"Yigou" is a traditional drama in Gaotang area of Shandong Province and one of the national intangible cultural heritages.
"Yigou" is a local opera derived from the drum Yangko in Gaotang area. Because of the fact that at the end of each upper and lower sentence, the singer always shakes falsely, usually with a big jump of seven or eight degrees, so it is called "one hook". Or it is called "four strings" or "four tones" because of its main string, huqin. Linyi, Qihe, Yucheng, Xia Jin, Gao Tang and Linqing were the centers of the epidemic areas, which spread to Dezhou, Huimin, Jinan, Tai'an, Weifang and the eastern part of Henan Province and the southern part of Hebei Province.
On May 20, 2006, "Yigong Gou" was approved by the State Council of the People's Republic of China to be included in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage catalogues, numbered IV-79.
"Yigou" is one of the rare traditional operas spread among the people.
"Yiguo Gou" is widely spread in different areas, and has different names. Huimin area is called "Hexi Liu". Wucheng, Xia Jin, Gaotang, Chiping, Tangyi and Linqing are called "four-tone operas". The area of Juxian, Yuncheng and Guantao in Hebei Province is called "two strings of Northern Ci". Juye and Dongping are called "four strings" because they are mainly accompanied by "four strings". Jiyang, Qihe, Yucheng and Linyi are called Yigou. This is because there will be more and more singers and talented people coming out in the future, and there will be representatives such as "heart-digging knife", "big white peach" and "thirty-two jars of vinegar" who are very popular with the masses. So there is the reputation of * * hearing * * singing and pasting the cake on the door frame; the cake should be pasted into the pot, but when you hear the beautiful "hook" you lose your mind and stick it to the door frame. This is to say that it is like a hook, which keeps people's spirits hooked one by one, thus giving rise to the name. Southwest is introduced to Anyang, Henan Province, where the "Four Strings Opera Troupe" sounds the same tune, but there are some Henan voice and Henan Opera influence, especially Baikou.
"Young people often watch this play. I have a small class here, which is a teacher from Shandong. I haven't seen it for decades..." This was obviously in the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China. From the west to Xingtai, Handan and Shijiazhuang, the "Silk String Opera Troupe" sounds to be related to "Yigou".
This kind of play developed in folk amateur performances. Actors come from peasants and show them how they work when they are busy and perform when they are idle. They perform small plays of life, singing and music, which are easy to understand and naturally bring a kind of peasant's simplicity and pleasure.
Traces of big hands and feet. There are amateur theatre troupes in rural areas everywhere. Finally, in 1959, under the spiritual guidance of the central government's proposal to excavate the ancient local operas, the Linyi County Yigou Opera Troupe was established, which was very supportive of this new thing. The county Party committee and the county government appointed cultural cadres, and later appointed the head of the troupe. Jiao Lianqi, a "32-altar vinegar" was appointed as the head of the business troupe, and he employed liberal arts and martial arts education. Teachers, recruited a group of students from the countryside; a group of young people from Jining also joined in, since then practicing, rehearsing, performing, active in the countryside, has participated in many regional (Huimin, Dezhou) shows, there are traditional programs, transplanted programs and modern plays. Later, the film actor Cui Wenshun returned to the countryside to support the people, was hired as a makeup artist, and gradually grew up. In 1964, on behalf of the Dezhou Special Area, he went to "Shandong Local Opera Concert". After performing the self-compiled play "Red Plum" in Shandong Theatre, he traveled around Shandong South, Jiaodong, North Shandong and Cangnan for a very short time. In 1965, gross income reached the top of the district.
It is worth recalling that the company's style is very decent. Actors are young people from the countryside, they are simple and honest, demanding progress, modest learning, hard work; teachers are not famous performers, but treat people sincerely and earnestly, coaching; upper and lower unity, obedience to leadership, unity with comrades, mutual help and mutual learning, regardless of treatment, hard and simple, devoted to one group. Although there are only thirty-two people working together, sometimes secretaries, regiment leaders and other staff come to the stage alternately; big lights, big scenes, regardless of production, performance, front and back stage, busy automatically and disciplinely with a "non-stop" (it is simply "fighting"), which is hard without complaints, and the style of collective cooperation. The root of the above achievements in a short period of time. The accompaniment instruments of "Yigong" include four strings, banhu, flute, and later enriched Erhu, three strings, Sheng and so on. Plate type: head plate, second plate, third plate, mounting plate, pointed plate, guide plate, throwing plate (also known as "cut-off fence");
The Yigong Opera Troupe was cut off during the Cultural Revolution. However, the existence of this troupe and the presence of some singing performers are still unforgettable. Some of the performers died and some transferred to other departments to work. The two deceased, "32 jars of vinegar" singing, the combination of virtual and real, light and heavy comedy, such as vomiting, true and false voice appears very modest; Zhang Hongxue Banhu, colloquial sounds, intermittent movements, very dramatic features. Li Fuyuan, who still lives in Bangzi Opera Troupe, sings and writes well. His voice is broad and magnificent, and expressive; he works hard and often into the theatre, or solemn, or humorous, and never stops. Especially in modern theatre, his performance has a strong folk flavor and rich breath of life; Song Yuzhen, who has been transferred to a hardware factory, has a mellow and solid voice. When she turns from real voice to fake voice, she has three tunes (head cavity, head cavity, and fake voice). Nasal cavity, chest cavity) resonance, but also with a voice, sounds deep and meaningful. She can represent the South. De Ping Long Chuan Ying, who has been transferred to Jiyang Cultural Museum, has a special voice suitable for this opera. Although it is inconceivable to sing bangs with this voice, it is precious to sing a hook. Her voice is beautiful, sound quality is solid, real voice vacation sound is natural, euphemistic and fluent, hook call, attractive to listen to; figure activity is natural. She performed the traditional opera "Wang Xiao Catching up", singing, writing and amusing, which was full of folk characteristics and left a deep impression on the audience.
This kind of opera, at the junction of Qihe, Yucheng and Linyi counties, has not lost circulation so far. Yucheng has an amateur theatre troupe with former artists, young people and professionals who are invited to sing in their spare time.
"Yigou" is one of the rare and ancient operas spread among the people. Originated in Yucheng and Gaotang of Shandong Province, it was developed on the basis of popular flower drums, and was influenced by Bangzi Opera in the course of its development. According to the legend of the old artists, the opera began in the late Ming Dynasty, flourished in the Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China.
There are two versions of the origin of the name "Yiguo". One is that the name "Yiguo" comes from.
Since "a roar". Because there is a roar or a roar in the tune of "one hook" and a roar or roar in the singing, people call it "one hook" for a long time. Another version says that "Yigong" represents the rap style of Northwest Shandong and its surrounding areas. Its tune is simple, natural and lively, and it is a natural voice of the local working people. In the northwest of Shandong Province, there was a reputation of "hearing a hook singing, pasting the cake on the door frame", describing it as touching as a hook, keeping people hooked one by one, and "hook" came from it.
"Yiguo Gou" is widely spread in different areas, and has different names. Huimin area is called "Hexi Liu". Wucheng, Xia Jin, Gaotang, Chiping, Tangyi and Linqing are called "four-tone operas". The area of Juxian, Yuncheng and Guantao in Hebei Province is called "two strings of Northern Ci". Juye and Dongping are called "four strings" because they are mainly accompanied by "four strings". Jiyang, Qihe, Yucheng and Linyi are called Yigou. This is because there will be more and more singers and talented people coming out in the future, and there will be representatives such as "heart-digging knife", "big white peach" and "thirty-two jars of vinegar" who are very popular with the masses. Southwest is introduced to Anyang, Henan Province, where there is a "four-stringed opera troupe", which sounds basically the same melody, but there are some Henan voice and influence of Henan opera, especially Baikou. The northwest flows into the Jiaohe area of Hebei Province. In 1964, when the troupe went to perform, it was found that three elderly people came to the theatre from the countryside every day under the light rain, and asked them, "Young people often watch the theatre. I have a small class here, which is a teacher from Shandong. I haven't seen it for decades... "This was clearly in the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China. From the west to Xingtai, Handan and Shijiazhuang, the "Silk String Opera Troupe" sounds to be related to "Yigou".
After liberation, the people's government attached great importance to this art form, which was deeply loved by the people. In the early 1950s, the first opera troupe was organized, with a total of more than ten people. In 1956, Linyi Xinglong Township Four-tone Opera Troupe participated in the Second Opera Performance Conference of Shandong Province, performed "Western Qin Dynasty" and won the "Exhibition and Performance Memorial" award. In October 1959, Linyi Yigou Opera Troupe was founded. Jiao Lianqi, an old artist, was the head of the troupe and trained a group of trainees. In 1964, the troupe participated in the provincial revolutionary modern theatre performance, "Red Plum". During the Cultural Revolution, the regiment was abolished. In 1971, the Beijing Opera Troupe was merged with Hebei Bangzi Opera Troupe of Linyi County, and the "Yigou" Opera Troupe of Linyi County was ended. At the end of the 1980s, amateur troupes still performed in rural areas around Linyi, Yucheng and Qihe.
Gaotang drum Yangko is a folk singing art. Singers carry flower drums around their waists and play drums by themselves.
Singing accompaniment, later developed into stage performance, and the use of four HUS as accompaniment instruments, developed into a form of opera, known as "four strings". There are blue clothes, Huadan, Hu Sheng, Xiaosheng, Huaqiao and so on. "Yigou" opera, the form of performance is simple, the actors are mostly scattered folk artists, generally using spring and winter agricultural leisure season to organize performances. Actors work during the day, such as helping workers, weeding, singing in the evening. Rural people often call them "weeding classes", and they often organize performances in rural markets and festivals. A hook comes from a roar.
The accompaniment instruments of "Yigong" include four strings, banhu, flute, and later enriched Erhu, three strings, Sheng and so on. Plate type has: head board, second board, third board, installing board, pointed board, guide board, throwing board (also known as "cut-off fence"); goats, children and other tunes; professional, and created a fast board. Its vocal features are rich in voice and easy to understand. Male voice, rough and bold, strong and powerful; female voice, circuitous and graceful. Singing is characterized by true voice voicing, fake voice supporting and singing without voice, such as speaking like reading, acting without words, accompanying with accompaniment. That is, first put the words into people's ears, and then line a hook, accompanied by the door flowers sound good, resulting in a harmonious effect. "Yigou" has more than 70 traditional plays, including "Eastern Qin", "Western Qin", "Sitting Up and Killing Cherish", "Liang Shanbo and Zhu Yingtai", "Hu Lin's Grabbing for Kinship", "Sanjin Shi" and "Female Horse".
Compared with Putonghua, the stage language used in Yigong is the local dialect in Dezhou and Liaocheng. Besides the differences in four tones, there are also obvious differences in the pronunciation of some words. Such as "throw" to read "edge" (1eng), "in" to read "dai", "side" to read "ban", "meat" to read "basket" (lou), "people" to read "rent" (lin), "on" to read "dou" and so on. Because of the difference between the four tones and the pronunciation of some Chinese characters, Yigou has strong local characteristics. In addition, because the "one hook" used to be a way of oral transmission, so there is no early written record.
In Linyi County, there is an old artist who has been obsessed with Yigou opera, which has been approved by the State Council for 48 years as the "national intangible cultural heritage". In order to spread Yigou opera, she is the actor of the former Yigou opera troupe, Kuang Shuyun.
Kuang Shuyun, in her sixties, has the charm of an artist in her speech and manner. She told reporters about the experience of "collusion" 48 years ago: "I graduated from elementary school in 1959, when I was 13 years old, that autumn, Linyi County's newly established"collusion"drama troupe recruited students, I loved opera from childhood, secretly ran to the examination site to apply for an examination, did not think of an examination. Seeing raw rice cooked, the enlightened father said nothing.
The local opera "Yigou" originated from Qin Opera and evolved from Yangko tune. It began to be popular in Shandong and Hebei in the late Ming and early Qing Dynasties. The tune was simple, natural and lively. In the northwest of Shandong Province, there used to be a saying that "I heard a hook singing and the cake sticking on the door frame", describing it as a moving singing voice. The women who steamed the dried grain pasted the cake heard it fascinated and mistook the door frame as a pot along.
Kuang Shuyun learned to sing Xiaosheng Opera in Yigou Opera Troupe. She was diligent and eager to learn. Under the guidance of her teacher, she made rapid progress. She performed in traditional plays such as "Four Great Qin Dynasty", "Four Great Curtains", "Picking up Jade Bracelets", "Hulin Snatching for Kinship" and modern dramas such as "Yingchunhua", "Liu Hulan", "Honghu Red Guard", "Frontier Family", "President's Daughter" and "After the Harvest". Touring the countryside, the villagers from eight villages and ten miles came to watch the performance, which caused a sensation. In 1961, Yigou Opera Troupe participated in provincial opera performance and provincial tour performance, and was widely praised. Speaking of the grand performance at that time, Kuang Shuyun still could not conceal her inner excitement: "At that time, in Jinan, three performances a day were performed, the auditorium was full, the performers appeared and just opened their mouths, the audience applauded constantly, and they would not let go at the curtain call."
In 1971, Yigou Opera Troupe was merged with Hebei Bangzi Opera Troupe to form Beijing Opera Troupe. Yigou Opera Troupe was abolished and old artists left in succession. When Kuang Shuyun went to the County printing factory as a worker, his lost mood was hard to express. However, her love and attachment to "one hook" has not changed. In her spare time, she got together with the old actors in the county to sing "hook up". Kuang Shuyun said, "For more than 30 years, most of the old artists of Yigong have died. Our group of students are now about 60 years old, and few of them can perform on the stage. In addition, the opera of "Yiguo Gou" is popular among the people, and there are few written records. The singing style is mainly oral and heart-to-heart teaching. If it is not sorted out and excavated in time, it will disappear. This situation makes us very anxious! _________.
In the new century, Linyi County organized more than 10 old actors from the original "Yigou" theatre troupe, such as Kuang Shuyun, to come out again. They trained new actors and resumed their performances. In 2002, the CCTV Fan Club invited veteran actors such as Kuang Shuyun to perform "Wang Xiaojie", which was highly praised by Shang Changrong, Yang Chunxia and other famous performing artists. In April 2006, Linyi County "Yigou" local opera was approved as "National intangible cultural heritage" by the State Council. Next, Linyi County set up a research and communication center of "Yigou" and invited Kuang Shuyun to be an artistic guide. A "Yigou" fever of learning to sing rose in Linyi County.
At the end of the interview, Kuang Shuyun confidently told reporters, "I will try my best to train students in my lifetime, and carry forward the intangible cultural heritage of the country, Yigou."
Inheritance and Development
This kind of play developed in folk amateur performances. In the early 1950s, there were amateur theatre troupes in rural areas. Among them, Zhang Zhijie, Zhang Hongxue and Jiao Lianqi of Maipo Kou, Yucheng County were the most famous troupes, with more than 10 performers. In 1955, the troupe represented Linyi County and participated in the amateur opera performance in Shandong Province. The repertoire was "Eastern Qin Dynasty". The provincial radio station recorded the aria of "Three Halls" performed by Zhang Zhijie and Zhang Dejun. In 1957, in the name of Yigou Opera Troupe of Linyi County, the stage performance was revitalized in Jinan City, which attracted the attention of cultural departments and propaganda departments of Linyi County. In order to preserve and develop the local opera of Yigou, in the autumn of 1959, the Yigou Opera Troupe was taken over by the Linyi County Government. The Provincial Department of Culture put it on record. Twenty new trainees were recruited and a total of 43 original personnel were added. So far, the Yigou Opera Troupe of Linyi County was formally established. At that time, the main performances were: Western Qin Dynasty, Sitting Up and Killing Cherish, Liang Shanbo and Zhu Yingtai. The main actors are: 32 jars of vinegar singing Qingyi - Jiao Lianqi, heart-piercing knife singing Huadan - Wang Liyou, white peach singing Qingyi - Zhao Chuanxi, Husheng - Zhang Bingdao.
From 1960 to 1962, due to natural disasters, some old artists left the troupe, Linyi and Jiyang sub-counties, floating personnel, difficult performance, poor economic income, is the most difficult period for the troupe. In order to change the passive situation of the troupe, in the spring of 1962, the County Bureau of culture and education appointed Comrade Zhang Chengyue as the head of the troupe and successively appointed music professional cadres. With the strong support and assistance of the government, after a lot of ideological work and performance practice, the situation has greatly improved, the economic income is considerable, and the mood of actors is gradually rising. After half a year, new costume props and stage equipment were purchased, which laid a solid material foundation for the further development of the troupe. From 1962 to 1965, there were rehearsals of ancient costume operas Hulin robbing relatives, Wang Xiaojie, picking up jade bracelets, Sanjinshi, Female Puma, modern operas Yingchunhua, Liu Hulan, Honghu Red Guard, Frontier Family, Daughter of the President, After the Harvest, Seal-grabbing and Enemy of the Third Generation. Large and medium-sized plays have well coordinated with the central work of the Party. In 1965, the modern drama "Red Plum" written and performed by the troupe participated in the provincial capital performance and received strong support from the region. The spiritual outlook and performance lineup of the troupe were renewed. The professional quality of the performers was greatly improved. The "One Gow" troupe reached its peak. The main actors at that time were: Huadanlong Chuanying, Xiaosheng Kuang Shuyun, Huafa Yang Fuyuan, Lao Dan Wang Suzhen, Hu Sheng Zhang Duanhui, Lao Sheng Chen Shubao, Qingyi Zhu Xiufang and other artistic celebrities. There are also some innovations and improvements in music singing and accompaniment design. New innovations such as running boards, loose boards, tight and slow singing have been made to melt the singing tunes and opera cards of other operas from various aspects, which have greatly enriched and improved the expressive force of "Yiguo" opera music. The performance area in the northwest plain of Shandong Province has a great influence on urban and rural areas. The performance of Yigou Opera Troupe was welcomed by the audiences of Qilu. At that time, the rehearsal of Qilu Opera only lasted for 15 days in Weifang City, and the venue was full, which was highly praised by the audiences. For various reasons, in 1971, the Yigou Opera Troupe merged with Hebei Bangzi Opera Troupe in Linyi County, which is what the veteran artists called "Goubang Union", and established the Beijing Opera Troupe. The performers were assigned to various factories and engaged in other work. So far, the Yigou opera troupe has been dissolved.
Since the end of the Yiguo Opera Troupe in 1971, the singing of Yiguo Opera has been cold for 30 years. In the autumn of 2001, CCTV Channel 7, Culture and Life, Linyi, carried out a festival of Yigou opera and invited some actors to perform in Xinglong Town. It also recorded and recorded some actors in Dezhou, which was highly praised by performing artists. However, this action has not attracted the attention of the local authorities. Until August 2005, under the framework of carrying forward national spirit, building a harmonious society, developing national cultural resources and building Linyi, Linyi County Bureau of Culture and Sports began to declare and sort out Yigou opera as a national intangible cultural heritage.
Since the early 1970s, Linyi County Yigou Opera Troupe has been forcibly changed into Beijing Opera Troupe. Many famous actors have been displaced among the people, and Yigou Opera has begun to decline, and is now almost on the verge of extinction. Now most of the veteran artists of the Yigong Opera Company have passed away, and few of them can perform on the stage. In addition, the'Yigong'troupe is popular among the people, with few written records. The singing is mainly oral and heart-to-heart. If it is not sorted out and excavated in time, it will disappear. The state attaches great importance to the protection of intangible cultural heritage. On May 20, 2006, the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage list was approved by the State Council.
"One hook" is actually called "one roar"
When I first heard the name of "Yigong", the reporter felt very strange. How could I choose such a strange name? What does "one hook" mean?
"Yigou" is derived from the drum Yangko in Gaotang County, Liaocheng City, Liaoyi Province. It was formed in the middle of the Qing Dynasty. At that time, there were classes of old people in Linyi area, and it has been accompanied by apprenticeships to pass on art. Up to now, it has been introduced by Qin Yizhou, an expert who has been fond of "Yigou" for many years and has studied "Yigou" for many years. It has a history of more than 200 years.
The drum Yangko of Gaotang is a folk singing art. The singer carries the flower drum around his waist and sings accompaniment with his own drum. Later, it developed into a stage performance, and used the four HUS as accompaniment instrument to develop into a form of opera, known as "four strings". There are blue clothes, Huadan, Hu Sheng, Xiaosheng, Huaqiao and so on. The performers of Yigou Opera are mostly scattered folk artists. They usually organize performances in spring and winter during the leisure season. Actors usually work in the daytime and sing in the evening, so villagers often call them "weeding classes".
Talking about the origin of the name "Yigou", the curator of Qin smiled. He revealed that there are two versions of the origin of the name "Yigou". One is that the name "Yigou" comes from "Yigou". Because there is a roar or a roar in the tune of "one hook" and a roar or roar in the singing, people call it "one hook" for a long time. Another version says that "Yigong" represents the rap style of Northwest Shandong and its surrounding areas. Its tune is simple, natural and lively, and it is a natural voice of the local working people. In the northwest of Shandong Province, there was a reputation of "hearing a hook singing, pasting the cake on the door frame", describing it as touching as a hook, keeping people hooked one by one, and "hook" came from it.
It's not easy to listen to "one hook"
After listening to the introduction of director Qin, the reporter wanted to listen to "one hook". Qin curator was embarrassed to tell reporters that Linyi has no "one hook" performing group, but in the village of Wang Xiaowu in Xinglong Town and Maipo Kou in Qihe River, there are still some old people aged 60 or 70 who can sing "one ditch", which has not been heard in Linyi County for decades. At the repeated requests of the reporters, the director of Qin promised to contact Kuang Shuyun, a 61-year-old artist who still lives in the county town and was once an actor of "Yigong" and was forced to become a worker in the 1970s.
After turning around several hutongs on the side of the county road, she finally found her home at the end of the hutong. Kuang Shuyun, steaming steamed bread at home, heard that reporters came to interview "Yigong Gou", very enthusiastic, immediately put down the work at hand, and chatted with reporters: "I was 14 years old in 1959 when the county troupe to study"Yigong". Our group asked for more than a dozen students. I was a pupil at that time. Our group of people later changed their jobs. Now there are less than 20 people in Linyi who have stayed in the theatre troupe. Some of them have returned to their original places. Recalling the grand performance in the 1960s, Kuang Shuyun could not hide her inner excitement: "When our troupe went to Zibo to perform three times a day, the theatre was full of people. When the actors appeared and just opened their mouths, the audience kept applauding and refused to let go."
The reporter wanted to ask Mr. Kwong to sing two "hooks" to listen. Mr. Kwong waved his hand and said, "I haven't sung for nearly 40 years. Now I can't sing the whole opera. I can only sing a few songs." Kuang Shuyun embarrassed to introduce, "You're the first time to listen to"hook up". If you don't find an accompaniment that sounds bad, it will leave a bad impression on you, but now it's hard to find someone who can accompany you." The curator of Qin thought for a moment and said, "Let's invite Mr. Yang Zhengli of Linyi Normal University to accompany him. He will play the characteristic accompaniment instrument of"Yigou"Sihu.
"One hook" used to be very popular
While waiting for Mr. Yang Zhengli, Kuang Shuyun and Director Qin talked to reporters about the development history of Yigong. They introduced that the people's government attached great importance to this popular art form after liberation. In the early 1950s, the first "one hook" theatre troupe was organized, with a total of more than ten people. In 1955, the troupe represented Linyi County in Shandong Province's amateur opera performance, which attracted the attention of higher cultural departments. In order to preserve and develop the local opera of Yigou, the Linyi Yigou Opera Troupe was formally established in autumn 1959 with the approval of Linyi County People's Government. From 1960 to 1962, due to natural disasters, some old artists left the troupe, which was a difficult period for the troupe. Due to the leadership's attention, the troupe survived the hardship. In 1971, the Beijing Opera Troupe was merged with Hebei Bangzi Opera Troupe of Linyi County, and the "Yigou" Opera Troupe of Linyi County was ended. Kuang Shuyun introduced that there are more than 70 traditional operas in Yigou, including Eastern Qin, Western Qin, Sitting Up and Killing Cherish, Liang Shanbo and Zhu Yingtai, Hu Lin's Grabbing for Kindness, Sanjin Shi and Nu Juma. From 1962 to 1965, more than a dozen large and medium-sized dramas such as Yingchunhua, Liu Hulan, Honghu Red Guard, Frontier Family, Qiaomei, The President's Daughter, After the Harvest, Picking Seals and Three Aggressions were rehearsed one after another. In 1965, the self-compiled modern drama "Red Plum" participated in the performance in Shandong Province. During this period, the quality of the actors improved significantly. Most of the students grew up and became the main actors of the troupe. Among them, actors such as Kuang Shuyun (Xiaosheng), Long Chuanying (Huadan), Yang Fuyuan (Huafa), Zhang Duanhui (Husheng) were widely welcomed by local audiences.
In the process of spreading, "Yigong" has also produced many stars in the minds of ordinary people, such as Jiao Liankun, 32 jars of vinegar, Wang Liyou, Dabaitao, Zhao Chuanxi, and Long Chuanying, each nickname represents the singing and acting style of the actor. For example, Long Chuanying has a special voice suitable for this kind of play. Her voice is beautiful, sound quality is solid, real voice is natural, graceful and fluent, and it is appealing to listen to. Her traditional repertoire Wang Xiaojie, singing, writing and teasing, is full of folk characteristics. Her role of "Two Girls" impresses the audience deeply. The audience has forgotten the name of the actor and called her "Two Girls".
No written records were left in the early period.
Reporters saw that Mr. Yang Zhengli brought four HUS similar to Erhu, but there are four strings, bow pull to pull high and low double tones. Kuang Shuyun first sang a passage of "Wang Xiao Catching up", feeling the rhythm is more relaxed and the end turns more. And Xiaosheng's aria "Luo Cheng Jiaoguan" is much more exciting, some of which are local dialects, so that reporters feel particularly lovely.
Kuang Shuyun introduced that the stage language used in Yigou is the local dialect in Dezhou and Liaocheng. Compared with Putonghua, there are obvious differences in pronunciation of some words besides four tones. Such as "throw" to read "edge" (1eng), "in" to read "dai", "side" to read "ban", "meat" to read "basket" (lou), "people" to read "rent" (lin), "on" to read "dou" and so on. Because of the difference between the four tones and the pronunciation of some Chinese characters, Yigou has strong local characteristics. Kuang Shuyun said that "Yigou" opera was originally made up of men and women without actresses, so there was no big difference between male and female voices in singing, and the melody of singing was mostly carried out within the same octave. When singing, there are real voice and fake voice. Generally speaking, there are no words in line and no voice in pronunciation. In singing, there are many function word linings, which have strong local flavor. In addition, because "Yigong" used to be a way of oral transmission, there was no early written record left.
The state of endangerment is worrying
Kuang Shuyun introduced that in the past twenty or thirty years, "one hook" has gradually quieted down and almost disappeared. She said: "We veteran actors are very worried that most of the veteran artists of the Yiguo Opera Troupe have died. Our group of students is now 6.
Around the age of 0, there are few people who can perform on the stage. In addition, the "Yigou" troupe is popular among the people, and the written records are very few. The singing style is mainly oral and heart-to-heart teaching. If it is not sorted out and excavated in time, it will disappear. We veteran actors are eager to gather together and pass on the `hook-up', but we are not able to do it ourselves. First, we have no funds, and second, nobody comes out to organize. This situation makes us very anxious.
Reporters learned that since the early 1970s, Linyi County "Yigou" opera troupe was forcibly changed to Beijing Opera Troupe, many famous actors have been displaced among the people, "Yigou" opera began to decline, and is now almost on the verge of extinction. Although the declaration of "Yigou" succeeded in declaring the national intangible cultural heritage, its living conditions are not optimistic: no one in Linyi can sing the whole play of "Yigou". In the past, there was no professional "Yigou" troupe where "Yigou" was popular, and the performance of "Yigou" was a unique dance. Taiwan has been for decades. Only a few of the old artists who had stayed in Yigong Opera Troupe at that time either retired after changing their professions or returned to their original places. If we let it live and die, and do not take the time to formulate protective measures, it will be too late to regret.
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"Agricultural Music and Dance" is commonly known as "Agricultural Music", which is spread in the Korean community of Jilin Province, Heilongjiang Province, Liaoning Province .
Venus inkstone making technology, the local traditional handmade inkstone making technology in Xingzi County, Jiangxi Province, is one of the national intangible cultural heritage..
Shaliboer style wrestling is a national traditional sports event originally created and retained by the Weilat Mongolian people. It is one of the main sports events in the Uznada Mu Grand Event in Ala.
Chinese style clothing (dragon and Phoenix cheongsam) originated from the late Qing and Qianlong dynasties, and is the inheritor of the Shanghai style cheongsam. Hengsheng's suit, which originated in .
At the end of 2019, the total registered residence population was 3 million 422 thousand and 600, of which 1 million 194 thousand and 900 were urban population. At the end of the year, there were 2.995 million permanent residents, including 1.433 million urban.