Cymbidium floribundum is an epiphyte of Orchidaceae. The inflorescence is 20-30cm long, with 20-40 flowers and reddish brown flowers. The leaves are oblong, 2-4 on large pseudobulbs. It grows in the forest or on the trees at the edge of the forest, or on the transparent rocks or cliff near the valley, with an altitude of 100-3300 M. Distributed in China, India and other Asian countries. The leaves of Cymbidium multiflorum are leathery and thick, with luster, strong drought resistance and cold resistance, colorful flowers, and high ornamental value. It is one of the ideal potted flowers.
Epiphyte, pseudobulb nearly cylindrical, 1.5-2.5cm long, 1cm wide, enclosed in the persistent leaf base. Leaves 2-4, suberect, oblong oblanceolate, thick leathery, 22-27cm long, 3.5-4.7cm wide, apex acute or obtuse, with obvious midrib, base obviously petiolate; petiole slender, 15-23cm long, 4-5mm wide, ventral grooved, joint near middle.
Scape from the base of pseudobulb, nearly erect or curved, 16-28 (- 35) cm long; inflorescence usually with 10-40 flowers; bracts small; flowers dense, 3-4 cm in diameter, generally without aroma; sepals and petals reddish brown or occasionally greenish yellow, very rare grayish brown, lip white, with purplish red spots on lateral and middle lobes, yellow folds; sepals narrow oblong, 1.6-1.8 long Petals narrowly elliptic, 1.4-1.6 cm long, sepals nearly equal; labellum subovate, 1.6-1.8 cm long, 3-lobed; lateral lobes erect, with papillae; middle lobes slightly curved, with papillae; labial disc with 2 longitudinal folds, end of which close; stigma 1.1-1.4 cm long, slightly curved forward; pollens 2, triangular. Capsule suboblong, 3-4 cm long, 1.3-2 cm wide. The flowering period is from April to August.
It grows in the forest or on the trees at the edge of the forest, or on the transparent rocks or rock walls near the valley, or in the humus loam deposited in the crevice. It has a high content of organic matter, a pH value of 4.5-5, and an altitude of 100-3300m.
It is produced in Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Fujian, Taiwan, Hubei, Hunan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Eastern Sichuan, Guizhou, northwest to Southeast Yunnan; it is also distributed in India, Nepal, Thailand and Vietnam.
Potted plant management
Family potted Cymbidium is usually propagated by ramet method, using rotten leaf soil, ash, sand, dried cow dung or rotten chicken and duck dung as culture soil, and the ratio is 4:2:2:2. Although Cymbidium multiflorum is drought resistant, it can not be placed in direct sunlight in summer to prevent excessive sun exposure and poor growth, resulting in sunburn on the leaf surface. Therefore, shading management should be strengthened in summer and autumn. When the shading degree is 60%, the leaves can be sprayed once or twice a day when the air is dry. In order to prevent root rot, the basin soil should be careful not to be too wet and absorb too much water. During the vigorous growth period of Cymbidium multiflorum, rotten hoof water or thin cake fertilizer water should be applied every one to two weeks. After winter, we can turn the pot to loosen the soil, remove the dead leaves and rotten roots, and apply some organic fertilizer or bone powder, so as to facilitate the germination of the next spring buds and the differentiation of early spring flower buds, and have enough nutrients.
The root of Cymbidium multiflorum can be used as a medicinal part. It can be harvested in summer and autumn, removed from the ground, washed and dried in the sun. It is pungent and mild in nature. Nourishing yin and clearing lung, resolving phlegm and relieving cough. Indications: pertussis, tuberculosis cough, hemoptysis, dizziness and low back pain, urinary tract infection, irregular menstruation, rheumatic arthralgia.
The pseudobulb of Cymbidium multiflorum can also be used as a medicinal part, with sweet, light, slightly astringent and flat taste. Clearing away heat and toxin, tonifying kidney and brain.
Application: 1. 9-15g pseudobulbils, decocted in water (kekuang wine). Flour is about 6 grams, Baijiu adjusted. In addition, apply a proper amount of alcohol. Or with mountain turtle, stinky peony root mash apply.
2. Kidney deficiency lumbago. 15 grams of false bulbs, Ligustrum lucidum, torpedoes (rescue food), Rosa laevigata, wawei each 9 grams, fried.
3. Neurasthenia, dizziness and headache. False bulb 30g, jujube 10, fried or stewed pig lean meat to eat.
Whole grass: Xin, Ping. Qingre Jiedu, Ziyin Runfei, Huatan Zhike. It is used for scrofula, stone drenching, children's night cry, drenching turbid, with disease, sores and boils.
Introduction of subordinates
: CYM bidiumfloribundumvar.pumilum ）It is also known as small bee orchid, Pulan, golden edge orchid, bee orchid, string orchid and square orchid. It is very similar to the original species of Cymbidium multiflorum, but shorter, with short and narrow leaves and smaller pseudobulbs. The leaves are bright and the veins are not as obvious as those of Cymbidium. The stem of the flower is 15-30cm long, erect or above the syncline, straight, with 15-40 flowers, slightly small, reddish brown and no fragrance. The flowering period is from April to May. It is widely cultivated in China and in Japan. It is distributed in Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou and other provinces.
The wild orchid belongs to Appendix II of cites.
The seeds of Cymbidium multiflorum planted on Knudson C medium were cultured in the dark at 25 ℃. It took more than half a year from sowing to germination. The germinating period of each seed is different, which can be as long as one year. First of all, because of the water absorption and expansion of the embryo, it broke through the seed coat, and then developed into protocorm, and the outer surface of the protocorm was also covered with root hairs (Fig. 1). The meristem structure of the stem apex could also be seen on the protocorm (Fig. 2). Under dark conditions, most protocorms do not directly induce cotyledon differentiation. Instead, the basal cells of the apical meristem of the protocorm protrude into nodules, which are composed of about 5-10 cells. The apical cells of the meristem develop into root hairs, which form the rhizome. When the length of the rhizome was about 2-3 mm, it began to differentiate into leaf like structures, but only showed weak scaly leaves, which were close to the apical meristem of the rhizome and could not further differentiate into cotyledons (Fig. 3).
When protocorms and protocorms were induced into rhizomes and cultured at 25 ℃, 2000 lux and 8 hours light, the frequency of direct differentiation from protocorms into seedlings was significantly increased. Under light induction, the structure of rhizomes quickly changed from rhizomes to aboveground stems, and the meristem and its surrounding tissue structure of protocorms changed. The axillary bud of the scale leaf near the top began to expand. After 5 days, the axillary bud had obviously expanded. After 10 days, the axillary bud had developed into a complete shoot structure with 3-4 leaves, which became a unique structure of monocotyledon plants (Fig. 4). Some rhizomes can differentiate into seedlings from many places under light conditions (Fig. 5). Under the scanning electron microscope, the further developed seedlings with differentiation of roots, stems and leaves were also observed (Fig. 6).
Morphological observation from seed germination to seedling formation of Cymbidium multiflorum
Fig. 1: there are root hairs on the surface of protocorm × 36;
Fig. 2: meristem on protocorm (arrow) × 36;
Fig. 3: rhizome (arrow a), nodule on rhizome (arrow b), root trichome (arrow C), scalelike lobule (arrow d) × 32;
Fig. 4: characteristics of monocotyledons with the formation of chloroplasma × 48;
Fig. 5: light induced local differentiation or Plantlet × 20 on the rhizome;
Fig. 6: Seedlings with root, stem and leaf differentiation × 26
Voucher specimen: scibas 751049
Materials: root tip
Source: a gift from Professor Cheng Shijun, South China Botanical Garden, Guangdong, China
Ploidy: 2n = 2x = 40
*The length of satellite is not included
Karyotype formula: 38m (2sat) + 2sm
Karyotype classification: 2A
Arm index: 80
Longest chromosome / shortest chromosome: 1.47
The proportion of chromosomes with arm ratio > 2 was 0.05
Karyotype asymmetry coefficient: 58.14
The composition of chromosome relative length: 16m < sub > 2 < / sub > + 24m < sub > 1 < / sub > 1
Cymbidium floribundum and Cymbidium suavissimum not only have similar leaf morphology, but also have erect flowers with more than 50 flowers, which is easy to be mistaken. The differences between them are as follows:
① The color and fragrance of flowers are different. The flowers of Cymbidium multiflorum are reddish brown, while Cymbidium is yellow green; Cymbidium multiflorum has no aroma, while Cymbidium multiflorum has fruit aroma.
② The florescence is different. The flowering time of Cymbidium multiflora was one month earlier than that of vanilla.
③ The leaves are different. The pseudobulb of Cymbidium multiflorum is not obvious, but the pseudobulb of Cymbidium fragrans is long and large. The leaves of Cymbidium multiflorum are less and shorter, and the leaves of Cymbidium multiflorum are more long and wide. The leaf base joints of Cymbidium multiflorum are obvious and entire, while the leaf base of Cymbidium fragrans is nested and entire.
④ The distribution is different. Cymbidium is distributed in Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Yunnan, Tibet, Southeast Asia Peninsula and India, while Cymbidium is only distributed in Yunnan and Myanmar.
Chinese PinYin : Hong Lan
Release Time:2022-01-27 00:05:43
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