[synonyms] cenpi (Huainan wanbizhu), huipi (bielu), Fanxun PI (Tao Hongjing), Qinbai PI (theory of medicinal properties), waxtree PI (records of traditional Chinese Medicine), kudurian PI (selected works of the whole exhibition · skin diseases).
[source] it is the bark of Carpinus pubescens, Fraxinus microphylla or Fraxinus qinlingensis.
[plant morphology] 1. Carpinus Fraxinus, also known as Fraxinus Fraxinus (Huainanzi), Carpinus Fraxinus (gaoyinzhu of Huainanzi), Pterocarpus tatarinowii (bielu), Carpinus Fraxinus (tangbencao), Cinnamomum cinnamomi (rihuazi Bencao), fanjimu (Jiyun), Qinmu (Gangmu), Libra (Research on the name and reality of plants), Castanopsis fargesii, Fraxinus macrophylla and Fraxinus mandshurica.
Deciduous tree, about 10 meters high. The bark is grayish brown, smooth, and lobed when old; the branchlets are also smooth, the lenticels are sparse, broad elliptic; the buds are short and broad, densely covered with brown villi. Leaflets usually 5, rarely 3 or 7, petioles 5-15 mm long, smooth and glabrous; leaf blade ovate, rarely long ovate or broad ovate, apex 1 largest, 8-11 cm long, 4.5-6.5 cm wide, base 1 pair of smallest, 4-6 cm long, 3-4.5 cm wide, apex acuminate, base broadly cuneate or slightly round, margin shallow Coarsely serrate, smooth above, brown pilose below along both sides of lower midrib. Flowers and leaves open at the same time, or a little later than leaves, panicles at the top of branchlets and axils; flowers small, calyx cup-shaped, 4-lobed; no corolla; stamens 2, exposed; pistils 2, carpels connate, stigmas 2-lobed. Samara oblong lanceolate, narrow or slightly wide, ca. 3 cm long, apex narrowly rounded or narrowly pointed. The flowering period is from May to June. The fruit period is from August to September.
On sunny slopes or broad-leaved forest slopes. Distributed in Jilin, Liaoning, Hebei, Henan and other places.
② Fraxinus microphylla
The main differences are as follows: the leaflets are small, ovate or round ovate, 2-4 cm long and 1.5-2.5 cm wide; the lowest pair of leaflets are not smaller or smaller than other ones; both sides of the leaflets are smooth and glabrous. Corolla, petals linear, light green. The flowering period is May. The fruiting period is September.
It grows on hillside, sparse forest and beside ditch. Distributed in Liaoning, Jilin, Hebei, Henan, Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan and other places.
③ Fraxinus chinensis in Qinling Mountains
Deciduous trees, up to 20 m high. Winter buds with rusty villi. The leaves are ovate or oblong lanceolate, 8-18 cm long, apex acuminate, base rounded or broadly cuneate, margin undulate serrate, middle part below or base with rust villi. Panicle is long, terminal; flower is white, calyx is big, 4-lobed; petal base is linear, gradually expanding to the apex into spoon shape; stamen is equal to petal height. Samara linear spoon shaped, 2.5-3 cm long. The flowering period is June.
On hillside or gully bank. It is distributed in Sichuan, Hubei, Shaanxi and other places.
[collection] in spring and autumn, the branch skin or dry skin was peeled and dried.
[medicinal material] the dried bark is in the shape of drum or trough, 30-70 cm in length, 1.5-3 cm in diameter and 3 mm in thickness. The surface is gray brown or gray black, often mixed unevenly. The outer skin is not smooth, with light spots, and the inner surface is yellowish white or brown, glossy. It is hard, easy to break, yellowish white and fibrous. Odorless and bitter. The water extract is yellow and blue with blue fluorescence. The thickness is 10-6 mm, the skin is not dry. The outer skin is grayish brown with reddish brown spots and irregular markings. After peeling off the outer skin, reddish brown endothelium can be seen. The inner surface is light brown red and smooth. The rest is the same as the bark. It is better to be neat, long and tubular.
It is mainly produced in Shaanxi, Hebei, Henan, Shanxi, Liaoning, Jilin and other places.
In addition to the above varieties, the branch bark of Juglans mandshurica (Juglans mandshurica) is used for commercial cortex Fraxini in most parts of China. However, according to the records of Materia Medica, cortex Fraxini should be the bark of Fraxinus Carpinus. The difference between them is: the bark of Carpinus fargesii is usually in reel shape, easy to peel off in layers, and the water extract is yellow and blue, with blue fluorescence; the bark of Juglans mandshurica is often twisted and rope shaped, not easy to peel off in layers, and the water extract is yellow brown, without fluorescence. See "walnut bark" section.
[chemical constituents] the bark of Castanopsis alopecuroides contains coumarins and tannins such as Coriolis glycoside, coriarin, etc.
The bark of Fraxinus microphylla contains many coumarins, tannins and saponins, such as aesculin, aesculin, Coriolis and Coriolis. The oil content of seeds was 15.8%.
[pharmacological effects] 1. Anti inflammatory and analgesic effects
After intraperitoneal injection of Castanea mollissima bark glycoside 10 mg / kg, the rats had inhibitory effects on carrageenan induced arthritis, dextran induced arthritis, 5-hydroxytryptamine induced arthritis and histamine induced arthritis. The inhibitory intensity was 35%, 28%, 20% and 8% respectively. It has also been reported that Coriolis bark glycoside can also inhibit formaldehyde induced arthritis, but it is weaker than carrageenan induced arthritis, and has no obvious inhibition on dextran induced arthritis. At high dose, Coriolis also had inhibitory effect on carrageenan arthritis. Coriolis bark glycoside can inhibit granuloma formation in rats (cotton ball method) and erythema reaction induced by ultraviolet radiation on the back of guinea pigs. The effect of Coriolis bark glycoside is more significant than that of Coriolis bark glycoside. Both of them can significantly inhibit the capillary permeability induced by histamine. Coriolis bark glycoside also has weak analgesic effect (hot plate method in mice), such as intradermal injection of morphine The potency of 5 mg / kg was 100%, and that of 10 mg / kg was 14.8%.
② The effect on urine output and uric acid excretion
In early years, it was reported that aesculin had diuretic effect and could promote the excretion of uric acid in rabbits and rheumatic patients. In the experiment of rats and rabbits, the excretion of uric acid can be increased by various administration routes. After intravenous injection of Castanea mollissima bark glycoside, the urine volume increased in the first half hour, and then the concentration of uric acid in the blood increased. After half an hour, the urine volume gradually decreased, but the excretion of uric acid in the urine increased. The increase of urine volume only refers to the short term after administration (which may be caused by the decrease of renal tubular reabsorption). After 3-4 hours of administration, the urine volume is only 1 / 2 of that before administration. According to the analysis, the mechanism of the increase of uric acid excretion is that it stimulates the sympathetic nervous system, and Coriolis bark glycoside also has a direct effect on the kidney, that is, it inhibits the reabsorption of uric acid. The increase of uric acid concentration in blood is the result of the increase of uric acid production in liver. It was also reported that Castanea mollissima bark glycoside had no diuretic effect on normal rats, but had significant diuretic effect on mice.
③ Other functions
Generally, the effect of Castanea mollissima bark glycoside on other organs was not significant. It has no effect on blood pressure, respiration and intestine. It also had no effect on isolated small intestine, uterus, bladder, gallbladder of guinea pig, isolated frog heart, uterus of rabbit, blood vessels of rabbit ear and lower limb of toad, and had no effect on blood flow of carotid artery and femoral artery of rabbit. The results showed that Coriolis had mild pressor effect on rabbits, inhibited isolated toad heart and isolated rabbit intestine, slightly contracted lower limb blood vessels of toad, and slightly decreased the excitability of isolated toad gastrocnemius muscle. Qinpi Decoction also has some antibacterial and therapeutic effects on chronic tracheitis. The chemical structure of Castanea mollissima bark glycoside is similar to dicoumarin, so it has some anticoagulant effects. Its 4% solution can absorb ultraviolet rays, so it can protect skin from the damage of sunlight.
④ Excretion, absorption and general toxicity
After oral administration, it is absorbed in the upper part of the small intestine, but not in the stomach and large intestine; after injection, it can appear in the gallbladder and urine, adrenal gland, testis and kidney, and also in the brain. Rats were excreted in urine and stool, mainly in the original form, while guinea pigs were mainly destroyed in vivo.
However, it has also been reported that melalein can be killed by subcutaneous injection of 250 mg / kg. The extract of cortex Fraxini was given to rabbits by gavage at 3 g / kg per day for 45 weeks. It only caused mild histopathological changes, such as hypersecretion of gastrointestinal mucosa, enlargement of enteric plexus and degeneration of glomeruli and renal tubules. After long-term injection, there were no significant changes in liver function and peripheral hemogram.
[processing] remove impurities, wash, moisten, cut into pieces or sections, and dry in the sun.
① Ben Jing: "bitter, slightly cold. "
② Bielu: "cold, nontoxic. "
③ "Pinglun": on the nature of drugs. "
④ "Compendium": "cold Qi, bitter taste, astringent nature. "
[Guijing] into the liver and gallbladder channels.
① "Compendium": "Jueyin liver, Shaoyang gallbladder meridian. "
② "Lei Gong's treatment of medicinal properties": entering the liver and kidney meridians. "
Functions and indications: clearing away heat and dampness, relieving asthma and cough, and improving eyesight. Treatment of bacillary dysentery, enteritis, leucorrhea, chronic tracheitis, red eyes swelling, tears in the wind, psoriasis.
① "Ben Jing" says: "the main wind cold dampness Bi, wash cold, in addition to heat, eyes Qingyi white film. "
② Bielu: "it can be used to treat men's oligospermia, women's lead, children's epilepsy, and body heat. "
③ According to the theory of medicinal properties: "it can improve the eyesight, remove the long-term heat in the liver, make the eyes red and swollen, pain, wind and tears; it can treat children's body heat by taking soup bath. "
④ "Rihuazi Materia Medica": "wash the liver, benefit the essence, improve the eyesight, children's heat shock, skin rheumatism, antipyretic. "
⑤ Zhang Yuanyuan: "to cure women's collapse. "
⑥ "Tang Ye Ben Cao": "the main heat dysentery under heavy, under the Jiao deficiency. "
⑦ "Jilin Chinese herbal medicine": "treatment of intestinal wind and lower blood. "
⑧ "Heilongjiang commonly used Chinese herbal medicine manual": "treatment of enteritis and diarrhea. "
⑨ Shaanxi Chinese herbal medicine: "treat wheat swelling. "
[usage and dosage] oral administration: Jiantang, 1
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