratum. Take 4-12 tablets each time, 3-4 times a day. 53 cases of stage II and III patients were treated, 15.1% markedly effective, 43.4% effective. The fastest decrease of blood pressure was 4 days after taking the medicine, and the slowest was 27 days. The decrease of systolic blood pressure was more obvious than that of diastolic blood pressure. Three extracts: each milliliter is equivalent to 1 gram of crude drug. Take it three times a day after meals, 3 ml each time in the first week, 4 ml in the second week, and 6 ml in the third week and later. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased by 10 mmHg or more in 18 cases after treatment or during treatment, and decreased within 10 mmHg in 17 cases
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