Houliang (907-923) is the first dynasty of the Five Dynasties. In April of the fourth year of emperor Tianyou of Tang Dynasty (907), Zhu Huang, the king of Liang Dynasty (his real name was Zhu Wen, and Zhu Quanzhong was granted the name by Emperor AI of Tang Dynasty). He called himself Emperor Jianguo and the name of Daliang. In order to distinguish him from Liang (Xiaoliang) of Southern Dynasty, he called himself Houliang. The Tang Dynasty was officially destroyed, and Chinese history entered the period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms. Kaifeng was the capital of Houliang (now Kaifeng, Henan). Later, when he moved his capital to Luoyang, Zhu Huang, the emperor Taizu of Liang Dynasty, was Huang Chao's minister and helped Huang Chao capture the two capitals. Later, because Huang Chao was about to lose, he surrendered to the Tang Dynasty and was appointed as the governor of Xuanwu army. He guarded bianzhou (now Kaifeng, Henan Province). In the first year of Wende (889), he defeated the powerful enemy Qin Zongquan and occupied the Central Plains. Later, he conquered Shandong and dominated the Central Plains. In 904, Yu Tianyou moved the capital of Tang Zhaozong to Luoyang, then killed Tang Zhaozong and controlled the central government. Finally, he was abdicated by Emperor AI of Tang Dynasty in April, 907, and established Houliang. Zhu Huang was killed by his son Zhu Youzhen in June of the second year of Qianhua (912). Then Zhu Youzhen was overthrown by his younger brother Zhu Youzhen. After this civil strife, Houliang gradually declined and finally died in October of the first year of Tongguang (923). The territory of Houliang is the smallest in the Five Dynasties. It is bounded by the Yellow River in the north, Dahai in the East, Qinling Huaihe in the South and Guanzhong in the West. However, the border is unstable and wars are frequent.
Overview picture source: Atlas of ancient Chinese history
Start with military force
Zhu Wen was the founding emperor of the Houliang Dynasty. He joined Huangchao in the Qianfu period of emperor Xizong of the Tang Dynasty, and then gradually became a general. After Huangchao conquered Chang'an and established the Daqi regime, he was ordered to resist the Allied forces from all sides. In the second year of Tang Zhonghe (882), the war became more and more fierce. Without rescue, Zhu Wen, who guarded Quanzhou, turned to the enemy: Wang chongrong, the Jiedu envoy in the river. Wang Chong Rong reported the situation to Tang Fu Zong, who was in exile in Sichuan. Tang Fu Zong happily said, "it's a gift from heaven." He was named Quan Zhong, and Zuo jinwuwei was given the title of general. He served as the Deputy envoy of hechong camp. From then on, he led his troops to fight side by side with Wang chongrong, and always won.
In March of the third year of Zhonghe (883), Emperor Xizong of Tang Dynasty granted Zhu Quanzhong the rank of Jiedu envoy of Xuanwu army, and temporarily served as the Deputy recruiting envoy of Hezhong camp. In April of the same year, Huang Chao led his troops away from LAN Guan. Zhu Quanzhong led a brigade of soldiers. After several months, he arrived at Kaifeng prefecture (now Kaifeng, Henan Province) of bianzhou prefecture to take up the post of Xuanwu army's governor. After Huangchao's withdrawal from Guanzhong, it swept the Central Plains. Xuanwu Town, which originally governed bianzhou, Songzhou, Yingzhou and Bozhou, was the only one to survive. After Zhu Quanzhong arrived at Daliang, the situation in his administration was very bad. But after he renovated the army and consolidated the city base, he finally restored order and stabilized the only remaining territory. At the same time, Huang Chao built a palace to prepare for a long-term siege because he had been attacking Chenzhou for a long time. In December of this year, Zhu Quanzhong defeated the Yellow nest garrison in Luyi, Bozhou, and beheaded more than 2000 people.
In the spring of the fourth year of Zhonghe (884), Zhu Quanzhong arrived at the boundary of wazizhai village in Chenzhou, where he contracted with Xuzhou town to defeat tens of thousands of troops. After that, Zhu Quanzhong led his troops to Huaiyang, Chenzhou's headquarters, and stormed with a large army. After more than 40 battles, he finally got rid of the besieged Huangchao army. After Chen Zhou's rescue, Zhao Bin welcomed Zhu Quanzhong's car. At this time, Huang Chao's troops began to gather at Guyang base in the north of Chenzhou, ready to attack Xuanwu town. Then Zhu Quanzhong and Li Keyong and Shi Pu integrated their forces and prepared to attack Huang Chao together. Before long, Huang Chao led his troops in the direction of Xuanwu town. When his troops crossed the river at wangman ferry of Bianhe River in the north of Zhongmou, the Allied forces suddenly launched an attack, causing heavy losses to Huang Chao. Huang Chao himself led the guards to escape to Xiangwang village of langhu Valley, and was besieged by Shipu's pursuers, so he had no choice but to commit suicide. After this war, Bozhou was captured by Zhu Quanzhong, and Chenzhou surrendered to Zhu Quanzhong after the siege. Huang Chao's demoted generals Zhang guiba, Huo Cun, Zhang Guihou, GE Congzhou and others all fell on their knees under Zhu Quanzhong's horse. Zhu Quanzhong met them in Huang Chao's army and accepted them one by one. These people will become Zhu Quanzhong's capable generals in the future.
Later Liang Dynasty and Tang Dynasty
On April 18, the fourth year of emperor Tianyou of Tang Dynasty (June 1, 907), Zhu Quanzhong, the king of Liang Dynasty, changed his name to Zhu Huang and accepted the abdication of emperor AI of Tang Dynasty. He called himself Emperor. His name was Daliang, his year was Kaiping, and his name was Houliang in history. The territory of Houliang is the smallest in the Five Dynasties, including Henan and Shandong provinces, most of Shaanxi and Hubei, and part of Hebei, Ningxia, Shanxi, Jiangsu and Anhui provinces. Except for Wang Jian in Jiannan, Yang xingmi in Huainan, Li Keyong in northern Shanxi, Li Maozhen in Longxi, and Liu rengong in Eastern Liaoning, most of the other separatist forces were appointed as ministers to the latter Liang and accepted their canonization: Liu Yin in Lingnan was appointed as the king of Dapeng; Ma Yin in Hunan was appointed as the king of Chu; Wang Shenzhi in Southern Fujian was appointed as the king of Langya; Qian Liu in Jiangnan was appointed as the king of Wuyue; Wang Rong in Hebei was appointed as the king of Zhao
The year after Zhu Huang became emperor, Li Keyong, his number one enemy, died, and his son Li Cunxu succeeded to the throne of Jin Dynasty. When Li Cunxu succeeded to the throne, Luzhou had been besieged by the Liang army for more than a year, and the situation was very critical. Li Cunxu took advantage of the opportunity that Liang Jun thought that he was busy with the funeral and relaxed his guard. He personally led the army to attack Luzhou, broke the trap built by Liang Jun's siege of Luzhou, and killed Fu daozhao, the commander of Liang Jun. Liang Jun was defeated, and more than ten thousand people died. The abandoned capital, grain and weapons piled up like a mountain. This war had a great influence on the relationship between Liang and Jin. For example, the victory of Liang's army opened the door of Hedong and directly attacked Taiyuan, the capital of Jin. For example, the victory of Jin's army not only consolidated the southern border of Hedong, but also threatened Henan, the ruling Center of Liang. When Zhu Huang heard the news that Jiazhai had been broken, he was shocked and said with a sigh, "having a son should be like Li Yazi, my son is a porpoise dog!" Yazi is the small character of Li Cunxu.
Then Li Cunxu began to rectify the slack military discipline, develop agricultural production, reduce taxes, give preferential treatment to the orphans and widows, stabilize internal order, select talents, and prepare for the war, so as to make Hedong a new look.
During this period, there were successive changes in the interior of the Liang Dynasty. Wang Chuzhi, the Yiwu Jiedu emissary, and Wang Rong, the Chengde Jiedu emissary, fought against the Liang Dynasty because Zhu Huang deliberately eliminated his dissidents. They took refuge with Li Cunxu and promoted him as the leader of the alliance to fight against the Liang Dynasty. Zhu Huang believed in slander, killed Wang Chongshi, the Jiedu envoy of Youguo, and killed the whole family. General Liu Zhijun was suspicious, so he raised his army in Tongzhou to rebel against Zhu. Zhu Huang is also jealous of talent and ability. He killed Deng Jiyun, a famous general, on the pretext of Ma Shou. He also executed Li chongyun and Li Dang for disobeying military orders. Zhu Huang executed the old general's uncle Cong and his adopted son Zhu Yougong for taking part in the killing of Tang Zhaozong. Zhu Zhen was a famous general. Zhu huangxun killed him, and he begged for mercy and was driven out by Zhu Huang After being demoted for some reason, Zhu Huang was dissatisfied and executed. The internal contradictions of Houliang intensified, greatly weakened the strength.
In November of the fourth year of Kaiping (910), Zhu Huang sent General Wang Jingren to lead the army to attack Wang Rong of De and Chu Zhi of Yiwu, and Li Cunxu of Jin led the army to reinforce. In the following year, the two armies met in Baixiang (now Gaoyi County, Hebei Province). The armor of the Hou Liang army was bright and bright, with silver hanging on a thread of gold. The Jin army was very afraid to see it. Zhou Dewei, general of the Jin Dynasty, encouraged the soldiers and said: "Liang army is the tianwu army of bianzhou. They are all the people in the market. Although their clothes and armours are bright, their combat effectiveness is extremely poor. You can't stop them. I hope you can fight hard and get rich if you catch one person. This is a wonderful thing. It's a chance not to lose!" The Jin army was full of fighting spirit and morale. Zhou Dewei first sent a small group of troops to harass the Liang army. When he was tired and tired, he made an all-out attack and defeated the Liang army. His dead body covered the field and he abandoned countless military equipment. The battle of Baixiang was the turning point of Liang Jin rivalry. After the battle, the strategic initiative was transferred to Jin army.
In 912, Liu Shouguang (the son of Liu rengong) attacked Chengde and Yiwu, and Li Cunxu led the army to help. Liu Shouguang worried that he was not the enemy, so he asked Zhu Huang for help. In order to avenge Bai Xiang, Zhu Huang personally led an army to attack Jin, known as a 500000 army. During the day and night, he went to Xiabo (now Shenzhou, Hebei Province), and led 50000 troops to attack Qiong county (now Jingxian county). At that time, the main force of Jin army attacked Youzhou in the north and the South was empty. The garrison of Jin army in Zhaozhou (today's Zhaoxian County, Hebei Province) harassed Liang army with small troops. Jin General Li CunShen sent hundreds of cavalry to disguise Liang army and raided Liang Taizu camp in the night. In addition, Liang soldiers released by Jin army came back. It was said that Li Cunxu personally led the army to attack. Liang Taizu was terrified and fled at night. In a hurry, he lost his way and walked more than 150 Li by mistake. The people of Hebei are very resentful of Liang Jun's cruelty and attack Liang Jun with farm implements one after another. Zhu Huanglian suffered a defeat. He fled back to Bianliang in embarrassment and was bedridden.
Father son fratricidal
Zhu Huang was born as a hooligan with a violent and cruel temperament. In his later years, because of the unfavorable war, his heart of suspicion grew stronger and stronger. In addition to wanton killing, he indulged in lust. In addition to publicizing adultery in the palace, he even recruited the ministers' wives to commit adultery in the palace. Zhang Quanyi, the king of Wei and Yin in Henan Province, was an important historical figure in the period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms. He made a great contribution to the restoration of social production in the Central Plains. Zhu Huang fought for years and relied on Zhang Quanyi's support for military supplies. Even such a great hero, Zhu Huang did not let go of his family members. When he visited Luoyang, he lived in Zhang Quanyi's home and raped his daughter and daughter-in-law one by one. Zhang Quanyi was so angry that he tried to kill Zhu Huang, but Zhang Quanyi tried to dissuade him. In particular, Zhu Huang never let go of his daughter-in-law, either adopted or parent-child daughter-in-law, one by one summoned the servant, openly declared adultery and acted with animals. And his sons are fighting for favor
Chinese PinYin : Hou Liang
Chinese history refers to the history of China from the birth of Chinese civilization to the present. China has a long history, about 4100 years since Xia Dynasty (Erligang culture in Neolithic Age).
New dynasty. Xin Chao
Eastern Han Dynasty. Dong Han
Shuhan. Shu Han
Sui Dynasty. Sui Chao
the tang dynasty. Tang Chao
Wu Zhou. Wu Zhou
the Southern Tang dynasty. Nan Tang
The Southern Han Dynasty. Nan Han
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Northern Song Dynasty. Bei Song
Jin Dynasty. Jin Chao