first major translator of Western fiction and one of the last important prose writers in the classical style
Lin Shu (1852-1924), a modern writer. Qin South word, No. Wei Lu, other department Leng Hongsheng, Fujian Min county (now Fuzhou City) people. In the late days, he was called Li sou, Jian Zhuo Weng, Liu Qiao Bu Liu Weng and the master of Chun Jue Zhai. The names of the rooms are chunjuezhai, yanyunlou, etc.
In his early years, he read Ouyang Xiuwen and Du Fu's poems from Xue Xiji in the same county. After reading the books collected by Li Zongyan's family in Tongxian County, he had no less than 30000 or 40000 volumes. He was erudite and had strong memory. He was good at poetry, writing and painting, and had the title of crazy life. Guangxu eight years (1882) Ju Ren, official education theory, test Jinshi not. In 1900, he was a Chinese teacher in Wucheng middle school in Beijing. Wu Rulun, a great master of Tongcheng school, praised and wrote the ancient prose, so he became a lecturer in Peking University.
After the revolution of 1911, Xu Shuzheng, a member of the army of Beiyang, put great emphasis on Tongcheng School of ancient Chinese prose.
Later in Beijing, he made a living by translating books and selling manuscripts and selling paintings. He once founded cangxia jingshe, the predecessor of Fujian Institute of technology. Gongshi is famous for its free translation of famous foreign novels. I'm very good at painting. At the beginning, the landscape looked like Wen Zhengming, and then close to Dai Xi. Occasionally, I was involved in Shi Tao, so it was quite interesting. His painting poem says: "life is not into the three King School, family slightly out of bitter gourd, I only want to Rao landscape flavor, why attack painstaking master?" The flowers and birds were passed down by their teacher Chen Wentai. They are light in ink, light in color and vivid in spirit.
When I lived in Beijing in my old age, most of the people who wanted to go there were mountains and rivers, but no more flowers and birds. He wrote the works of Wei Lu, poetry, painting postscript of Chun Jue Zhai and novel notes.
Lin Shu was a bookish boy. When he was five years old, he worked as an auditor in a private school. Under the influence of his teacher Xue Zeke, he deeply loved traditional Chinese literature and has been closely related to literature ever since. However, due to his poor family and troubled times, he had to work all day to make a living. In his spare time, he did not forget to study poetry and books. From the age of 13 to 20, he read more than 2000 volumes of ancient books.
Lin Shu's paintings
For Lin Shu, 1882 was a crucial and turning year, from a poor scholar to a famous scholar in Jiangnan. At the same time of getting rid of poverty, he made a lot of friends and teachers and read a lot of poems. Although he is over thirty years old, he has gone to Beijing seven times to attend the ceremony examination. Originally dedicated to serving the motherland, Lin Shu "went to chunguan in July and failed many times" so he never wanted to be an official and devoted himself to literary creation.
In 1897, Lin Shu began his late and fruitful translation career with the translation of the new Yuefu in central Fujian and the legacy of the lady of Camellia in Paris, which made Luoyang "expensive for a time". However, it is a coincidence that Lin Shu has been involved in the field of translation. It is unexpected that his translation is so popular. At that time, Lin Shu's mother died, followed by his wife's death. Wei Han, Wang shouchang and other friends invited Lin Shu to translate books together to help him out of depression. At first, Lin Shu tried again and again, and finally accepted the request. The story of the lady of Camellia in Paris is well recognized by the Chinese people, which, to some extent, encourages Lin Shu to go on the road of translating literary works.
After studying abroad for more than 40 years, he not only described the advantages and disadvantages of Bai Han's novel, but also described his life in a short time Foreign scholars have translated more than 180 western novels, many of which are written by famous foreign writers, such as David Copperfield by Dickens, Haggard's the story of the departed, Tolstoy of Russia, the story of the devil by Cervantes of Spain, Peter of France and Scott of England《 The hero of Saxon, Defoe's Robinson Crusoe, etc. These western novels show the rich western culture to the Chinese people and broaden their horizons. They firmly established Lin Shu's position as the pioneer of Chinese New Culture and the king of translation circles. So far, Lin Shu was recognized as the founder of modern Chinese literature and the leader of translation circle, and left a good story of "translation talent and world number strict Lin".
Change of mind
Before the reform movement of 1898, Lin Shu talked about the new deal with his friends every day in Fujian, and wrote 50 pieces of new Yuefu in central Fujian, which reflected his progressive thought at that time. For example, Mr. village and xingnuxue advocated the reform of children's education, the establishment of women's education, and the propaganda of patriotism: "today's national enmity is as deep as the sea, revenge must encourage children's heart." (Mr. Village) this kind of patriotic spirit was further developed after the Sino Japanese War of 1894-1895. Like Xu Jingyan biography, he praised the Navy's sacrifice for the country.
Lin Shu's later thought turned to conservative, which was related to his position of advocating reform and being loyal to Emperor Guangxu of Qing Dynasty. After the revolution of 1911, he said in the preface to Wei Lu's poems, "when the revolutionary army rises, the emperor gives way to the government. Hearing, seeing and seeing are all suitable for my heart, but the one I love is my ear. Although he was not an official in the Qing Dynasty, he paid ten visits to the mausoleum of Emperor Guangxu. Therefore, after entering the Republic of China, he, Ma Qichang and Yao yonggai left Peking University one after another, and attacked the revolutionist Zhang Binglin as "a great man of mediocrity and arrogance, plagiarizing the Han people's saliva" and "Yijing Yifa, Ge Jue Fu Shuo" (with Yao yonggai Shu) as the eyes of Tongcheng school.
During the May 4th movement, New Youth magazine advocated replacing classical Chinese with vernacular, which originated from Peking University. Lin Shu wrote a letter to Cai Yuanpei, President of Peking University: "if the ancient books are abandoned and the local language is used as the writing language, then all of them have their own grammar. All the peddlers in Beijing and Tianjin can be used as professors." (a reply to the history of CAI Heqing, President of the University) turned from conservative to against the May 4th New Literature movement.
Lin Shu, a little lonely, said that "within forty-five years, bandits do not read books.". At the age of 11, Xue Xiji, from Tongli, asked about ancient Chinese poetry. He was proficient in reading Du Fu's poems and Owen's poems. From the age of 13 to 20, "miscellaneous collection, simple and zero articles are treated by self grinding", and no less than 2000 volumes of ancient books are reviewed. At the age of 31, I met Li Zongyan. When I saw his brother's collection of books, I borrowed them one by one. Not only classics, books and historical records, but also the words of Tang and song novelists. Later, it changed from Expo to intensive reading. He is fond of books in his life. He is deep in pursuit of books, such as wine.
Lin Shu advocated Cheng and Zhu's Neo Confucianism. He read Cheng and Zhu's book "he was fond of Liang meat", but he could expose the hypocrisy of "Song scholars were fond of Liang meat, they were obsessed with Liang meat, they were obsessed with Liang meat, they were obsessed with Liang meat, they were obsessed with Liang meat, they were obsessed with Liang meat, they were obsessed with the beauty color, they didn't dare to move less" and ridiculed "Neo Confucianists, they were loyal to Cheng and Zhu. As soon as the Warcraft was awed by Neo Confucianism, the words and expressions transferred from the text were mostly vague. He maintained the feudal ethics, accused the young people of "wanting to dethrone the three cardinal guides, barbaric monarchs and ministers, pacifying the father and son, and broadening the path of their freedom", also said that "the dangzi people contain the animal nature, how can I be with the same group", and dared to translate the whole book of Jiayin's biography which is incompatible with the feudal ethics. According to Yan Fu's poem "when Jiachen comes out, the capital appears to all the gongs in Tongli":
There are many voices of lonely mountain officials, and soap robe speeches often appear in the hall.
Poor * * a camellia girl, breaking up the chinensis sausage.
Lin Shu's theory of ancient Chinese literature is centered on the Yifa advocated by Tongcheng school, and takes Zuo, Ma, ban and Han Zhiwen as the "ancestors of the world's articles". He thinks that "taking the meaning from classics, taking the material from history, reading more books of scholars, paying attention to the world's affairs, and writing has its own indelible aura". At the same time, Lin Shu also saw all kinds of disadvantages of Tongcheng school. He opposed to sticking to conventions and demanded that "to abide by the law, one should have a higher vision than the law; to follow the law, one should have the power beyond the law.". And remind people, "Gai Yaowen is the most strict and clean.". We like it to be strict and pure, and if we indulge in it, we will become weak. "When we study the tone of Tongcheng school's ancient prose, we must have no spirit. He thought that learning from Tongcheng was better than learning from Zuo, Zhuang, ban, Ma, Han, Liu, ou and Zeng. And thought that in the study should know the change, achieves can enter can go out. "Those who enter learn from others; those who leave change."
Lin Shu had the book of Wei Lu Shi Cun, but deleted the new Yuefu in central Fujian. He claimed that "I studied Dongpo (Su Shi) and jianzhai (Chen Yuyi) in the seven laws of my poems; Qi Jue studied Baishi (Jiang Kui) and Shitian (Shen Zhou), and joined Jinggong (Wang Anshi); Wu Gu studied Han (Yu); and his poems on things studied du (Fu)" (notes of Mr. Lin yinglu). He attached great importance to his ancient prose, criticizing Kang Youwei for presenting poems and praising his translated works.
He said that his intention to discuss historical records with Wu Rulun in Beijing won Wu's approval. Wu Rulun's comments on "the secret of the gods and ghosts" in historical records (preface to the readings of historical records of Mr. Wu in Tongcheng City). Wu Shi, also known as the first to see its text, praised: "is to suppress the cover, can subdue its light gas." (preface to Mr. Ma Tongbo) he flaunts Tongcheng school, but in fact his ancient prose is not the same as Tongcheng school. For example, lenghongsheng biography, cangxia jingshe houxuan biography and Zhao deaf biography are all good at narration and lyric, which are vivid and emotional, or mixed with humor, which can move people, unlike Tongcheng school's cautious and smooth prose.
His collection of Wei Lu's works is similar to Gui Youguang's works. He himself said: "in the six hundred years, no one outside Zhenchuan (guiyouguang) dares to be me." (notes of Mr. Lin yinglu) he was famous in his later years, and he was proud of himself. Or hurt in the bitter, no longer as the first set of the Qing Jin Wanmei. In fact, Lin Shu's achievements lie in his "novels translated by Lin". His poems and paintings are all covered by his translations.
Lin Shu's translation of the novel began in 1897, when he and Wang shouchang, who are proficient in French, translated the story of the Lady Camellia in Paris by Dumas
Chinese PinYin : Lin Shu
first major translator of Western fiction and one of the last important prose writers in the classical style
Release Time:2022-01-26 22:58:15
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