Chinese Name: Codonopsis pilosula
[synonyms] Shangdang ginseng (Fengyuan), Huangshen (baicaojing), shitoushen (Weng Youliang), zhonglingcao (Qinghai herbal medicine).
[source] it is the root of Codonopsis pilosula.
[plant morphology] Codonopsis pilosula, also known as Liaoshen, sanyecai and yezicao.
Perennial herbs. The root is cylindrical in length, 1-1.7 cm in diameter, with an enlarged root head at the top, many nodular stem marks, milky yellow to grayish brown outer skin, and longitudinal and transverse wrinkles. Stem twining, long and divergent, the lower part sparsely white rough bristles, the upper part smooth or nearly smooth. Leaves opposite, alternate or pseudowhorled: petiole 0.5-4 cm long, pubescent: leaf blade ovate or broadly ovate, 1-7 cm long, 0.8-5.5 cm wide, apex obtuse or pointed, base truncate or shallowly cordate, entire or microwavy, green above, coarsely pubescent, pink green below, densely pubescent. Flowers solitary, pedicellate; calyx green, 5-lobed, lobes oblong lanceolate, apex obtuse, smooth or slightly hairy; corolla broadly campanulate, 2-2.5 cm in diameter, yellowish green, with lilac spots, apex 5-lobed, lobes triangular to broadly triangular, erect; stamens 5, filaments enlarged below middle; ovary superior, 3-locular, ovules numerous, style short, stigma 3-locular It is very broad and funnel-shaped. Capsule conic, 3-locular, with persistent calyx. Seeds small, brown, glossy. The flowering period is from August to September. The fruit period is from September to October.
It is distributed in Northeast and Hebei, Henan, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Gansu, Inner Mongolia, Qinghai and other places.
[collection] in autumn, the above ground part is removed, the soil is washed, and the sun is dried until it is half dry. Then, the skin and the xylem are rubbed by hand or board to make the skin close to the xylem, full and soft. Then, the skin is dried and rubbed again, repeated 3-4 times, and finally dried.
[medicinal materials] there are three kinds of Codonopsis pilosula from different producing areas, namely, Xidang, dongdang and Ludong.
① Western Party
The root is cylindrical, the end is thin, 8-20 cm long, 5-13 mm in diameter. There are many "wart like spots" under the head of the lion. The surface is grayish yellow or light brownish yellow, with obvious longitudinal furrows, close ring wrinkles near the root head, and gradually sparse, accounting for about half of the total. The lenticel is long and obvious, slightly protruding, about 0.3-0.8 cm long. Black brown colloidal substance is common at the branch root abscission, which is formed by internal milk overflow and drying. It is a little brittle and easy to break. The skin of the section is white with cracks, and the wood is light yellow. The gas is special and the taste is slightly sweet. It is better to have big root, thick, tight skin, many horizontal lines and sweet taste.
It is mainly produced in Shaanxi and Gansu.
② Eastern party
Roots are cylindrical, often divergent. It is 12-25 cm long and 5-22 mm in diameter. The root head is large and obvious, and the root bark is yellow and grayish yellow, rough, with obvious longitudinal wrinkles. The lenticel is short and protruding, with punctate protuberance. It is loose and easy to break. In the section, the skin is yellow and the wood is yellow white. The skin accounts for 1 / 3 of this part. There are transverse cracks in the skin and cracks in the ray of the wood. It is better to have large root, yellow skin, tight skin and many wrinkles.
It is mainly produced in Northeast China and other places.
③ Lu Dang
The roots are oblate cylindrical, simple, about 8-22 cm long, about 7-10 mm in diameter. There is no obvious "lion pan head" in the root head. The root surface is light gray brown, with deep and irregular longitudinal furrows, and there are thin transverse stripes near the root head. Light weight, easy to break, irregular section. It has a slight air, no aroma and sweet taste. It is better to have a single branch without branching, white, fat and thick.
It is mainly produced in Shanxi, mostly cultivated products. Those who are wild in Wutai Mountain and other places in Shanxi Province are called "Taiwan Party".
The root of Codonopsis pilosula, a plant of the same genus, is also used in the same way. The roots are cylindric, terminal slightly slender, rarely divergent, about 15-35 cm long, about 5-25 mm in diameter. The head of the root is in the shape of "lion head". The surface is grayish yellow, with obvious longitudinal creases and grooves, and there are thin horizontal lines all over or only at the top. There are black brown gelatinous substances congealed by spilling milk at the place of branch root abscission. The wood is solid, easy to break, less fracture, yellow wood, and a light brown ring around it. The skin is light yellow. The smell is sweet.
Produced in Sichuan, Hubei and other places.
In addition, the same plants for medicinal dangshen are: Guanhua dangshen (also known as tiandang, xudang, produced in Sichuan, Guizhou); Luhua dangshen (produced in Sichuan); Qinling dangshen (also known as Datou dangshen, produced in Shaanxi, Gansu); Xinjiang dangshen (produced in Xinjiang); chaidangshen (produced in Sichuan, Gansu), etc.
[chemical constituents] Radix Codonopsis contains saponins, trace alkaloids, sucrose, glucose, inulin, starch, mucus and resin.
The root of Codonopsis lanceolata contains volatile oil, baicalein, glucoside, trace alkaloid, polysaccharide, inulin and saponin.
[pharmacological action] ① effect on blood cells
The alcohol and water extracts of Codonopsis pilosula root can increase the red blood cells and hemoglobin of normal rabbits by oral administration or subcutaneous injection, and the effect is significantly weakened after the spleen is removed. Therefore, it is speculated that the "blood tonifying" effect of Codonopsis pilosula root may be related to the spleen. At this time, white blood cells tend to decrease. According to the cloud, Codonopsis pilosula has no such effect. Codonopsis pilosula extract (1:40) has no hemolysis in test tube, but it can change color, turbid and precipitated when it interacts with red blood cells.
② The effect on blood glucose
Subcutaneous injection of Codonopsis pilosula extract into the abdomen of rabbits can increase the blood glucose, but injection of fermented extract or intragastric administration has incomparable effect, so it is considered that the increase of blood glucose is caused by the high content of sugar in the root, and it can not inhibit the neurohyperglycemia caused by injection of diuretic. According to the preliminary experiment, it can raise the blood sugar.
③ Antihypertensive effect
According to the preliminary analysis, it is considered that the alcohol and water extracts can reduce the blood pressure of anesthetized dogs by intravenous or intraperitoneal injection, which belongs to the peripheral type, and has some anti adrenaline effects; the water extracts or alcohol and water extracts can also reduce the blood pressure of anesthetized animals, and inhibit the isolated toad heart. In chronic hypertensive dogs, 4 g (crude drug) / kg of water extract was administered daily, but no hypotensive effect was found.
The extract or total glycosides from the roots of the same plants, fed to rabbits for a long time (40 days), can increase red blood cells (17.5%) and body weight (23%); it has preventive and therapeutic effects on leukopenia caused by turpentine oil; no pathological changes in internal organs were found after long-term oral administration. The total glucosides can enhance the respiration of mice in a small amount and reduce the anesthesia of chloral hydrate in a large amount. It seems to have some antagonistic effects on strychnine.
[processing] Codonopsis pilosula: after cleaning the sediment, moisten and remove the reed, slice or cut into sections, and dry in the sun. Stir fry Codonopsis: put the bran in the heated pot. When the smoke rises, add the Codonopsis slices. Stir fry until dark yellow. Remove the bran and let cool. (100kg Codonopsis pilosula, 20kg bran)
Sweet and smooth.
① "Ben Jing Feng Yuan": "Gan, Ping. "
② "Ben Cao Zai Xin": "Gan, Ping, non-toxic. "
[Guijing] "Depei Materia Medica": "start with, foot Taiyin meridians Qi points. "
[function indications] Buzhong, Yiqi, Shengjin. Treatment of spleen and stomach weakness, deficiency of both qi and blood, body fatigue and weakness, less food, thirst, long diarrhea, anal prolapse.
① In the book of Ben Jing Feng Yuan: "Qing Fei. "
② "Materia Medica from the new": "Buzhong Yiqi, and spleen and stomach, in addition to thirst. "
③ "Gangmu Shiyi": it can treat lung deficiency and benefit lung qi. "
④ Scientific folk herbs: "blood tonic". Suitable for chronic anemia, Fusarium wilt, leukemia, adenosis, rickets. "
⑤ "Manual of Chinese herbal medicine": "it is used to treat deficiency, internal injury, cold in the stomach, diarrhea, dyspnea, thirst, fever, spontaneous perspiration, women's haemorrhage, fetal birth and other diseases. "
[usage and dosage] oral administration: decoct soup, 3-5 yuan, 1-2 Liang large dose; boil cream or put into pill or powder.
It's not suitable for those who are evil.
"To match the materia medica": "qi stagnation, anger is prohibited. "
[formula selection] 1. Qingfeijin, buyuanqi, Kaisheng and Jinli: one Jin dangshen (soft and sweet), half Jin Shashen (sliced), four Liang longan. Decoct the concentrated juice in water, drop water into beads, and store it in a magnetic container. Take it in a wine cup with hollow boiling water, and you can also take the decocting medicine. (shangdangshen ointment in "de Pei Ben Cao")
② Treatment of diarrhea and birth Qi deficiency: dangshen (to Lu, rice fried) two money, Zhiqi, Baizhu (net fried), nutmeg cream, Poria cocos each one money and five points, Huai yam (fried) two money, Cimicifuga (honey fried) six points, fried licorice seven points. Add two pieces of ginger, or add aconite five minutes. (Shen Qi Bai Zhu Tang, unknown medical necessity)
③ For the treatment of hanliaojun, the spleen and stomach will be damaged, and the tongue will be sore. Dangshen (baked) and Huangqi (baked) will have two coins each, Poria cocos will have one coin, licorice will have five cents, and white peony will have seven cents. White water, warm. (Shenqi Anwei powder in throat Zizhen Collection)
④ Treatment of pediatric aphthous ulcer: dangshen one or two, Huangbai five money. They are fine dust, and they scatter the affected area. (collection of TCM prescriptions in Qinghai Province)
⑤ Inhibition or killing of M. leprae: Radix Codonopsis, Rhizoma Paridis (fleas) and root bark of Aristolochia echinocephala. First, grind the Radix Codonopsis and Paris polyphylla into fine powder; then, decoct the root bark of echinocephala with appropriate amount of water for three times, condense the decoction for three times into a certain amount (which can soak the Radix Codonopsis and Paris polyphylla fine powder), and add appropriate amount of honey. Then, pour the rhizoma polyphylla and Radix Codonopsis fine powder into the mixture to make a pill, each pill weighs three yuan; it can also be made into a paste. Take one pill three times a day with boiled water. (Beijing University of traditional Chinese medicine, new medical treatment data collection)
[discussion by famous experts] 1. In the book of Ben Jing Feng Yuan, Shangdang ginseng has the power of calming the lung and clearing the lung, though it has no function of warming the liver and tonifying the spleen. It is also different from the nature of Shashen, which is cold and can release the lung qi. "
② "To be matched with Materia Medica": "to get dangshen, to get Huangqi Shiwei, to be matched with Shilian to stop dysentery, to promote blood circulation, to assist Zaoren to tonify the heart. For the sake of qi stagnation, add mulberry peel,
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