Diagnosis of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Diagnosis of traditional Chinese medicine, one of the traditional Chinese medicine, is declared by the Chinese Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, one of the national intangible cultural heritage.
Guided by the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, TCM diagnostic method mainly uses the method of "four diagnoses" to diagnose diseases, to explore the causes, location, nature and condition of diseases, to distinguish symptoms, to diagnose diseases, and to provide basis for treatment.
In May 2006, TCM diagnosis method was listed in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list of traditional medicine, item number IX-2.
Overview of Development
TCM diagnosis has a long history. During the Warring States Period, famous physician Qinyue people (Bian Que) were good at "cutting pulse, looking at color, listening, writing, where illness lies".
According to the theory of Yin-Yang, Five Elements and Zang-xiang meridians, the Yellow Emperor's Internal Classic gives a detailed description of many diagnostic methods, and expounds the principles of their comprehensive application, thus laying the foundation of "four diagnostic methods".
Wang Shuhe of the Western Jin Dynasty compiled "Meridian", connecting the past with the future, established the method of pulse diagnosis in traditional Chinese medicine.
In clinical practice, physicians in past dynasties have continuously inherited and improved the diagnostic methods of traditional Chinese medicine, and formed a large number of classical books on diagnostic methods, such as the Song Dynasty's "Three Causes and One Disease and Syndrome" theory, Ming Dynasty's "Golden Mirror Record of Ao's Typhoid Fever" and Qing Dynasty's "Observation and Compliance with Classics" and so on. There are nearly 100 kinds of accumulated diagnostic
Evolution of Development
- Advances in Ancient Research
As early as in Zhou Li Tianguan, the theory and method of TCM diagnosis of diseases have been recorded: "Bian Que, a famous doctor in the 5th century A.D., can cut pulse, look at color, listen to voice and write form by means of five tones and five colors", while Bian Que, the second "where the disease lies", is "the person who speaks the pulse today, Bian Que", which is a magpie's expression. Know the pulse.
Chunyuiyi in the Western Han Dynasty, also known as "Canggong", founded the "medical records", that is, medical records. The contents of "medical records" are recorded in the biography of Bian Quecang, a collection of 25 medical records.
Zhang Zhongjing, a great doctor in the Eastern Han Dynasty, established the theory of syndrome differentiation and treatment. In his book On Febrile Diseases and Miscellaneous Diseases, he distinguished typhoid fever by six meridians and miscellaneous diseases by viscera. He was the founder of syndrome differentiation and treatment, and was honored as "the sage of medicine" by later generations. He also created three diagnostic methods of "Yingcunkou Fuyang".
Wang Shuhe of the Western Jin Dynasty wrote The Meridian, which is the earliest existing monograph on pulse studies in China. The Meridian divides the pulse into three parts and nine symptoms. The Book of Difficulties emphasizes that Cunkou is unique, and Cunkou is divided into three parts and nine parts. There are 24 kinds of pulse images in it. The book has been translated into many languages by later generations and spread to Korea, Japan, Europe and other places.
Chao Yuanfang and others in Sui Dynasty compiled the first monograph on the origin and symptoms of various diseases. The book is divided into 67 categories, listing 1739 symptoms of various diseases, with medical diseases as the main ones. Other diseases are also recorded in detail. For example, 27 cases of Jinchuang disease in surgery alone, 38 cases of ophthalmology, 140 cases of gynecology. There are many kinds, abundant contents and definite diagnostic indicators. At the same time, there are many incisive discussions on the diagnosis of some infectious diseases, parasitic diseases, gynecological diseases, pediatric diseases, etc.
In the Song, Jin and Yuan Dynasties, outstanding works on diagnosis, such as Chen Wucho's "Three Causes and One Disease and Syndrome" in the Song Dynasty, are relatively complete works on the theory and method of etiological differentiation of symptoms and signs. The Guidelines for Disease Detection issued by Southern Song Dynasty is a monograph of diagnostic methods, and draws 33 pulse figures, which are quite distinctive in illustrating pulse images. In the Southern Song Dynasty, Cui Zixu's "Cui's Pulse Tips" classified 24 veins based on the late number of ups and downs, which had great influence on later generations. In the Yuan Dynasty, there were Ao Shi, who wrote Dian Dian Jin and Jin Jinglu, on the diagnosis of typhoid fever tongue, divided into 12 pictures, which was the first monograph on tongue. Later, it was added to 36 pictures by Du Qingbi, that is, Ao Shi's Jin Jinglu of typhoid fever.
During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the development of pulse and tongue diagnosis was particularly prominent. At the same time, the principle of diagnosis and the method of differentiation of symptoms and signs were further elucidated. The Jingyue Quanshu written by Zhang Jiebin in the Ming Dynasty is very rich in content, and its exposition is very incisive. Especially, the theories of "pulse and god", "ten questioning songs" and "two outlines and six changes" have great influence on later generations. Li Shizhen is not only a member of pharmacology, but also in the book "Compendium of Materia Medica," which is written in the book "near Lake pulse science", takes the essence of all kinds of pulse science, and describes the identification of veins, main diseases and similar veins of 27 veins. In addition, Li Zhongzi's "Doctor's Eye", Zhou Xueting's "Three Fingers Chan", Xu Lingtai's "Yuxi Pulse Study", Zhou Xuehai's "Re-subscribing Doctor's Tips" are also works on pulse diagnosis, which enrich and improve pulse studies. The study of tongue diagnosis has made outstanding achievements in the Qing Dynasty. In the works of tongue diagnosis, many tongue maps are attached, which are the common characteristics of tongue diagnosis. As Zhang Deng's edition of Tongue Syndrome of Typhoid Fever contains 120 pictures, Liang Yuyu's edition of Tongue Syndrome Differentiation contains 149 pictures.
In Qing Dynasty, Ye Tianshi founded Weiqi Yingxue Syndrome Differentiation, Wu Jutong founded Sanjiao Syndrome Differentiation, which played a great role in promoting the development of traditional Chinese medicine. Chen Zelin's Tongue Diagnosis Research, Cao Bingzhang's Guide to Color Picture Tongue Differentiation, Zhao Jinduo's Differential Diagnosis of TCM Syndromes, Zhu Wenfeng's Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis of TCM and Differential Diagnosis and Treatment of Common Symptoms of TCM make the content of TCM diagnostics more systematic, complete and accurate.
- Advances in modern research
Since the 1950s, Chinese medicine colleges and universities have been established throughout the country. The textbook of Diagnostics of Traditional Chinese Medicine has been compiled and published continuously, so that the diagnostic methods of Traditional Chinese Medicine have been systematically and comprehensively sorted out and gradually standardized. Especially with the wide application of acoustics, optics, electromagnetics, biology and electronic technology, many gratifying advances have been made in the objectification and standardization of TCM diagnosis.
First, Modern Research on Tongue Diagnosis
With the development of science and technology, the study of tongue diagnosis has entered into the level of cells and subcells from clinical naked eye observation, and has been carried out by using many modern scientific experimental means such as hemorheology, hemodynamics, microcirculation, histology, histochemistry, biochemistry, immunology, trace element analysis and so on. To make progress in objectification and standardization of tongue diagnosis in TCM.
Secondly, modern research on visitation
Visiting is one of the important contents of TCM diagnostic method. The application of modern science and technology, such as chromometer, chromatometer, information diagnostic instrument and thermal imager, has made the inspection widely studied and provided quantitative and qualitative basis for the inspection. The original Wang Dan of the Umbrella Law has emerged, such as otology, acupoint diagnosis, nail diagnosis, palm diagnosis, fingerprint diagnosis, ulnar skin diagnosis, second metacarpal bone diagnosis. Holographic methods, such as lateral diagnosis, have widened the scope of inspection.
Third, Modern Research on Odor Diagnosis
In recent years, in medical research, the frequency, amplitude and duration of voice are analyzed by using the characteristics of voice. The voice, cough, bowel sounds and breathing sounds are preliminarily observed by using spectrograph, voice analyzer, laryngograph and frequency spectrum analyzer combined with computer, which makes a gratifying step towards the standardization of auditory diagnosis. One step.
Fourth, the research progress of incision diagnosis
With the development of science and technology, people try to make use of modern technology to study the standardization, objectivity and standardization of TCM diagnostic methods. They have made some useful explorations in the field of palpation and made some achievements in the field of pulse diagnosis and abdominal diagnosis.
Summary of Diagnostic Methods
Traditional Chinese medicine diagnosis is guided by the theory of traditional Chinese medicine. It mainly uses the method of "four diagnoses" to diagnose diseases.
Visiting is a diagnostic method that doctors use vision to observe the relevant parts of the patient's body and their secretion and excretion to understand the condition of the patient. It includes looking at tongue, looking at god, looking at color, looking at five senses, looking at shape, looking at collaterals and so on. The tongue inspection is the tongue inspection, which means observing the changes of the patient's tongue texture and tongue coating to judge the condition and predict the prognosis. It is an important part of the inspection. "Five colours, the splendor of qi, red desire like white wrapped in vermilion, no desire like ocher; self-desire like goose feather, no desire like salt; green desire like the luster of the pale wall, no desire like blue; yellow desire like realgar, no desire like loess; black desire like heavy paint, no desire like the pale of the ground." (On Su Question and Pulse Essentials)
Smell diagnosis is a diagnostic method for doctors to understand the patient's condition by listening to the patient's voice and smelling his odor. Audio refers to the sound to understand the patient's language, breathing, coughing, vomiting, hiccup and other sound changes; olfactory odor is based on the olfaction of the patient's breath, body odor and excreta and other abnormal odors.
Inquiry is a systematic and targeted inquiry by doctors to patients or accompaniers, and it is a diagnostic method to fully understand the condition of the disease.
Cutting diagnosis is a diagnostic method that doctors use the touch of hands to touch, press and experience the patient's Cunkou pulse and specific parts of the body surface, so as to understand the condition of the patient. It mainly includes two parts: cutting Cunkou pulse and according to diagnosis. Cunkou is the intersection of the viscera, Qi and blood. The method of taking Cunkou alone has been formed in the Eighty-one Difficult Classics written in the Han Dynasty. "Cut the pulse quietly and see wisely, observe five colors, see more than five viscera deficiencies, six organs strong and weak, the rise and fall of the shape,'With this participation, life and death will be divided.
The principle of TCM diagnosis refers to the way of thinking in which TCM carries out the method of diagnosis. Familiarity with and mastery of the principles of TCM diagnosis, that is, the way of thinking, has a guiding role in the correct use of TCM diagnosis methods.
Traditional Chinese medicine holds that the human body is an organic whole, and there are interactions and causal relationships between things. Local pathological changes are the local manifestation of the whole pathological reaction. Therefore, the pathological changes of the whole body can be reflected locally and locally in the whole body. Any visceral pathological changes will inevitably manifest themselves on the body surface through various signs. By examining the symptoms and signs manifested on the body surface, the intrinsic nature of the disease can be detected, which is the basic principle of TCM diagnosis. Yes.
The basic principles of TCM diagnosis are as follows.
(1) External speculation
"External surmise" is the first diagnostic principle in the Internal Classic. The Internal Classic holds that the human body is a corresponding unity inside and outside. Although the five Zang-organs and six zang-fu organs are invisible in the human body, all their physiological activities and pathological changes, "if the drum responds to the oblique, the sound responds to the sound, and the shadow resembles the form", must have their corresponding phenomena reflected on the surface of the body. Therefore, we recognize the dialectical relationship between the phenomena and the essence, and make it possible to "observe, experience and see and get it". The clinical diagnosis of visceral diseases will be as clear and clear as "if the clear water mirror does not lose its shape" (ibid.). This is the diagnostic principle of "extracurricular conjecture, extracurricular conjecture" mentioned in the Internal Classic.
(2) Seeing and knowing
"Seeing through the subtle changes of patients" is another basic principle of TCM diagnosis, which means that doctors can measure the overall situation. Local changes of the body contain the whole physiological and pathological information. This principle is embodied in many aspects of TCM diagnostic methods, such as the five-color Mingtang diagnostic method in "Lingshu-Wuse". The original article discusses the pathological changes of five zang-organs, six viscera, body and limbs in the reaction area of the face. Then it can be distinguished according to the color of the face, such as floating, cloudy, lustrous sky, scattering and upper and lower conditions. The nature, location, interval and duration of the disease, inferring the development, outcome and prognosis of the disease, and then adjusting the disease according to the change of the color of the face, are the specific description of detecting systemic lesions by observing the color of the face, as well as the application example of the principle of "seeing the slightest and knowing the slightest". Moreover, the method of taking Cunkou by oneself is to diagnose two Cunkou veins and wait for the disease of five Zang-organs and six organs in the whole body, while the method of examining three parts and nine symptoms of Cunkou in detail is still used to infer the disease of the whole body. In addition, the different parts of the auricle can reflect the pathological changes of all parts of the body; the tongue is closely related to the viscera, so the changes of the tongue can reflect the ups and downs of the viscera, Qi and blood and the deficiency of cold and heat of the disease syndrome; the five viscera and six viscera are all noticed in the eyes, so the diagnosis can understand the ups and downs of the human body's spirit, and thus observe the changes of the viscera and organs of the whole body, and so on. A large number of practices have proved that some local changes can indeed be used as a basis for the diagnosis of systemic diseases.
(3) Changing with constant balance
"Chang Chang Da Chang, Chang Heng Chang" is a basic principle of TCM diagnosis and treatment since ancient times. This principle emphasizes that doctors must grasp the normal physiological characteristics before they can discover those abnormal changes which are too different from normal phenomena, so as to understand the essence and changing rules of things. In TCM diagnostic methods, there are many ways to look, hear, ask and cut. This is the application of the so-called diagnostic principles of "knowing one another by oneself" and "understanding one's past and failing by reason".
TCM diagnosis and treatment is a unique subject, its characteristics can be summarized as follows.
(1) Overall disease detection
"Overall disease inspection" is to regard disease as the manifestation of patients'overall maladjustment. It is necessary to examine the external manifestations of the body in detail to examine the internal abnormal changes of the body. At the same time, patients should be closely combined with the external natural environment to conduct a comprehensive diagnosis and understand the condition of the disease in an all-round way. The human body is an organic whole. There is a close relationship between the internal viscera and the external organs. When the viscera, Qi, blood, Yin and Yang are coordinated and balanced, and can adapt to the changes of social and natural environment, it is the manifestation of physical and mental health. If the internal and external environment can not maintain harmony within a certain range, diseases can occur. Therefore, once the human body suffers from diseases, local diseases can affect the whole body, viscera diseases can cause Qi and blood, body fluid, Yin and Yang, Ying and Wei disorders and mental and emotional activities obstacles, any local diseases, will more or less affect the overall and holistic changes.
The occurrence of disease is the result of the whole maladjustment of the organism itself. The human body centers on the five zang organs and organs, such as six Fu organs, body, organs and limbs, are organically linked through the channels and channels system, and through the function of qi, blood and body fluid to complete the unified activities of the body. Although each zang-fu organ has its own different physiological functions, they are closely related to each other, cooperate with each other, restrict each other, and jointly maintain the overall "picture" of coordinated balance in the physiological state of the body. Therefore, once the human body suffers from diseases, it is a reflection of the overall imbalance. Local pathological changes are often related to the ups and downs of viscera, meridians, qi, blood, Yin and yang. Local pathological changes can also have a corresponding impact on the whole body. For example, red eyes are mostly caused by liver-fire inflammation, while skin sores and ulcers can also cause systemic heat. Therefore, according to the external changes of body color, pulse and so on, we can judge the visceral lesions, and the pathological changes in each part are the result of the overall maladjustment. Diagnostics of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a comprehensive understanding of diseases from the whole of human beings and the relationship between human beings and the external environment (social, natural), and grasping the essence of diseases from the overall and macro perspective.
(2) All kinds of consultation and consultation
"All kinds of consultation and consultation" refers to the integration of various methods in the diagnosis of diseases, comprehensively and objectively understanding the condition of the disease, and conducting a comprehensive investigation of all the collected data of the disease.
Although there are many kinds of TCM diagnostic methods, they are not isolated, but interrelated and complementary. In clinic, we should pay attention to the comprehensive application and cross-reference in order to obtain comprehensive information and make correct judgment on the condition of the disease. The most basic principle of the combination of all kinds of methods is the cooperation and application of the four diagnostic methods, namely, sight, smell, question and cut. Only by consulting all kinds of clinics and obtaining comprehensive medical history data can we get rid of roughness and refinement, remove false and retain true, and make a correct judgment of the disease. Therefore, various examinations are conducted from different perspectives, and the data collected have different meanings. On the basis of consulting all kinds of diagnostic methods, attention should also be paid to consulting other diagnostic methods. Ancient physicians often integrated the contents of time, luck and physique into various diagnoses, indicating that symptoms and signs of any disease can not be treated in isolation. They should be related to climate, local soil and water, living habits, temperament, likes and dislikes, age, physical strength, gender, men and women, etc. Content, conduct a comprehensive investigation.
In fact, it is often difficult to completely separate the various diagnoses in clinical diagnosis. For example, the examination of excreta should not only depend on its color, quality and quantity, but also smell its odor. At the same time, it should ask how it feels when it is discharged. For example, in the process of abdominal diagnosis, we should look at the shape of the abdomen, the color of the abdominal wall, tap the abdomen and listen to its voice, and know its cold and hot, soft and hard, and the reaction to pressing by cutting and pressing. All of these indicate that clinical diagnosis must be combined with all kinds of consultation and comprehensive inspection.
(3) Seeking the Origin of Syndrome Differentiation
"Seeking the root of syndrome differentiation" means that in the diagnosis and analysis of diseases and syndromes, the origin of diseases and syndromes must be sought to provide the basis for further treatment and medication. The occurrence and development of any disease is the result of the imbalance of zang-fu organs, meridians, qi, blood, body fluid and Ying-wei yin-yang under the action of various pathogenic factors, and then manifested through various symptoms and signs. However, these symptoms and signs are all external appearances in the course of disease. Although they can reflect the essence, they are not equal to the essence. Moreover, there is still a considerable gap between some appearances and the intrinsic essence. This requires doctors to skillfully use the theory of traditional Chinese medicine to analyze the data, symptoms and signs collected by various clinics and to identify their origins. Only by ascertaining the location of the disease, identifying its condition, judging its relationship between evil and positive and the development trend of the disease, and seeking its essence, can we guide the treatment. For example, insomnia symptoms include insomnia due to heart-kidney failure, insomnia due to deficiency of both heart and spleen, insomnia due to food stagnation, insomnia due to gallbladder depression and phlegm disturbance, insomnia due to deficiency of heart and blood, insomnia due to deficiency of heart-Yin deficiency and other different syndromes. Only by combining various diagnostic data, comprehensive analysis and differentiation of symptoms and signs, can we find out the essence of insomnia. It can achieve better therapeutic effect.
(4) Combination of Differentiation of Diseases and Differentiation of Syndromes
In traditional Chinese medicine, "disease" and "syndrome" are two closely related concepts. Differentiation of symptoms and signs is based on the diagnosis method, using the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, through logical thinking, comprehensive analysis of the clinical data, in order to reveal the diagnosis method and cognitive process of the essential changes of the disease at the present stage.
Differentiation of symptoms and signs is a specific means for doctors to identify symptoms, explore the cause of disease, distinguish the location of disease, distinguish the nature of disease, and examine the pathogenesis and the trend of disease. TCM syndrome differentiation is an important form of clinical thinking. Correct use of various dialectical thinking methods, not only good at comprehensive investigation of patients in all aspects, but also pay attention to the analysis of patients'specific reactions to various pathogenic factors, emphasizing the results of the struggle between evil and positive in the stage of disease. It has the characteristics of comprehensive judgment and concrete analysis, paying attention to the unity of the whole and flexible response. When differentiating symptoms and signs, we should deal with the clinical data correctly. Differentiation of symptoms and signs can be based on the comprehensive, detailed and complex clinical data, the changes of disease at the present stage, judge the cause and effect, distinguish the priority and priority, distinguish the primary and secondary contradictions, seize the main symptoms, and reveal the pathological nature of a specific stage accordingly. For example, insomnia is a symptom of heart-Yin deficiency if it is accompanied by palpitation, upset, five upset fever, night sweat, red tongue, little moss, and fine pulse; if it is accompanied by palpitation, pale complexion, pale lip and tongue nail, weak pulse, it is accompanied by heart-blood deficiency; if it is accompanied by palpitation, pale complexion, poor abdominal distention, and fatigue. When force and other symptoms are common, they are deficiency of both heart and spleen; if they are combined with palpitation, dizziness, yellowish tongue coating, and pulse immersion, they are gallbladder depression and phlegm disturbance syndrome. Differentiation of symptoms and signs is based on the most prominent main symptoms, and then the other symptoms associated with the main symptoms are analyzed to identify whether they constitute specific symptoms. Therefore, differentiation of symptoms and signs has the characteristics of syndrome differentiation, prominent connection and seeking essence from phenomena.
The concepts of "disease" and "syndrome" are different. Disease is caused by pathogenic factors, the balance of the body is destroyed, and a pathological process with certain development rules appears. Diseases often show a number of specific symptoms and corresponding symptoms at various stages. For example, typhoid fever can be divided into sun syndrome, Yang-Ming syndrome, Shaoyang syndrome, Taiyin syndrome, Shaoyin syndrome and Jueyin syndrome, while febrile disease can be divided into Wei-Fen syndrome, Qi-Fen syndrome, Ying-Fen syndrome and blood-Fen syndrome. I Syndrome differentiation and disease differentiation are very important. Differentiation of diseases is conducive to grasping the essence of diseases from the whole process of diseases, while differentiation of symptoms and signs is conducive to grasping the disease location, pathology and the ups and downs of pathogenic factors in specific stages of diseases at any time. In clinical practice, we can differentiate diseases first and then differentiate them, or we can differentiate diseases first and then differentiate them. This is because by identifying the name of the disease, we can prompt common syndromes according to the general law of the disease, and make differentiation on the basis of disease differentiation. When the essence of disease is not fully reflected, syndrome differentiation is not only conducive to the current treatment, but also conducive to revealing the essence of disease through the understanding of syndrome, so as to determine its name. The combination of disease differentiation and syndrome differentiation not only pays attention to the general contradiction of disease, but also grasps the special contradiction of specific stage of disease. Therefore, the combination of syndrome differentiation and disease differentiation is another remarkable feature of TCM diagnosis.
Inheritance and Protection
TCM diagnostic method is a unique diagnostic method of disease in TCM. With the development of medical science and the extensive exchange of Chinese and foreign cultures, its potential connotation of science, technology and humanities plays an increasingly important role.
Deng Tietao, male, was born in October 1916. In June 2007, Deng Tietao was selected as the representative successor of the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage projects and declared by the Chinese Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Project Name: Diagnosis of Traditional Chinese Medicine.
Zhou Zhongying, male, was born in August 1928. In June 2007, Zhou Zhongying was selected as the representative successor of the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage projects and declared by the Chinese Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Project Name: Diagnosis of Traditional Chinese Medicine.
Ge Fenglin, male, was born on June 24, 1955. In December 2012, Ge Fenglin was selected as the representative successor of the fourth batch of state-level intangible cultural heritage projects and declared in Haidian District, Beijing. Project Name: Diagnosis of Traditional Chinese Medicine (Ge's kneading and beating therapy).
Wang Xingzhi, male, was born in June 1953. In December 2012, Wang Xingzhi was selected as the representative successor of the fourth batch of state-level intangible cultural heritage projects and declared in Xicheng District of Beijing. Project Name: Traditional Chinese Medicine Diagnosis (Wang's Vertebral Therapy).
Wang Peizhang, male, was born in November 1932. In December 2012, Wang Peizhang was selected as the representative successor of the fourth batch of national intangible cultural heritage projects, and declared in Pingyao County, Jinzhong City, Shanxi Province. Project Name: Traditional Chinese Medicine Diagnosis (Department of Gynecology, Daohubi Wang).
Zhu Dingcheng, male, was born in February 1951. In December 2012, Zhu Dingcheng was selected as the representative successor of the fourth batch of national intangible cultural heritage projects and declared in Shanghai. Project Name: Traditional Chinese Medicine Diagnosis (Zhu's Massage Therapy).
Li Jiren, male, was born in January 1931. In December 2012, Li Jiren was selected as the representative successor of the fourth batch of national intangible cultural heritage projects and declared by Huangshan City, Anhui Province. Project Name: Traditional Chinese Medicine Diagnosis (Zhang Yitie Medical Therapy).
Zhang Shunhua, female, January 1932. In December 2012, Zhang Shunhua was selected as the representative successor of the fourth batch of national intangible cultural heritage projects and declared in Huangshan City, Anhui Province. Project Name: Traditional Chinese Medicine Diagnosis (Zhang Yitie Medical Therapy).
Wang Xingzhi, the thirteenth generation successor of Wang's spine therapy, opened Guobao Tang in Beijing to diagnose and treat patients, and to inherit and promote the traditional Chinese medicine diagnosis.
Up to 2015, dozens of Wang's gynecologic descendants from the 27th, 28th and 29th generations had attended gynecology clinics in Pingyao, Yuci, Jiexiu, Jiaocheng, Taigu, Taiyuan, Nanning, Tianjin, Shanghai and Beijing.
On June 9, 2007, a special exhibition on the protection of intangible cultural heritage, the opening ceremony of traditional Chinese medicine protection, was held at the Chinese Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, sponsored by the Ministry of Culture of the People's Republic of China and the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine.
Ge's kneading and beating therapy
Ge's kneading and beating therapy, declare the area or unit: Haidian District, Beijing.
Ge's kneading and beating therapy is a surgical treatment for diseases, which is mainly spread in Beijing and is used to treat orthopedic diseases such as neck, lumbar vertebrae and joint pain. This method originated in the late Qing Dynasty, and has been passed down to five generations by Ge Xianbao-chuang, a Penglai native from Shandong Province who broke through Guandong to Jinzhou, Liaoning Province. In the 1950s, Ge Changhai, a third-generation heir, immigrated to Beijing, and Ge's kneading and beating skills were introduced to Beijing.
Ge's kneading and beating therapy is based on the traditional theory of Suijin in ancient China. It combines "guiding and pressing stilts" with "dotting points" in Wushu. There are two kinds of treatment methods: skin-beating and non-meat-beating, virtual-beating and meat-beating and non-skin-beating. That is, to knead and beat 72 pairs of pulse positions of human body with fingers, to promote the smooth flow of Qi and blood, to regulate viscera, to achieve the purpose of strengthening muscles and bones, criticizing Qi and blood, prevention and treatment of diseases.
Wang's vertebral therapy
Wang's vertebral therapy, declared area or unit: Xicheng District, Beijing.
Wang's spine therapy is mainly used to treat spinal and brain diseases, which is mainly spread in Beijing. Wang's vertebral therapy originated in Shunzhi period of Qing Dynasty (1644 - 1661), which was created by Wang Ruqing, a folk Chinese medicine. In the early stage, it was mainly used to treat poisonous arrow wounds of military casualties. Because of its reliable curative effect and high cure rate, it was reserved for the Royal court. At the end of the Qing Dynasty, there were scattered people, which had spread to the thirteenth generation by 2015. The treatment principle of Wang's spine therapy is acupoint selection along meridians, drug penetration and massage by massage. Acupoint bullet puncture is used to achieve the goal of "drug entering evil and leaving evil". During the treatment, bamboo cans were used as drug delivery tools. On the basis of using bamboo's functions of clearing heat and detoxifying, dispersing wind and dispelling dampness, the liquid was injected into bamboo cans under high temperature and pressure. Negative pressure is produced during cupping, and the liquid is infiltrated into the human body to achieve the purpose of treatment.
Daohubi Wang's Gynecology Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Daohubi Wang's Gynecology Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, declared area or unit: Pingyao County, Shanxi Province.
Taohubi Wang's gynecology of traditional Chinese medicine is a traditional Chinese medicine treatment method spread in Daohubi Village, Pingyao County, Shanxi Province. Now it has been passed down for 29 generations and has a history of more than 800 years. Wang's traditional Chinese medicine mainly treats women's irregular menstruation, long-term married infertility, metrorrhagia, ovarian cysts, uterine fibroids, lumbar distress, continuous bleeding and other gynecological complications. Taohubi Wang's traditional Chinese medicine pays attention to the selection of medicinal materials, processing fine, pills, powder, dan, ointment using sunshine, dew refined sugar, wine, vinegar, salt, steaming, sun, honey and other production techniques, all mastered by experience. Daohubi Wang's Chinese medicine practice has rich experience and remarkable therapeutic effect. The family has a medical work "Fu Shan Female Biography Application" spread.
Zhu's Massage Therapy
Zhu's massage therapy, declared area or unit: Shanghai.
Zhu's massage therapy is one of the schools of modern Chinese massage. It was founded by Zhu Chunting, a famous Chinese medicine family of Huangqiang in Jiading, Shanghai. Its theoretical basis is the Yellow Emperor's Internal Classic and a finger Zen massage created by Damo. There are more than ten kinds of massage techniques, such as massage, massage, pressing and moxibustion. It mainly deals with spleen and stomach diseases, polio, headache, irregular menstruation and so on. Children with dysplasia, cervical spondylosis, osteoarthritis, etc. Zhu's massage therapy is characterized by referring to needles and external treatment of internal and external diseases. Its concepts and therapies of unification of all laws, meridian diagnosis and treatment, gentleness and comfort are unique in the diagnosis and treatment of internal and external diseases.
Because "Yizhi Zen" massage needs not only talent, but also strong perseverance, it is often difficult for ordinary people to compete. Apart from Zhu Dingcheng, the representative inheritor of "Zhu's One Finger Zen Massage" and the director of Massage Department of East China Hospital affiliated to Fudan University, who continued to practice medical consultation, no one succeeded in the inheritance of his skills.
Zhang Yitie's Medical Therapy
Zhang Yitie Medical Therapy, declare the area or unit: Huangshan City, Anhui Province.
Zhang Yitie's internal medicine therapy is a traditional Chinese medicine medical treatment spread in Huangshan City, Anhui Province. He is good at the diagnosis and treatment of difficult and complicated internal medicine diseases and acute fever. Huangshan, formerly known as Xin'an, Xin'an Medicine is a regional medical school with great influence in the development history of Chinese traditional medicine, and there are many doctors handed down from generation to generation. During Jiajing period of Ming Dynasty, Zhang Shouren, a traditional Chinese medicine family of Xin'an Shi doctors in Dingtan, Shexian County, Anhui Province, was called "Zhang Yitie" because of his excellent medical skills and often cured critically ill patients with a single drug.
Zhang Yitie's medical therapy has a history of fifteen generations and more than 450 years up to 2015. Its treatment features are unique prescription, strong medication, selective medication, and heavy dosage. By the thirteenth generation, Zhang Gengui (1908-1957), not only was good at treating acute fever and other critical diseases, but also innovated and developed the compatibility and preparation of ancestral prescriptions. As of 2015, the folk in southern Anhui still circulated "Dingtan to Chetou Temple, knocking at the door at midnight and passing it on".
Ge Fenglinhu, the fourth generation inheritor of Ge's kneading and beating therapy, is the director of Orthopaedics and trauma department of Beijing Century Temple Hospital. He has been engaged in orthopaedic treatment of traditional Chinese medicine for more than 30 years. He not only serves patients in Beijing, but also inherits the treatment methods to Singapore.
Deng Tietao, the successor of the national intangible cultural heritage traditional Chinese medicine project "Diagnosis of Traditional Chinese Medicine", carried forward the Dengshi School of Internal Medicine in Lingnan, integrated the theory of five Zang organs, Qi, blood, phlegm and blood stasis and other traditional Chinese medicine academic works, and had a far-reaching impact; initiated the model of leading famous teachers and apprentices, and combined with college education to form famous doctors. Groups, beneficiaries of the people across the river basin, throughout China.
On June 6, 2014, Ge Fenglin, the successor of Ge's kneading and patting therapy in traditional Chinese medicine, was awarded the third award ceremony of "Chinese intangible cultural heritage inheritor salary award" and "Chinese intangible cultural heritage protection contribution award" sponsored by China Academy of Art and China intangible cultural heritage protection center.“ Payroll Award.
Daquan of Chinese Medical Diagnosis
Editor-in-chief of Ma Zhongxue, 780,000 words, Shandong Science and Technology Publishing House, published in July 1989.
The compilation of this book has three characteristics: firstly, it collects and carefully arranges the relevant information of TCM diagnostic methods from Qin and Han Dynasties to Qing and Jin Dynasties. Besides the contents contained in the general diagnostic methods, it also collects and compiles the diagnostic methods involved in the theories of luck, constitution, temperament, Qigong, Bagua, interesting diagnosis and special functions, and expounds the classics. Collateral diagnosis, dream interpretation diagnosis, chronology diagnosis, information diagnosis, five-tone diagnosis and so on. The diagnostic methods of various branches of traditional Chinese medicine are all in them, which fully embodies the characteristics of "Daquan". The second is to break the traditional diagnostic classification method based on four diagnostic methods, eight classifications and differentiation of symptoms and signs. Thirdly, the medical diagnostic law of Chinese minority nationalities is included in the book, which fully reflects the panorama of Chinese medical diagnostic law.
Atlas of Diagnostic Method of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Gu Yidi, Editor-in-Chief, Shanghai College of Traditional Chinese Medicine Press, published in March 1988.
This atlas is compiled according to the contents of visitation in the textbook Diagnostics of Traditional Chinese Medicine of Chinese Medical Colleges and Universities. Including more than 200 pictures of typical cases in the aspects of spirit, color, shape and form, including whole-body and local visits. Atlas is based on clinical data, which truly reflects the pathological characteristics of various diseases. In terms of content selection and arrangement, it fully embodies the traditional characteristics of TCM visitation, j-atlas is clear and vivid, and it is a valuable reference for intuitive experience and teaching.
Tongue Diagnosis of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Edited by the Teaching and Research Department of Basic Theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, about 70,000 words, People's Health Publishing House, published in January 1980.
The book is divided into five chapters, the first chapter is the development of tongue diagnosis; the second chapter is the structure of tongue and its relationship with viscera; the third chapter is the clinical significance of tongue diagnosis; the fourth chapter is the diagnosis method of tongue coating; the fifth chapter is the diagnosis of tongue quality.
Tongue Diagnosis Research
Chen Zelin, et al., about 250,000 words, Shanghai Science and Technology Publishing House, published in December 1982.
Using modern medical knowledge, the author expounds the formation mechanism of various tongue images, and analyses each pathological tongue image through many cases. The whole book is divided into four chapters. The first chapter gives an overview of the development of tongue diagnosis, its clinical significance, the diagnosis methods of tongue coating and the method of sublingual inspection. The second chapter introduces the research methods of tongue diagnosis, and summarizes the research methods and materials of tongue diagnosis at home and abroad. The third chapter is the normal tongue image, and introduces the shape and variation of the normal tongue image. The fourth chapter is pathological tongue image, which includes pale white tongue, red tongue, blue-purple tongue, white fur, yellow fur, black fur, etc. The related factors of the appearance of the tongue image are discussed. There are more than 100 illustrations and color photographs in the book.
Chinese Tongue Diagnosis Complete
Li Naimin, about 3.45 million words, Xueyuan Publishing House, published in February 1994.
This book is a historic summary of tongue diagnosis in traditional Chinese medicine and an epoch-making masterpiece.
The whole book is divided into three parts: the first, the middle and the second. The first part collects and collates more than 400 ancient medical books and more than 30 papers on tongue diagnosis published in various magazines and newspapers before the founding of New China, showing the clinical and research experience of tongue diagnosis before the Republic of China; the second part is more than 230 Monographs on tongue diagnosis or medical works containing the content of tongue diagnosis written and published by Chinese scholars from the founding of New China to 1991. The second part collects and collates nearly 900 papers published in various domestic magazines from the founding of New China to 1991. There are two chapters in the appendix. The first chapter is a monograph on tongue diagnosis abroad. The second chapter is a foreign language catalogue of articles on tongue diagnosis abroad and some contents on tongue diagnosis. At the end of the book, there are more than 300 color pictures for tongue diagnosis.
Liu Champion, about 140,000 words, Shanghai Science and Technology Publishing House, published in April 1979.
The book is divided into two parts. The first part is a general discussion of pulse diagnosis; the second part is a discussion of the respective , , , , , , [pulse mechanism], , , , , , , and so on.[ Examples are given for application, with the recipes for each pulse attached to the song.
A New Interpretation of "Linghu Venation Studies"
Wang Ruqi, et al. Annotations, about 150,000 words, Henan Science and Technology Publishing House, published in September 1988.
The book is based on 1959 People's Health Publishing House's photocopying of "Linghu Venation Study", and has made new annotations and translation of its original text and annotations. Specific contents include: explanation and textual research of difficult words and words; translation of languages: interpretation of the original text faithfully in terms of style and text; superficial interpretation: a comprehensive interpretation of each section of the original text based on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine to deepen the understanding of the original text; according to the following terms: identification of various pulse types, main diseases, generation mechanism and similar pulse The general summary and progress are summarized. The mechanism of the formation of various veins is explained from the perspective of modern physiology and pathology, and the main diseases are listed with the maps drawn.
Pulse Diagnosis of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Zhao Enjian, editor-in-chief, about 860,000 words, Tianjin Science and Technology Publishing House, published in December 1990.
The whole book is divided into four chapters, the first chapter is the introduction; the second chapter is the ancient pulse method, elaborating in detail the characteristics of pulse method of Neijing, Difficult Jing, Treatise on Febrile Diseases, Bian Que and Canggong; the third chapter is the pulse method of later generations, elaborating in great detail the pulse diagnosis method of Maijing, which has 27 single pulse and common pulse. Pulse characteristics and main disease regularity, pulse changes and the mechanism of main disease (syndrome), pulse diagram, the influence of objective factors on pulse, pulse characteristics and main diseases of special pulse such as ten weird pulse, Fuyang pulse, anti-Guan pulse, oblique flying pulse, etc. Chapter IV is the modern research of pulse diagnosis, including modern research of pulse science, anatomy and physiology. Pulse response information, objective research methods and practice of pulse. At the end of the book is an excerpt of historical information on pulse diagnosis.
Research on Pulse Diagnosis of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Editor-in-chief of Fei Zhaofu, about 700,000 words, Shanghai College of Traditional Chinese Medicine Press, published in August 1991.
The whole book is divided into two parts. The main contents of the first part are the formation and development of pulse images, the significance of pulse diagnosis, the mechanism of pulse formation, the method of pulse diagnosis, the expression of pulse images, the common pulse images, the objective detection of pulse images, the application of pulse images, biomechanics in pulse analysis, the animal experimental study of pulse images, the mechanism study of pulse images, and the clinical research of pulse images. There are 13 chapters on the application of computer in the study of pulse diagnosis. The next part includes four chapters: common pulse analyzer and pulse chart, analysis and discrimination of pulse chart, basic research of pulse chart, clinical observation of common disease pulse chart.
Interpretation of Pulse Phenomenon in Traditional Chinese Medicine
Fu Jiyuan, et al., about 270,000 words, Huaxia Publishing House, published in October 1993.
With a large number of first-hand scientific research materials, the book explains the formation mechanism and objective expression of pulse in TCM. The book is divided into fifteen chapters. The main contents include the significance and research progress of pulse diagnosis and its objectification, the method of pulse detection and the characteristics of pressure pulse diagram of various pulse images, the pulse and pulse diagram of normal people and its influencing factors, the mechanism of pulse formation, the relationship between pulse and syndrome differentiation, the discussion of pulse attribute and its methodological research, the location of pulse diagnosis, and the relationship between pulse and syndrome differentiation. Cardiovascular Physiology of Number, Shape and Potential Change and Its Conclusions and Suggestions, Pulse Diagnosis Research Prospects, etc. The reasoning is rigorous, the data is reliable and the practicability is strong. 4. Monographs on syndrome differentiation of traditional Chinese medicine
Seven Lectures on the Study of Syndrome Differentiation and Treatment
Edited in Prescriptions and Medicines, about 140,000 words, People's Health Publishing House, published in August 1979.
The first one is about the holistic view of TCM; the second one focuses on the author's understanding and understanding of Tibetan phenomena and puts forward his own opinions and discussions on some contents; the third one is "differentiation and treatment" and "syndrome differentiation and treatment"; the fourth one is about the concrete steps and methods of syndrome differentiation and treatment from the basic spirit of the nineteen pathogenesis articles of Internal Canon; The fifth part is the tentative plan of seven steps of syndrome differentiation and treatment. These seven steps are: (1) location of viscera and meridians. (2) Deficiency and excess in Yin and Yang Qi and Blood Surface, dampness, dryness and cold toxicity. (3) Combination of positioning and qualitative analysis. Five wins must be won first. (5) Each department belongs to its own genus. _Seeking the root of the disease. _Send it first. The sixth part is about the seven steps of clinical application of syndrome differentiation and treatment, and the seventh part is about the requirements of integrated Chinese and Western medicine medical records and the preliminary assumption of writing format.
Vegetable party (alias Su Chunjuan) is one of the common local traditional snacks in Guiyang. It can be seen almost everywhere in the streets of Guiyang. This dish is crisp.
Ming Tombs, World Cultural Heritage, National Key Cultural Relics Protection Units, National Key Scenic Spots, National AAAAA Tourist Scenic Spots..
The Shanghai Urban Planning Exhibition Hall was completed in early 2000 and opened to the public on February 25, 2000. As an important window for Shanghai's external publicity, Shanghai .
Beihai Seabed World is a national AAAA-level tourist attraction and national marine science education base. It is a large-scale comprehensive ocean hall which mainly displays marine organisms and inte.
Jiayin Dinosaur National Geopark, the first place where dinosaur fossils occurred in China, is named for the dragon. The fossils unearthed here have been packed into 10 dinosaur skeletons..
Xixia Guanhe Drifting Scenic Area is a national AAAA-level tourist attraction and a part of Funiushan World Geopark in Nanyang, China. Xixia County, Nanyang City.
Yuehui Garden is a large private garden located in Dongguan, Guangdong Province. It is the representative of Lingnan Garden. There are 108 garden attractions such as buildings.
Zhangyu Liquor Culture Museum is one of the few professional museums in the world wine industry. It is located at the original site of Zhangyu Company, Da Ma Lu, Zhifu District, Yantai City, Shandong .
Qinghai Yuexian is also called Yuexian, Yueyue Diao, Back Diao, Yueyue Diao, Meihu, etc. Qinghai Vietnamese String is one of the traditional folk songs in Qinghai Province. It can be called the ".
Tajik Eagle Dance, a folk traditional dance in Tashkurgan Tajik Autonomous County of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, is one of the national intangible cultural heritage..
Xilu Bangzi a Xilu Bangzi is an ancient traditional opera. Now the embryonic form of Hebei Bangzi was formed in Qingdaoguang period. Its predecessor is Shanshan-Shaanxi Bangzi, which was introduced in.
Panzhihua, a prefecture level city of Sichuan Province, is located in the southernmost end of Sichuan Province, 614 km away from Chengdu in the north, 273 km from Kunming in the South and Lijiang and Dali in the West; it is located in the central and southern section of Panxi Rift .