[synonyms] Huang Liang, Huoshen, Furu (Wu Pu's materia medica), general (Li dangzhi's medicine record), Jin Wen rhubarb (Qian Jin Fang), Sichuan Army (manual of traditional Chinese Medicine), Jun (Tibetan name).
[source] it is the rhizome of Rheum palmatum, Rheum tanguticum or Rheum officinale.
[plant morphology] 1. Rhubarb palmatum, also known as rhubarb kuiye, rhubarb Beida and rhubarb Tianshui.
Tall perennial herbs. The roots are strong. Stem erect, about 2 meters high, smooth glabrous, hollow. The root leaves are large, with fleshy long stalks, about the same length as the leaves; the leaves are broad heart-shaped or nearly round, more than 40 cm in diameter, 3-7 palmately divided, lobes entire or dentate, or lobed, base slightly heart-shaped, with 3-7 main veins, glabrous or sparsely papillate on the top, white hair on the bottom, mostly distributed in the vein and leaf margin; stem leaves are small, alternate; leaf sheaths are large, light brown, membranous Quality. Panicle large, branches curved, spreading, short hairy; flowers small, several in clusters, alternate on branches, purple red when young; pedicel thin, 3-4 mm long, with 1 joint below the middle; perianth 6,2-whorled, inner whorl slightly larger, elliptic, about 1.6 mm long; stamens 9, anthers slightly exposed; ovary superior, triangular, style 3, downward curved, stigma capitate, slightly concave, V-shaped Shape. Achene triangular, winged, 9-10 mm long, 7-8 mm wide, apex slightly concave, base slightly heart-shaped, brown. The flowering period is from June to July. The fruit period is from July to August.
It was born in the semi humid place on the edge of mountain forest. It is distributed in Sichuan, Gansu, Qinghai and Tibet.
② Tanggu rhubarb, also known as: chicken feet rhubarb.
Tall perennial herbs, about 2 meters high, similar to the above species. Stems glabrous or hairy. The root leaves are slightly round or broad heart-shaped, 40-70 cm in diameter, 3-7 palmately lobed, long and narrow lobes, often pinnately lobed, apex acute, base heart-shaped; the stem leaves are smaller, and the stalk is shorter. The panicle is large in shape, and it is dark purple or green white when it is young. Its branches are compact, and its branchlets are straight and upward. Its flowers are small, with long pedicels. Its perianth is 6 or 2 whorls. Its stamens are generally 9. Its ovary is triangular, and its style is 3. Achene triangular, winged, apex rounded or retuse, base cordate. The flowering period is from June to July. The fruit period is from July to September.
It grows in the wet and shady place of mountain forest margin. It is distributed in Qinghai, Gansu and Sichuan. Tibet and other places.
③ Medicinal rhubarb, also known as: South rhubarb.
Tall perennial herbs, about 1.5 meters high. Stem erect, sparsely pubescent, nodes dense. The root leaves have long petioles. The leaves are round to ovoid, 40-70 cm in diameter, palmately lobed, or only notched and coarsely serrated. The apex is acute, the base is heart-shaped, the main veins are usually 5, basal, glabrous on the top, or near the state. The veins have sparse, small papillae, hairy on the bottom, mostly distributed in the vein and leaf margin. The stem leaves are small, and the petiole is also short. The leaf sheath is simple, sparsely short hairy, splitting to the base Department. Panicle, large, branching, small flowers, 3-4 mm in diameter, 4-10 in clusters; perianth 6, light green or yellow white, 2-whorled, inner whorl oblong, about 2 mm long, apex rounded, margin irregular, outer whorl slightly short; stamens 9, not exposed; ovary triangular, flowers 3-whorled. Achene triangular, winged, 8-10 mm long, 6-9 mm wide, apex concave, red. The flowering and fruiting period is from June to July.
Most of them grow in mountainous areas with good drainage. It is distributed in Hubei, Sichuan, Yunnan and Guizhou.
The stems or young shoots of the above plants are collectively referred to as rhubarb stems, which are also used for medicine. See the special article for details.
[collection] from September to October, select the plants that have grown for more than 3 years, dig out the rhizome, cut off the stem, leaf and branch root, scrape off the thick skin and terminal bud, air dry, dry or slice and sun dry.
[medicinal material] 1
It is the dry rhizome of Rheum palmatum and Rheum tanguticum. There are two kinds of commodities: first, Xining rhubarb: it is mostly processed into cone or waist drum shape, commonly known as "Dan Ji", about 6-17 cm in length and 3-10 cm in diameter; the outer skin has been removed or there are a small amount of residues; the outer surface is yellowish brown or reddish brown, with a network texture like white diamond, commonly known as "Jin Wen" (it is made of gray white parenchyma and brown red rays interlaced), sometimes chrysanthemum shaped spiral“ "Star point" often has a rope hole at one end. It is hard in texture, yellowish brown in cross section, granular (commonly known as sorghum slag), slightly oily. Dark cambium and orange red rays radiating from radius can be seen near the periphery sometimes. There are purple brown stars in the pith, closely arranged in a circle, and yellow to brownish red curved lines, also known as "Brocade lines". Qi is special, bitter and slightly astringent. It is mainly produced in Tongren and Tongde of Qinghai Province. In addition, there are also Rhubarb from Liangzhou, Rhubarb from Hezhou and Rhubarb from Minxian, which also belong to the category of Rhubarb from Xining. Among them, Liangzhou rhubarb, also known as lianghuang and Goutou rhubarb, is produced in Wuwei, Yongdeng and other places of Gansu Province because its whole shape is like a dog's head and its top is flat and round; its lower part is gradually thin and round, and its quality is also good. Rhubarb in erquanshui
It is generally long in shape, cut into segments, large in shape and round in shape, and often cut into pieces vertically. The texture is loose, the inner color is lighter than that of Xining rhubarb, the brocade pattern is not very obvious, and the star dots on the cross section are arranged in a circle. Others are similar to Xining rhubarb. Mainly produced in Gansu Quanshui, Xili and other places. There are also several kinds of rhubarb, such as Wenxian rhubarb, Qingshui rhubarb and Zhuanglang rhubarb, which are produced in Wenxian County, Chengxian county and Qingshui County of Gansu Province.
Also known as: Sichuan rhubarb, horseshoe rhubarb. It is the dry rhizome of rhubarb. Most of them are cut into sections with one end slightly larger and shaped like horseshoes. A few of them are also conical or drum shaped. They are about 6-12 cm long and 5-8 cm in diameter. The cork has been removed and the surface is yellowish brown or yellow with slightly curved brown lines (brocade lines). The cross section is yellowish brown, with many gaps, large star points, irregular arrangement, loose texture and rich fiber. The odor is weak. Products include Yahuang and Nanchuan rhubarb, mainly produced in Aba Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Ya'an and Nanchuan. In addition, it is also produced in Shaanxi, Hubei, Guizhou, Yunnan and Tibet.
For all the above rhubarb varieties, the best ones are yellowish brown in appearance, obvious brocade lines and stars, heavy weight, solid quality, oily, fragrant, bitter but not astringent in taste, and sticky in chewing.
Another kind of rhubarb is the rhizome and root of the same genus rhubarb, also known as rhubarb. It is usually irregular cylindrical, with reddish brown and yellow appearance, no cross grain, strong and light quality, no star point and brocade grain in cross section, and fine and straight reddish brown rays. Gas is not fragrant, taste bitter and astringent. Quality. I have abdominal pain after taking it.
Cut into small pieces and soak until dry. Wine rhubarb: take rhubarb slices, spray evenly with yellow rice wine, simmer slightly, put them in the pot, stir fry gently, and take them out to dry (100 Jin of rhubarb slices, 14 Jin of yellow rice wine). Cooked rhubarb (also known as: cooked army, Zhijun): take the raw rhubarb cut into small pieces, mix it with yellow rice wine, steam it in the steamer, or seal it in the pot, sit in the water pot, steam it thoroughly, take it out and dry it in the sun (100 kg rhubarb, 30-50 kg yellow rice wine). Some of them were steamed 2-3 times according to the above method. Rhubarb charcoal: take rhubarb tablets and put them in a pot. Stir fry them with fire until they are brown. Spray with clean water and dry them in the sun.
"Lei Gong Paozhi Lun" says: "when rhubarb is used, it is steamed by file, but never to Hai, so it is steamed for seven degrees and dried in the sun. But sprinkle thin honey water, and then steam a volt, the rhubarb split like black paste, dried in the sun. "
Bitter and cold
① Ben Jing: "it tastes bitter and cold. "
② Wupu materia medica: "Shennong, Leigong: bitter, poisonous. Bianque: bitter, nontoxic. Li: Xiao Han. "
③ Bielu: "cold, nontoxic. "
④ "The taste is bitter and sweet. "
[channel tropism] entering stomach, large intestine and liver channels.
① "Tangye Materia Medica": "start with, zuyang Mingjing. "
② "Gangmu": "foot Taiyin, hand and Foot Yangming, hand and foot Jueyin five meridians blood medicine. "
③ According to the interpretation of Materia Medica classic, "start with the Taiyang small intestine meridian and hand Shaoyin heart meridian. The Sanjiao meridian of hand Shaoyang also enters the stomach meridian of Foot Yangming and the large intestine meridian of hand Yangming. "
Functions and indications: purging heat toxin, breaking stagnation and promoting blood stasis. It is used to treat excess heat, constipation, delirium, dysphagia, fullness of stomach, dysentery at the beginning, urgency and heaviness in the back, stagnation of blood stasis, amenorrhea, accumulation of Baihuang, febrile disease, red eye pain, hematemesis, sanguine blood, Yang, yellow, edema, turbid, sanguine, carbuncle, ulcer, swelling and toxin, sanguine ulcer, and fire injury of soup.
It has the functions of Purging Heat and dredging intestines, cooling blood and detoxifying, removing blood stasis and dredging meridians. For excess heat constipation, abdominal pain, diarrhea, damp heat jaundice.
① Ben Jing: "blood stasis, blood stasis, cold and heat, breaking the accumulation of Baihuang, drinking and sleeping food, cleaning the stomach, promoting the old and bringing forth the new, promoting the water and grain (the" water and grain "as" water and grain road "), regulating the middle of the food, and harmonizing the five zang organs. "
② Bielu: "it can calm the stomach, lower Qi, remove phlegm and excess, heat in the intestines, distension in the heart and abdomen, cold blood in women, small abdominal pain, and blood stasis in the old. "
③ "Theory of medicinal properties": "it is mainly used for cold and heat, digestion, refining five zang organs, dredging women's meridians, promoting edema, breaking phlegm and excess, accumulating cold and heat, persisting in food, benefiting small intestine, sticking heat toxin and swelling, treating children's diseases when they are cold and hot, irritating heat, eroding pus, breaking and retaining blood. "
④ "Rihuazi materia medica:" it can promote all kinds of Qi, regulate blood vessels, benefit joints, relieve stagnancy and water vapor, keep the limbs cold and hot, warm miasma and phlegm, promote urination and defecation, and apply and cut sores, boils and carbuncle poison. "
⑤ Compendium: "it is mainly used to treat dysentery, acute abdominal pain, urination, excess heat and dryness, delirium, jaundice and fire sores. "
[usage and dosage] oral administration: Decoction (for diarrhea, not for long), 1-4 yuan; or into pills, powder. External use: grind powder, apply with water or vinegar.
[should avoid] all exterior syndromes are not cured, blood deficiency and Qi weakness, spleen and stomach deficiency and cold, no excess heat, stagnation, blood stasis, as well as prenatal and perinatal complications
Chinese PinYin : Da Huang
White snail shell. Bai Luo Si Ke
Orange leaf. Cheng Ye
Stem and leaf of Astragalus. Huang Qi Jing Ye
Horseshoe leaf. Ma Ti Ye
Bird urn. Que Weng
Elaeagnus angustifolia bark. Sha Zao Shu Pi
Elaeagnus angustifolia. Sha Zao Hua
Yarrow fruit. Shi Shi
Copper belt jade hammer. Tong Chui Yu Dai Cao
Wulangen. Wu Lan Gen
Shrimp seed flower. Xia Zi Hua
Bluish brown root. Ya Zong Gen