[synonyms] Muscovy turtle, kushiba Douer (feihongji), huoshiba Badu (compendium), kushiba (primordial materia medica), Maqian, niuyin (primordial materia medica), dafangba (manual of Chinese herbal medicine).
[source] it is the mature seed of loganin.
Plant morphology Maqian (compendium)
Trees, 10-13 m high. Bark gray, lenticel, branches smooth. Leaves opposite, petiole 4-6 mm long; leaves grassy, broadly ovate or nearly round, 6-15 cm long, 3-8.5 cm wide, apex acute or slightly concave, base broadly cuneate or round, entire, smooth on both sides, glabrous, glossy, 5 main veins, rare 3 veins, convex on the back, shorter on both sides, not reaching the leaf end, veinlets forming irregular network, obvious on both sides of the leaf; axils with Short tendrils. Cyme terminal branch end, 3-5 cm long, 2.5-5 cm in diameter, pubescent; involucre and bracteoles are small, triangular, apex pointed, pubescent; flower white, almost sessile, calyx green, apex 5-lobed, pubescent; corolla tubular, 10-12 mm long, apex 5-lobed, lobes ovate, about 2.5-4 mm long, inner surface densely pubescent; stamen 5, anther yellow, Ovary ovate, smooth, glabrous, style slender, stigma capitate. The berry is spherical, 6-13 cm in diameter, green when young, orange when mature, and smooth. Seeds 3-5 or more, disk-shaped, 1.5-2.5 cm in diameter, surface grayish yellow, densely covered with silvery hairs, stipe in the center of one side, slightly concave on the other side, silky.
It grows in the tropics. Distributed in India, Vietnam, Myanmar, Thailand, Sri Lanka and other places.
[collection] the fruit is picked when it is ripe, the flesh is removed, the seeds are taken out and dried in the sun.
[medicinal materials] the dried and mature seeds are oblate, button shaped, slightly curved, slightly raised on the edge, usually slightly concave on one side and slightly raised on the other side, with a diameter of 1-3 cm. The thickness is 3-6 mm. The surface is grayish brown or grayish green, densely covered with silvery gray Tricholoma, arranged in radial shape, with mercerization. There is a slightly prominent dot in the center of the bottom, and a small protuberance on the edge There is a line between them. It is hard and hard to break. After breaking, the kernel is yellowish white, slightly transparent and horny. Heart shaped cotyledons can be seen in longitudinal section. Odorless, very bitter. It is highly toxic and should be tasted with great caution. It is better to be big, thick and firm.
It is mainly produced in India, Vietnam, Myanmar and other places.
Strychnos nux vomica has always been an imported medicine. At present, there is Strychnos nux vomica in Yunnan Province of China. The shape of the crude drug is similar to that of nux vomica, with long diameter of 20-30 mm, short diameter of 15-22 mm, central thickness of 6-10 mm, and weight of 1.3-2.7 g each; the outer surface is densely covered with brown white to brown, bright silky hairs, radiating from the center to the surrounding; the hilum is in the center of the seed, and the micropyle is at the edge of the seed.
[chemical constituents] it contains strychnine, Brucine, α - and β - colubrine, vomicine, novacine, icajing, loganin, etc.
[processing] Strychnos nux vomica powder: take the sand, stir fry it in the pot, add the cleaned Strychnos nux vomica, stir fry until it is dark yellow and drum up, take it out, sieve the sand, scrape off the hair, and grind the powder. Oil semen Strychni: take the collected semen Strychni, boil it with water, take it out, soak it with water, take it out, scrape off the fur, slightly air it, and cut it into thin slices. Take a little sesame oil and heat it in a pot. Add nux vomica slices and stir fry until yellowish. Remove and let cool.
"Compendium": "or cloud to tofu system, good use. "
Bitter, cold and poisonous.
① "Compendium": "bitter, cold, non-toxic. "
② "Materia medica primitive": "bitter taste, cold, big poison. "
[function indications] disperse blood heat, detumescence and relieve pain. Treatment of throat pain, carbuncle swelling poison, wind pain, fracture. And treatment of facial paralysis, myasthenia gravis. Tongluo Zhitong, Sanjie detumescence. It is used for rheumatism, numbness, paralysis, falling injury, carbuncle, swelling and pain.
① "Compendium": "treat typhoid fever, sore throat, eliminate swelling, and contain pharyngeal juice, or grind water to hold pharynx. "
② Chinese medicine annals: "disperse blood heat, detumescence and toxin. For carbuncle and sore. "
[usage and dosage] oral administration: take pills and powder, 1-2 minutes (daily dose). External use: apply vinegar, grind, blow throat or adjust.
[should not] pregnant women and those with deficiency should not take it.
According to the classic of Materia Medica, "those with weak Qi and blood and spleen and stomach deficiency should not be used with caution. "
[selected formula] 1. Treatment of throat pain: Muscovy soft shelled turtle, qingmuxiang, Shandougen, etc. For the last blow. (medical abstract)
② Treatment of wind and swelling around the throat: a Muscovy turtle kernel, three points of Muxiang. With grinding water, adjust bear gall three points, gall alum five points, with chicken feather sweep the affected area. (Tang Yao experience prescription)
③ In the treatment of carbuncle and gangrene, there are five pieces of Muscovy and soft shelled turtle, five pieces of mountain sesame, five pieces of frankincense, and one or two pieces of pangolin. At the end of the study. For every money you take, don't take too much wine. Take shelter from the wind after you take it. Otherwise, you will shiver. If you are weak, take five points for each. (MA Qiansan in the sea of rescue)
④ Treatment of otitis media: a wooden turtle, a well water grinding Juice Drops in the ear. (Guanghua Medical Journal 11:38, 1933) two Maqianzi and five Maqianzi are roasted to remove the fur, and then they are decocted with one or two linseed oil until they are bleached. Remove the Maqianzi and reserve the oil. During the treatment, first wash the purulent dirt, and then apply two drops of medicinal oil. Twice a day. (selected materials of new medical treatment of Chinese herbal medicine, Inner Mongolia)
⑤ For the treatment of beriberi, paralysis of hands and feet, hemiplegia, and urination, it can't help but or leave: six points for the treatment of Muscovy soft shelled turtle (peeled, ground powder) and six points for the treatment of licorice (ground powder). The honey refining pill is 40 pills, 1-2 pills three times a day. After eating, take them with warm water for seven days, and then stop taking them for seven days. (Modern Practical Chinese Medicine)
⑥ Fracture treatment: nux vomica, Fructus aurantii. After 16 days, scrape the hair of nux vomica, slice and dry it in the sun, stir fry it into yellow with fine sand, then soak it in children's stool (2-3 weeks in winter, 4-5 days in summer), then wash it with running water for a day and a half, and grind it in the shade. The Fructus aurantii (both raw and cooked) can be soaked in children's stool for 2-3 days. Take it out, wash it with water, dry it in the shade and grind it fine. The nux vomica powder and Fructus aurantii powder can be mixed at the ratio of 1:2, and can also be made into honey pills. Adults take it three times a day, 2G each time, and the maximum dose is 8g a day. Children should be given less. At the same time, the broken bone was reduced and fixed with small splint. Pregnant women, high blood pressure, high fever and mental patients should be cautious. When taking a large amount of medicine, muscle twitch, the affected part of the jump, dizziness, can be a lot of water (or licorice water) solution. (selected works of the whole exhibition: surgery)
⑦ Treatment of heat toothache can not bear: half a soft shelled turtle, well flower water grinding a small cup, gargle, heat that spit out, water after the pain. (grasp the spirit of Materia Medica)
⑧ For the treatment of scrofula: half a bean with bitter fruit, five parts of light powder, five parts of Shuihua Yinzhu, and a few pieces of brain, musk and alum. For the end, the left eye blows the right ear, the right eye blows the left ear, twice a day. (Fei Hong Ji)
⑨ Treatment of rabies: Ma QIANZI a grain, wine ground into powder, boiled water swallow. (the secret recipe of traditional Chinese medicine in Guizhou Province)
[clinical application] ① treatment of facial paralysis
After moistening semen Strychni, cut it into thin slices, 1.2 money can be cut into 18-24 pieces, arrange them on the plaster, and apply them on the affected side of the face (slanting to the left and right, slanting to the right and left). Change one piece in about 7-10 days until it returns to normal. General mild paste 2 times. About 80% of the patients were effective.
② Treatment of myasthenia gravis
Soak semen Strychni in water (warm water in winter, cool water in summer) for 10-14 days, peel it, put it into the boiling peanut oil, fry it gently for about 30 minutes, take it out when it is scorched yellow (broken by hand), mix it in talc powder to absorb the oil, sieve the talc powder for about 10-14 hours, and then rinse it with water once. After drying, grind the powder and take it. Starting from 1.5 points per day, taking it three times, gradually increasing to 3.2 points or 4 points per day. 3 cases were treated, 2 cases got better short-term effect, 1 case was invalid. Among them, 1 case was treated with neostigmine and so on. At first, the curative effect was good. Later, it gradually decreased, and then it was treated with nux vomica. The muscle strength gradually recovered, the grip strength increased, there was no diplopia, and he was able to take care of himself.
③ Treatment of tuberculosis
One case of cervical lymphatic tuberculosis, one case of tuberculous peritonitis and one case of chronic fibrous cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis complicated with pleurisy were treated with strychnine. Methods: 4 pieces of nux vomica were smashed (1 liang of chuanhuanglian was added to cervical lymph tuberculosis which formed sinus), soaked in boiling water for 1 hour, then put in 7 eggs, simmer for 1 hour, then take out the eggs, soak them in cold water for a moment, and then put them back into the original liquid for 1 hour to make nux vomica medicine eggs, and then take out the cold place for standby. Every morning, take one egg on an empty stomach, 7 days as a course of treatment. After 7 days, the next course of treatment was continued. Generally 2-4 courses of treatment. Do not break eggs during taking. One case of tuberculous peritonitis was treated with anti tuberculosis drugs for more than 4 months without obvious effect. After three courses of treatment, the abdominal mass disappeared, and the stool was normal. There were no obvious cords in the liver area and right lower abdomen during palpation. After two courses of treatment, the patient was cured and discharged. Another case of chronic fibrosis
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