(Modern Practical Chinese Medicine)
[synonym] pumpkin seed (scientific folk herb), white melon seed (northeast medicine plant records), golden melon rice (Luchuan materia medica).
[source] it is the seed of Cucurbitaceae. See "Pumpkin" for plant morphology.
[collection] the mature seeds were collected in summer and autumn, the pulp membrane was removed and dried in the sun.
[medicinal materials] the dried and mature seeds are oblate, slightly pointed at one end, yellowish white in appearance, slightly ribbed at the edge, about 1.2-2 cm long and 0.7-1.2 cm wide, with Tricholoma on the surface and many edges. The seed coat is thick, and the hilum is at the end of the tip. The cotyledons contain fatty oil and the radicle is small. It is fragrant and slightly sweet. It is better to be dry, plump and yellowish white.
It is produced in most parts of the country.
[chemical composition] it contains cucurbitacin, fatty oil, protein, vitamin A, B1, B2, C and carotene. The main components of fatty oil are linolenic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid and other glycerides.
[pharmacological action] 1
Earthworm experiment proved that the ethanol extract of pumpkin seed had the effect of insect repellent. The concentrated preparation of pumpkin seed is 100-300 mg / kg once by gavage in cats. It has obvious anthelmintic effect on taeniasis and Toxocara. The results showed that 40% pumpkin seed powder and 30% melon seed extract could paralyze the middle and posterior segments of Taenia saginata and Taenia saginata in vitro, making them thinner and wider, and the middle segment of the segment depressed (especially the middle segment), but had no effect on the head and immature segments. DL cucurbitacin has been used to feed dogs and mice, and it is effective to cysticercosis canis, Taenia pisiformis and Taenia saginata in mice; in vitro experiments show that 1:500 solution can excite Taenia canis obviously, even contracture, and has synergistic effect with arecoline hydrodianate.
② Anti Schistosoma japonicum effect
Pumpkin seed can inhibit the migration of Schistosoma japonicum to liver. When mice were infected with cercariae of Schistosoma japonicum, pumpkin seeds were given for 28 days, which had preventive effect, but had no killing effect on adults. Pigs inoculated with cercariae of Schistosoma japonicum were fed with shelled and degreased South melon seed powder every day, and the preventive effect was similar to that of mice. The results showed that oral administration of pumpkin seeds could inhibit and kill the larvae of Schistosoma japonicum in vivo, and had stronger effect on female worms, but had no killing effect on adult worms: only after 1 week (3 g per day), the morphological degeneration began to occur. The preventive effect of Cucurbita moschata L. was greater than that of Cucurbita moschata L. The prevention effect of fresh pumpkin seeds was the same as that of 1-year-old pumpkin seeds. Pumpkin seeds from different areas can inhibit the growth of Schistosoma japonicum in mice, but the effect is different. The effect produced in Xuzhou is more significant. Pumpkin seed paste powder and raw pumpkin seed can also inhibit and kill Schistosoma japonicum larvae. The pulp powder made by fermentation has the same preventive effect. Four methods, such as alcohol precipitation, can be used to separate the effective components of pumpkin seed. The effective component for schistosomiasis control is a water-soluble substance, namely cucurbitacin. The inhibition of Cucurbita moschata on larva mainly occurred before the sexual development stage, and it could kill part of larva in the liver of host, which showed inflammatory reaction and degenerative changes of larva. Cucurbitacin can't kill the adult, but it can make the body shrink, the reproductive organs degenerate, and the eggs in uterus decrease.
③ Other functions
The concentrated preparation of pumpkin seeds (2-10 g / kg) was administered by gavage in mice and was non-toxic. However, 4 g orally caused temporary pathological damage to liver, lung and kidney, resulting in decrease of glycogen and increase of fat in liver. Cucurbitacin caused mild atrophy of hepatocytes and infiltration of a small amount of fat in the liver, which quickly returned to normal after drug withdrawal. The serum transaminase and cholinesterase of schistosome infected rabbits were changed after feeding pumpkin seeds. However, after 3 weeks, the pathological changes of liver were very mild, and the number of worms in the body did not decrease. It may be that the rabbits did not like eating pumpkin seeds, which was related to starvation. Oral or intraperitoneal injection of large amount of cucurbitacin can make animals excited and manic, while rabbits and cats may be quiet; but it can increase blood pressure and accelerate respiration of rabbits; it has inhibitory effect on isolated rabbit intestines.
[nature and taste] Lu Chuan Ben Cao: "Gan, Ping. "
[function indications] it is used to treat taeniasis, Ascaris lumbricoides, postpartum edema of hands and feet, pertussis and hemorrhoids.
① Modern practical Chinese medicine: "expelling tapeworms. "
② Anhui herbal medicine: "it can kill Ascaris lumbricoides. "
③ "Chinese medicine plant atlas": "fried after taking, treatment of postpartum hand and foot edema, sugar excrement disease. "
[usage and dosage] oral administration: decoction, 1-2 Liang; grind or make emulsion. External use: smoked and washed with boiling water.
[taboo] "more food obstructing Qi blocking diaphragm. "
[formula selection] ① to expel tapeworms: one to two pairs of fresh pumpkin seeds, grind them, add water to make emulsion, add rock sugar or honey, and take them on an empty stomach; or take 15 to 30 drops of seed oil. (Pharmacology and application of traditional Chinese Medicine)
Two pumpkin seeds, pomegranate root skin each one or two, three times a day for two days. (records of Sichuan Traditional Chinese Medicine)
② Treatment of Ascaris: pumpkin seeds (shelled kernel) one to two. Grind, add boiling water, honey or sugar to make a paste, hollow clothing. (Mindong materia medica)
③ Treatment of schistosomiasis: pumpkin seeds, fried yellow, ground fine. Take two liang daily, two times, add sugar and boiled water. The course of treatment was 15 days. (selected prescriptions)
④ Treatment of pertussis: pumpkin seeds, baked on tile, ground fine powder. Take a little red granulated sugar soup several times a day. (Jiangxi traditional Chinese medicine (8): 201953)
⑤ Treatment of children's sore throat: pumpkin seeds (do not wash, dry), with rock sugar decoction. Two or three dollars a day. (Guoyi Daobao 3 (1): 531941)
⑥ Treatment of malnutrition, pale complexion: pumpkin seeds, peanuts, walnut with the service. (records of Sichuan Traditional Chinese Medicine)
⑦ Treatment of internal hemorrhoids: pumpkin seed 2 jin, fried water smoked. Twice a day for several days. (Lingnan herbal medicine)
[clinical application] 1
The clinical trial of pumpkin seed in the treatment of schistosomiasis has certain curative effect. After treatment, stool reexamination, some patients turned negative. According to the observation of 73 cases, 89% of them began to decrease their body temperature in 1-5 days after taking the medicine, 11% began to decrease their body temperature in 6-14 days, and the time when their body temperature dropped to normal was 6-34 days after taking the medicine. After the course of treatment, the changes of hepatosplenomegaly, hemogram, liver function and electrocardiogram in some cases were improved to varying degrees. However, there was no significant change in chronic cases. Commonly used preparation: yiquyou powder: 240-300g daily, half dose for children under 10 years old, 160-200g for children 10-16 years old. Two water extract: each milliliter is equivalent to 4 grams of raw pumpkin seed. 180 ml for acute cases and 60 ml for chronic cases. The dosage for children was calculated according to deoiling powder. The course of treatment was 30 days. Side effects: there may be diarrhea, nausea, loss of appetite and other reactions in the early stage of medication, which are mild and disappear soon. The reaction of extract was lighter than that of powder. During the treatment, jaundice index increased in 3 late patients, decreased in 2 patients after drug withdrawal, and hepatic coma occurred in 1 patient. Therefore, it should be used cautiously in advanced cases.
② Treatment of taeniasis
Pumpkin seed with areca nut application. See "betel nut" for details.
③ Treatment of ascariasis
Pumpkin seeds fried or fried to eat. Children usually take 1-2 Liang each time and take it on an empty stomach in the morning. Fifty six children aged 5-13 years with positive stool examination were observed. A total of 51 cases excreted Ascaris lumbricoides on 1-2 days after taking the medicine; 48 cases reexamined their stools on 5-10 days, and 33 cases turned negative.
④ Treatment of postpartum hypogalactia
Each time, take 5-6 yuan of raw pumpkin seeds, remove the shell and take the kernel, wrap it with gauze and pound it into mud, add some boiled water and kimono (or add a little soybean oil or sugar to stir), take it on an empty stomach in the morning and evening. Generally, it takes 3-5 days. If the melon seed kernel fried hot to eat or porridge to eat is invalid.
Chinese PinYin : Nan Gua Zi
Moonshell. Hai Yue Ke
Fangji. Guang Fang Ji
Dried winter vegetables. Gan Dong Cai
of impatient disposition. Ji Xing Zi
Youngia japonica. Huang An Cai
Oxtail bubble. Niu Wei Pao
Loquat leaf dew. Pi Pa Ye Lu
Sophora tonkinensis. Shan Huang Dou Teng
Eel blood. Shan Yu Xue
Chlorophytum. Shi Diao Lan
Hook root. Xuan Gou Gen
Phyllanthus urinaria. Ye Shang Zhu Gen