Jade carving is one of the oldest carving varieties in China. Jade carved into exquisite crafts, known as jade carving. Craftsmen in the production process, according to the natural color and shape of different jade, after careful design and repeated consideration, can carve jade into exquisite crafts.
There are many kinds of jade carvings, such as figures, utensils, birds and animals, flowers and other large-scale works, as well as pins, rings, seals, ornaments and other small works. Chinese jade carvings enjoy a high reputation in the world. Jade carving was selected into the second batch of national intangible cultural heritage list in 2008.
Archaeological circles have always believed that during the period of Hemudu Culture in 5000 BC, there appeared jade jades and pearls in China, which is the oldest jade culture in human history. However, nowadays, there are three pieces of chopper made of Xiuyan Laoyugou jade unearthed in Xiaogushan, 45 kilometers southeast of Anshan Haicheng, Liaoning Province, more than 12,000 years ago. This shows that the first Chinese jades came into being gradually from making to grinding to polishing, just like stone implements. The appearance of this jade implies only 1. More than ten thousand years ago, the age of common use of jade and stone appeared on the land of China. It is in this long process that people discovered the characteristics, beautiful color and tough quality of jade, which was stripped from the stone-based material by the ancestors and became a special material to make specific utensils.
Jade carving is a unique skill in China. It has a long history of development and distinct characteristics of the times. Jade carving has different shapes and characteristics in different dynasties.
During the period of simple jade carving, Yangshao culture in Dahe Village of Zhengzhou was 5000 years ago. There were two Turquoise fish-shaped ornaments unearthed from the cultural relics; there were Turquoise pendants, Turquoise cicadas and frogs unearthed from Xinyi City; and there were nitrate, turquoise, agate and other ornaments unearthed from Yinxu Ruins of Anyang City, Henan Province. A Yin-carved string bone finger ring in Zhengzhou was the oldest and the most complete. Beautiful ring. More jade carvings are jade axes, shovels and knives, mainly with production tools; simple forms of jade walls, jade jewels, jade jewels, jade beads, mainly Xiuyu.
Shang, Zhou, Spring and Autumn Period and Warring States Period of Jade Craft
Jade worship for heaven and earth, jade GUI handed down to the present, and jade ornaments for officials have appeared. Jade ornaments are often worn with them, and they are also gifts. There are many species unearthed from the Hemudu site of the late Neolithic cultures. In Shang Dynasty, Jade Bird Pei, Renshou Pei and Ren Luopei appeared. Jade Juan is an arc-shaped bow-shaped jade. During the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, the trivial shape was beautiful, such as the white Jade Dragon pattern Juan in the Spring and Autumn Period and the topaz Dragon Head Juan in the Warring States Period.
Decoration flourished in Han and Tang Dynasty
Dushan Jade in Nanyang, Henan Province, was first collected in the Western Han Dynasty. Land relics prove that Liaoning Kuiyan Jade belongs to the main decorative materials. The Hazel Jade Clothes of the Western Han Dynasty are made of 2,000 pieces of Xiuyan Jade, and the "Han Jade Horse" unearthed in Xianyang of the Han Dynasty is also a treasure. The Han Dynasty Yulong ring unearthed in Wuchang City, Anhui Province, is connected and curled like a ring. Its diameter * thickness = 5 *0.5cm, and the jade walls of different sizes are larger, including the blue jade wall, whose diameter * thickness = 23 *0.5cm, exquisite sculptor; its tooth wall is milky white, and its diameter * thickness = 9 *0.5cm, delicate and lovely. Buddhism prevailed in the Tang Dynasty. Jade was mostly used to decorate Buddha statues. Among the "Qionglin of Juvenile Education" in the Tang Dynasty, agate plates were more famous. In 1970, more than 1,000 precious cultural relics of the Tang Dynasty were unearthed in Hejiacun, Shaanxi Province. Among them, the Daubao Cup in the veterinary farm is a precious treasure (now stored in Shaanxi History Museum). It is sauce-red, 6.5 cm high and 15.6 cm long. Its unique shape makes people at home and abroad fascinated.
The Leap Development Period of Song and Yuan Dynasty
Jade carving technology has reached a qualitative leap. There is a "Jade Court" in the palace, which has been deeply polished and relieved. Kublai Khan, the founder of the Yuan Dynasty, used the "Dushan Dayuhai" as a giant jade sculpture for banqueting ministers to serve wine at the Grand National Ceremony. It is carved from the whole piece of Dayu in Hetian, Xinjiang, after five years. It weighs 1750 kg and can store more than 30 burdens of wine. In addition to large-scale jade carvings, there are many small and medium-sized jade carvings, such as the Qingshi Jade Tiger, Deer and Eagle Pei of the Yuan Dynasty. Shoushan Stone in Fujian Province was used as carving stone 1500 years ago. During the Southern Song Dynasty, it had been exploited on a large scale and its value doubled in the Yuan Dynasty. It was the main material of jade carving.
The Ming and Qing Dynasties in their heyday
According to Yingxing's Tiangong Kaiwu in the late Ming and Song Dynasties, there are good jade collections in the capital city, while skillful craftsmanship in Suzhou. Luzigang, the most famous jade carving artist in Suzhou in the Ming Dynasty, developed the "knife carving method" and "serial meeting" production technology, created various jade carving craft products with Yin and Yang relief in one, which was appreciated by the court. So far, the imitation has been continuously, and it is the treasure that collectors dream of. Jade carving technology in Qing Dynasty has reached its peak. The palace has a jade building office, which supervises jade materials. There are many royal jades in the palace. The most representative masterpiece of "Dayu Zhishuitu Yushanzi" is one of the largest jade articles in the world. It is the king of ancient jade carvings in China. It is 2.24 meters high, about a centimeter long and weighs 8 tons. There are numerous small pieces of jade, such as Qing Jade Peng Sheng Guizi Pei in Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty gemstone-inlaid diamond pipes, which are widely spread among the people.
Modern Jade Carving
Modern jade carvings are a masterpiece of history and culture. There are also various kinds of outstanding jade carvings in Beijing's "Treasure House". Among them, there are many kinds of jade carvings by Pan Bingheng (1912-1970), a famous master of jade carvings, with exquisite workmanship. They are known as "Oriental gems". Pan Lao's works include "Coral Daiyu Parrot", "Beautiful agate inlaid with treasure clam Buddha", "Coral six-arm Buddha lock dragon". Pan Lao's works are not only listed as national treasures, but also treasured by the Louvre in Paris, the Philadelphia Museum in the United States, and the Nagoya Museum in Japan, which have attracted worldwide attention. The jade carving of Wang Shusen (1919-1989), the "strange hero" of jade carving, has three unique features: first, it is absolutely a fine work of art, which combines material, technology and art; second, it is a good use of beautiful colors; and third, it has a wide range of ideas. His famous work is "Coral Guanyin Pudu". Although there were many people in modern Chinese jade carving, there were few high-quality artists. In the future, in addition to inheriting traditional crafts and using the past for the present, we should learn from the advanced western things. It is imperative for the jade carving industry to combine China with foreign countries.
Jade carving is a unique skill in China. It has a long history of development and distinct characteristics of the times. Jade carving has different shapes and characteristics in different dynasties.
"Three-dimensional carving" is a multi-dimensional space expression method based on round carving, while in art form, it wins by hollow carving.
Jade Carving of the Times
Ma Shou is Zhang-Zhengqi Song
At the end of 2015, the world ushered in the 70th anniversary of the founding of the United Nations, the 70th anniversary of the victory of the world's anti-fascist war and the 70th anniversary of the victory of the Chinese people's War of Resistance Against Japan. Never forget the national shame as the revitalization of China. The Party Central Committee, headed by President Xi Jinping, is joining hands with all peace-loving countries and people to jointly safeguard human justice and conscience Constructing a new type of international relations with win-win cooperation as the core and foresight is writing a new chapter in the history of the new era.
Moyu sculptures in the symbolic era are the crystallization of ideas, feelings and aesthetic concepts as well as the vivid record of social development. Jiang Zaishun's work Ma Shou Shi Zhang is based on the ruins of the Roman archway in Yuanmingyuan, one of the twelve bronze animal heads of the zodiac signs in Yuanmingyuan, and the second emperor of Qing Dynasty, which was burned down by the British and French allied forces in 1860. One of the fifteen treasures, the Jade Seal of Emperor's Family Treasure, is the historical origin and the form of the inscription to express the word "harmony", which is based on the Chinese dream of many famous Chinese people in Xiangyun. It stands in the east of the world with the big concept of seal. Ma Shou Shi Zhang interprets the theme "Memory and Dream" of the Sixth Beijing International Biennial of Fine Arts in 2015 with its brand-new artistic form and spiritual features, leaving a historical mark for the eulogizing era.
China's contemporary jade carving technology can be divided into two major schools: the north and the south, represented by Beijing, covering Liaoning, Tianjin, Hebei, some Henan, Xinjiang and other northern provinces and cities, while the south, including the Yangtze River coast and southern areas, can be divided into several branches, including "Shanghai workers" represented by Shanghai and "Su workers". "Suzhou workers" represented by the state, and "Yangzhou workers" represented by Yangzhou, in addition to "Guangdong workers" and "Fujian workers". Jade carvings in Shanghai are mainly made of white jade, but also a small amount of jadeite.
Beijing Jade Carving
Beijing Jade Carving has a long history of skills, deep and exquisite, in the production of materials, according to their aptitude, especially beautiful. When we recognize Beijing jade carvings, we usually start with the texture, color, Carver and texture of the jade carvings. First, the quality of Beijing jade carving is hard, glittering and delicate, while the Nanpai jade carving usually uses nephrite; secondly, Beijing jade carving has gorgeous color, exquisite and exquisite, and the Nanpai jade carving has soft color; thirdly, Beijing jade carving pays great attention to shape and has the style of court art, while Nanpai jade carving generally has a more casual shape and style. It's rough. In short, Beijing jade carvings are not only beautiful in color and shape, but also can be preserved for thousands of years, so they are deeply loved by collectors. Chinese people have always regarded jade as a symbol of status. In ancient times, wealthy people often wore jade with them. As a result, a large number of jade artists gathered around Chongwenmen Flower Market in Beijing, and Beijing became China's jade center.
Jade industry is a relatively high-ranking industry in old Beijing. Its celebrities are highly respected, artists are well paid, and respected as "sir". Jade wares from the beginning and present inherit the old tradition in their creation style. Beijing Jade Ware Factory once carved a pair of matchbox-sized "dragon and Phoenix show auspicious" wear, which is so small in size, or delicately carved into embossed patterns of dragon, phoenix, butterfly, double happiness, etc. and felt extraordinarily far-reaching in square inches. Another masterpiece is "stealing immortal grass": the white lady dressed in red and wrapped in plain clothes holds a black Ganoderma lucidum in her pursuit. It is amazing that the colours in the jade carvings are all made of the original colours of the jade.
Jade Carving of Shanghai Style
Jade sculpture of Shanghai School is one of the four major schools of Chinese jade sculpture. It was formed at the end of the nineteenth century and at the beginning of the twentieth century. It has a strong influence in the current art of jade sculpture. A group of excellent jade sculptors of Shanghai style stand out and create many fine works of art with great collection value, which inject fresh blood into the art of jade sculpture.
Shanghai style jade carving is a school of jade carving art style centered on Shanghai. The real contribution of Shanghai style jade carving lies in "Haina" and "exquisite works". Its "Hainer" embraces all kinds of phenomena - painting, sculpture, calligraphy, stone carving, Folk Shadow Play and paper-cut, Contemporary Abstract art, as long as it is beautiful, as long as it is good, but not far from the origin, it is precious that "Hainer" is still "slim" after digestion.
The "exquisite works" of Shanghai style jade carvings are more amazing, and the application, fantasy, ingenuity and refinement of materials have unique ingenuity; the inheritance, transformation, innovation and selection of themes are very rich; the understanding, development, application and change of crafts are more spiritual; the discovery, grafting, continuation and breakthrough of ideas are worthy of the times...
The artists of Shanghai style jade carvings created and developed the style of Shanghai style, which has naturally become a new hotspot of collection and investment.
Since its formation, the jade carving of Shanghai School has undergone a relatively long process of formation.
1. At the beginning of the 19th century, Shanghai became an important port for China's and even world trade, so that jade products from Suzhou, Yangzhou and its surrounding areas were exported through Shanghai Port, which provided a broad space for the development of the jade carving industry in Shanghai. Sculpture artists from Suzhou and Yangzhou flocked in large numbers and found an ideal place to display their talents in this Oriental metropolis. At that time, like Wang Jinxun, Wanyuan Zhai, Fu Changhua, Youhongxiang, Yang Hengyu, Hu Hongsheng and Gu Xianchi, the famous masters of jade carving with antique style, all absorbed new cultural nutrition in the specific cultural atmosphere of Shanghai and showed their skills, thus gradually forming a new style of jade carving-the sea. School style.
At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, there were more than 200 jade workshops and shops in Shanghai. More than 200 people were engaged in the professional work of sculpture. They mainly produced decorative carvings such as Buddha statues, ladies and stove bottles. The jade carvings of "Su" and "Yang" followed the local traditional technical characteristics. At that time, in the jade carving industry of Shanghai, it was called "dress school" that was mainly produced to meet the needs of foreigners, while the production of Yangzhou gangsters was mainly made of decorative jades, mostly of "dress school"; while Suzhou artists specialized in jade jewelry and flower jewelry, mainly made of jade jewelry and playthings, which was called "dress school"; another one specially made of bronze ware was also called "dress school". Modeling and imitation of ancient jade since Qin and Han Dynasties, known as the "Antique School".
In the 1930s, Shanghai's jade carvings and ornaments have reached a high artistic level. The Jade Pearl Tower won the highest prize at Panama International Expo. The Jade Pagoda has long been collected by the San Francisco Museum of the United States.
2. Inheritance and development stage after the 1960s, the state attaches great importance to personnel training and the improvement of sculpture equipment, the Shanghai style sculpture industry has developed rapidly. At the end of the 1980s, there were more than 2,000 jade carving practitioners in Shanghai, with more than 200 kinds of works. As five types of carving in Shanghai style, pots, vessels, figures, Buddhas, flowers and birds, animals and natural bottles have begun to take shape. "Delicate carving, meticulous rules, rigorous modelling, solemn and elegant" and "exquisite stove bottles and utensils, vivid and vivid characters of birds and animals" have become the main characteristics of Shanghai style jade carving. Since the 1950s, its representative figures include Sun Natural, Sun Tianyi, Wei Zhengrong, the master of stove bottles, Zhou Shouhai, the inheritor and innovator, Liu Jisong, the monster of Nanyu, and Dong Tianji, the king of flying beasts.
Bottles and utensils are the most symbolic creation of jade carvings of Shanghai style. Shanghai style stove and bottle utensils enjoy a high reputation in the jade carving industry in China for their steady and elegant shape, simple and exquisite decoration and rich bronze taste. Sanjiao incense stove, Sixi stove, Wuting stove, Tianji bottle, Duanfu stove, Yangzun, Rhinoceros Zun, Baifo stove and so on are all well-known representative works of Shanghai style jade carving. "Mobi Jade Zhou Zhongju" and "Qingyu Animal Face Pot" have been collected by the China Arts and Crafts Museum. The Jade Baifo Furnace, designed and produced by Liu Jisong, a famous Shanghai-style sculptor and "Nanyu Yiwei", carved 100 Buddha statues with different shapes and looks on a 7.5-inch high and 8-inch diameter stove bottle, which caused a sensation at the China Shanghai Crafts Exhibition held in Yokohama, Japan, in September 1980.
Old artist Huang Derong's Coral Vase, Purple Jadeite Dragon and Phoenix Natural Vase, White Jade Carved Butterfly and Chrysanthemum Vase, White Jade Begonia Thin Tissue Vase, Ink Jade Longevity Lamp, Added Official on Agate Crown, White Jade Five Sheep, Blue Jade Unicorn, Black and White Jade Toner, Moyu Rhinoceros Zun, a large number of famous works of Shanghai School, caused a great sensation in the industry and enjoyed a good reputation at home and abroad. Designed by Wei Zhengrong, a three-year-old artist and co-sculpted by 13 sculptors, the giant dense jade "Red Flag Inserted on Mount Everest" weighs more than 2,500 kilograms and lasts three years. It was completed in 1962. The artists used the techniques of round sculpture, relief and penetration to vividly depict the heroic feats of 41 mountain climbers in China. The works were praised as national treasures by Premier Zhou Enlai. In 1979, more than 20 outstanding contemporary masters and sculptors, such as Xiao Haichun, Korean Wei, Zhu Ningfang, Xu Kangxian and Yu Longxi, designed and produced a 2.6-meter-high and 1.4-meter-wide "Thousands of Water and Thousands of Mountains Picture", which reproduced the momentum of the Red Army's Long March and became a contemporary era. Another masterpiece of the Shanghai School.
3. In the stage of innovation and prosperity in the 1990s, the new situation of reform and opening up ushered in another spring of innovation and prosperity of jade carving.
On the basis of carving style of jade carving artists in Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces, Shanghai style jade carving is a combination of art and style. It combines the style of Yang Gang, Su Gang, Nan Gang and palace jade carving. It also inherits the essence of jade carving in Ming and Qing Dynasties in China. Hands.
At present, the most distinctive and traditional types of stove bottles and utensils in Shanghai style jade carvings are also dazzling. Song Mingfang, Dai Yongcai, Qu Huizhong, Li Yuhua, Jiang Daxiong, Zhong Jianlin and Han Yongnian created the Shanghai style stove and bottle utensils. They are known at home and abroad as "seven gentlemen" with "rules, symmetry and dignity". The works of "seven gentlemen" are straightforward, rigorous and dynamic. They use materials very carefully. They are outstanding representatives of the "Kungfu School".
In the new century, the skillful craftsmen of Shanghai-style jade carvings are all like "Eight Immortals Crossing the Sea", each displaying talent and each displaying supernatural powers.
During the flourishing age, Shanghai style jade carvings were also good at using the natural shapes and different colors of all kinds of jade, adapting to material conditions, applying art according to aptitude, and having beautiful shapes. They formed a beautiful and elegant "Shanghai style" art style, which together with Beijing palace school and other major schools formed a new era style of Contemporary Chinese jades.
Jade Carving in Yangzhou
Jade is not produced locally in Yangzhou, but the convenient transportation and rich citizens of ancient Yangzhou created convenient conditions for the formation and development of jade carvings. Precious jade from all parts of the country are processed here, instantly hundreds of times the identity. The composition, color, shape and size of each piece of jade are different. Jade carving masters are good at conceiving the shape of jade articles according to their respective characteristics, and then carving them carefully. Sometimes a large work of jade carving requires a person to carve more than ten years of Yangzhou jade carving using a hard and meticulous quality of jade, hardness of 4 to 8 degrees Mohs, manual carving technology is more complex, its process characteristics are polishing, that is, "carving jade" and "grinding jade". Jade carvings in Yangzhou are made of albite, sapphire and jasper from Xinjiang, jadeite, agate and Topaz from Liaoning, crystal from Jiangsu, green seedlings and pine ears from Hubei, Southern Jades from Guangdong and Jades from Brazil, jadeite from Myanmar, blue gold from Afghanistan, jadeite from Canada and coral from Japan.
Yangzhou Jade Ware is divided into 6 categories: stove bottle, character, flower and bird, animal, antique and mountain carving, with a complete variety and a wide variety of colors. Jade carvings in Yangzhou in the past dynasties retained artistic features of different periods, such as the Western Han Dynasty "White Jade Cicada" carved with Hetian Jade, using the "eight carvings of the Han Dynasty" method, concise and straight lines, polishing extremely hard; the Qing Dynasty "Dayu Zhishui" a variety of techniques combined, belongs to rare treasures, it takes Xinjiang Qingbaiyu as material, high 224 cm, In the past six years, 150,000 workers have been employed and more than 15,000 silver has been spent.
Yangzhou Jade Carving creatively integrates Yin-line carving, deep and shallow relief carving, three-dimensional round carving, hollow carving and other techniques, forming the basic characteristics of "thick, round, elegant, smart, delicate", and is famous for its unique artistic charm. Today's Yangzhou jade carvings are novel in composition, beautiful in shape and exquisite in workmanship. Among them, the unique skills of "Shanzi carving" and "Lianzihuo" show the exquisite skills of Yangzhou jade carving artists. Today's Yangzhou jade-carving artists have inherited the traditional excellent skills of Yangzhou jade carving and are keen to innovate. In practice, they follow the rule of "taking materials according to their aptitude and applying skills according to their aptitude" and constantly improve the ability and carving skills of "Xiangyu" in line with the requirements of the times. They have created a large number of products with novel composition, beautiful shape and exquisite workmanship. Product. Their "Shanzi carving" and "Lianzihuo" skills are unique, showing the exquisite techniques of Yangzhou jade carving.
Enterprises engaged in jade production in Yangzhou generally face difficulties of high cost (the price of jade increases year by year), high cost and high taxation, and it is extremely difficult to survive. The raw materials of Yangzhou jade carving mainly come from Xinjiang.
At the same time, jade carving is a manual operation with a long production cycle. Because the study of jade carving requires a lot of energy and effort, in the process of carving, the creator should have his own creativity and thinking. Payment is not commensurate with reward. Carving radishes in restaurants is better than carving jade articles. As a result, many young people are unwilling to engage in the study of jade carving skills, and there are few successors in jade carving skills. These two reasons directly lead to a large loss of existing technicians, young people are unwilling to learn and engage in this craft, Yangzhou jade carving technology has few successors, and it is urgent to protect and rescue. The state attaches great importance to the protection of intangible cultural heritage. On May 20, 2006, the intangible cultural heritage was approved by the State Council and listed in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list. On June 5, 2007, Jiang Chunyuan and Gu Yongjun of Yangzhou City, Jiangsu Province, were identified by the Ministry of Culture as the representative successors of this cultural heritage project, and were included in the list of 226 representative successors of the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage projects.
Nanyang Jade Carving
Through the excavation and collation of traditional techniques by jade carving artists and scientific and technological workers, and drawing on foreign experience, the craft of Nanyang jade carving has been constantly improved, gradually forming its own unique artistic style, which is famous for its flexibility and color. Industry insiders said that due to the rich color of Duyu, both shades and shades, a piece of stone is often miscellaneous. This requires the sculptor to consider the whole, not only have a brilliant layout, but also skillfully use a variety of colors, making the whole work interesting, so that the audience can not help but shoot the case. Wolong Out of Mountain, produced by Nanyang Jade Carving, takes advantage of the rich color and fresh element of Duyu, strict layout, ingenious use of beautiful color, fine carving and magnificent momentum. It weighs 3.8 tons, is 2.5 meters long and 1.6 meters high. It is the largest giant jade carving in China at present, and it is a rare artistic treasure.
The five-ring stove and flower fumigation made of selected Dushan jade have absorbed the characteristics of ancient bronzes and other handicraft products, created multi-layer rotary flower fumigating yellow, simple and dignified in shape, skillful in skills, and won wide acclaim at the international handicraft exhibition held in France. Nanyang people use abundant raw materials in the processing of jade carvings. In addition to Duyu, there are more than 150 kinds of jade from Liaoning Xiuyu, Myanmar Jade, Afghan Baiyu, Canadian Jade, Russian Baiyu, coral, agate, hibiscus, crystal, amethyst, Ruby and so on.
Indeed, after thousands of years of prosperity, the jade carving industry has formed a rich and profound Nanyang jade culture, nurturing generations after generations, handed down from generation to generation, emerging endlessly, skilled Nanyang jade carving artists. While inheriting the traditional crafts, the masters of jade carving in Nanyang constantly introduce, absorb and innovate the techniques of art design and sculpture. It is precisely the combination of long history, profound cultural heritage and unique beautiful jade resources that makes Nanyang Jade Carving, an artistic treasure, be passed down from generation to generation, carry forward and flourish, and the world-shaking works are constantly coming out. In order to carry forward Nanyang's long-standing jade carving culture, the annual "China Nanyang Jade Carving Festival" is grandly held in Nanyang around May Day every year.
The masters of Nanyang Jade Carving Art have designed and carved more than 40 pieces of high-quality products such as "Wolong out of mountain" and "Jiulong turning flower fumigation", "Luhe Tongchun", "Wanli Great Wall", "Jiulong dial" which are based on Zhuge Lianggong's Hermitage in Wolong Gang, Nanyang. Many of them have won national and provincial awards successively. Many products have been regarded as rare treasures. Palace Museum, Art Gallery and Collector Collection. The gift of Jiulong Dial is 199cm long, 110cm wide, 80cm high and 500kg heavy. The design style of the gift is novel and unique. It is ingeniously conceived and ingenious. The unique colors of Dushan Jade in Nanyang are ingeniously utilized. The product is made smooth in line, with its shape and spirit, and with various carving techniques such as relief, carving, hollowing and line carving. Magnificent. Nine Panlong dials around the sundial show that the Chinese children in Kyushu are closely united and live in harmony, while expressing the meaning of "Ninety-nine Unity". The whole work implies national unity, national prosperity and reunification of the motherland, and expresses the deep feelings of 90 million people in Henan Province welcoming Macao's return.
Known as the "treasure of the country" and weighing 3500 kilograms, "Dushan Dayuhai" is an artifact that Kublai Khan rewarded the three armies with wine. It is the earliest and largest giant jade carving in Chinese history, an epoch-making art treasure of China and a rare masterpiece in the history of the development of world's precious jade. However, for more than 700 years, there have been many different opinions on its jade materials, which can not be identified. On the forum, after careful observation and study by more than 20 well-known domestic experts in jade Archaeology and collection, and repeated comparison and identification with Dushan Jade Mine samples in Nanyang, Dushan Jade was identified as Dushan Jade, which was made in Yuan Dynasty and is now displayed in Tuancheng, Beihai Park, Beijing. So far, a "long-standing suspension case" has been finalized.
Jade carving is an outstanding contribution of the Chinese nation to world culture. The carrier of jade carving works - jade raw materials must meet the three elements of "beauty, scarcity and stability". They are not only beautiful stones, but also rare and physically stable conditions. At present, there are dozens of jadeite materials commonly used in the jade carving market. The common ones are jadeite represented by Burmese jadeite, nephrite represented by Xinjiang Baiyu and Jadeite, agate, malachite, lapis, Dushan Jade, Miyu, Dongling Jade, Furong Jade, Tiger Jade, Amethyst, White Crystal, Topaz, Peach Blossom Jade, etc. Xiuyu, Orchid Jade, Aoyu Jade, and other biological jade such as coral, Opal and so on.
Jade carving works of art are the works of art that are finished by hand on natural jade materials by jade carvers using ingenious ideas and skillful sculpture skills. Some of these works have good ornamental attributes, some have good use attributes, or both.
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