Bangkok in Xuzhou
Xuzhou Bangzi, one of the traditional local operas in Jiangsu Province, is named for its rhythm, which is directed by a set of drums and bangzi. The masses of Xuzhou also call it "Grand Opera". It has been popular in Xuzhou area of northern Jiangsu for three or four hundred years. In the early stage, it evolved from Caozhou Bangzi (Shandong Bangzi), and later a group of famous Henan actors came to Peipei to perform or pass on their performances. Therefore, the singing style of Xuzhou Bangzi Opera is not only strong in Shandong Bangzi, but also soft in Henan Bangzi.
On June 7, 2008, Bangzi of Xuzhou was selected into the second batch of national intangible cultural heritage list with the approval of the State Council.
Plays among the people, people move away, and the voices of the Qin Dynasty are everywhere in Chu.
Shanxi Bangzi and Shaanxi Bangzi were introduced into Jiangsu through Shandong and Henan as early as the Ming Dynasty, along with a large number of immigrants and subsequent business operations, official transfer, the movement of the Rebel Army, the flow of victims and other channels.
Since the mid-Ming Dynasty, Shanxi and Shaanxi businessmen have spread all over the country because of the budding development of capitalist production relations. They went to the prefecture, prefecture, county and town to build the guild hall of Shanxi and Shaanxi, where they built stage performances. They often invited their hometown Bangzi Opera to perform far away, and used it as a means of business and trade. There are Shanshan and Shaanxi Guild Halls in Xuzhou and other counties. Owing to the frequent performances of Bangzi Opera, there is an inherent saying that "the voice of Chu is everywhere in Qin Dynasty", because Xuzhou was once the capital of the King of Chu during the Qin and Han Dynasties, and the voice of Qin was Qin Opera.
In the Annals of Xuzhou Prefecture compiled during Tongzhi Period of the Qing Dynasty, there are biographies of people: "Li Weizi and Yu, Fengxian people... In the late years of Kangxi, the number of resident officers increased. Gong was not very literate, but respected by scholars. He built Zhejiang Chronicles, academies and Xinlin Dufeng. Take your spare time to the south. Call you Hairen Ji Ma-zi and talk about the miscellaneous events of Han and Tang Dynasties..." It can be imagined that the spread of Bangzi Opera and the frequent exchanges with local opera art at that time.
In the Preliminary Collection of Chinese Opera Research Materials, Ouyang Yuqian once became angry with Emperor Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty when he visited the theatre in the south. He sent Yigao A to collect the opera articles of Jining, Pengcheng (Xuzhou) and Yangzhou opera troupes for trial in Yangzhou, and also gave a clear introduction to dispelling the evil and retaining good teaching.
In the fifth year of Xianfeng in Qing Dynasty, Yin Fengzhe, an entertainer of Bangzi Opera in Caozhou, was sent to Peixian by Mark Duan, the owner of Miaodaokou Village, to run a theatre. The theatre has expanded year by year, and bamboo shoots have sprung up all over Peixian after rain. In the meantime, well-known Henan actors and actresses came to Peipei to perform or pass on their performances. Therefore, the singing style of Xuzhou Bangzi Opera is not only strong in Shandong Bangzi, but also soft in Henan Bangzi.
Inheritance and Development
Using Bangkok as Weapon
Xuzhou Bangzi Opera has a long and glorious revolutionary historical tradition.
After 1911 Revolutionary Movement of 1911, Huangji Daban, Guojiaban, Chen Ruiqi Ban, Yuedong Ritual Band and Ganzitou (Greenwood Heroes) Damao, Ermao, Laoban Duan and Daytime Master overthrew the Yamen of Manqing Pei County at one stroke. Zhang Xiao, the Wu ugly of Huangji Daban, served as county governor for seven days, and was restored by Zhangxun Department to defend the Yangtze River.“ After Zhang Xiao's arrest, he was brave and unyielding, laughing and scolding, calm and complacent. When he was tied to the prison, he sang the Xuzhou Bangzi opera "dragging and shaking" loose board: "After three cries of bitterness, he blocked his throat, three points in the world and seven points in the earth."
During the Anti-Japanese War, Xuzhou was located in a key position and used to be an outpost town to fight against Japanese aggression. Many patriotic literati actors gathered here, such as Tian Han, Hongshen, Jinshan, and so on, which made Xuzhou Bangzi Opera improve a lot in terms of repertoire, performance, music and singing. Many artists joined the revolutionary ranks and went to the front line of the Anti-Japanese War, such as Comrades Xiao Jizhou and Wang Huaiyan.
The Prosperity of Bangzi Opera
After the founding of New China, Bangzi Opera in Xuzhou appeared prosperous. The Drama Work Committee was established in Xuzhou in 1957, which promoted the work of "changing people, operas and systems" in the whole region. More than 500 traditional dramas were excavated, and a number of dramas represented by "Carmine" and "Warring Hongzhou" were sorted out, adapted and innovated. The first and second dramas in Jiangsu Province were held in April 1957 and November 1958. At the opera performance conference, he won the prize of script reorganization, music and performance. Actors Xu Yanqin, Zheng Civilization and Zhao Jinsheng won the first prize of performance.
In July 1958, Xuzhou Bangzi Opera set up a provincial professional art performance troupe approved by the Jiangsu Provincial People's Government, which is one of the eight nationally owned troupes in the province. In November 1959, Director Zhou Hao of Jiangsu Cultural Bureau officially announced the name of Jiangsu Bangzi Theater Troupe at the provincial theatre training meeting.
At the beginning of 1960, the Cultural and Educational Bureau of Xuzhou Commissioner's Office officially issued an announcement that all Shandong Bangzi and Henan Opera Troupe affiliated to the whole region should be named Jiangsu Bangzi, which is hereafter designated as Jiangsu Bangzi.
Xuzhou Bangzi Drama Catalogue depicts major historical events. It is the most prominent drama and tragedy that reflects political, military struggles and heroic achievements. There are more than 600 traditional dramas, more than 200 new historical dramas and modern dramas, and its themes are more abundant. Its content reflects all levels of society, and in the socialist revolution and modern drama. In different periods of construction, they have played an important role.
The music of Xuzhou Bangzi Opera belongs to the form of plate, which expresses certain emotions and contents with the change of plate.
Xuzhou Bangzi Opera has a high ornamental and aesthetic quality, rich connotation, elegant and popular appreciation, a long history, bold voice, fine division of labor, exaggerated performance, very historical and cultural heritage value and research value, is a unique treasure in the treasure house of opera art. However, in recent years, due to the impact of modern multiculturalism and the transfer of aesthetic tastes of the audience, Bangzi Opera in Xuzhou has been in a state of financial constraints, loss of personnel, and lack of successors. It is urgent to protect and support this intangible cultural heritage.
Xuzhou Bangzi Opera has more traditional repertoires, basically the same as Shandong Bangzi. Its representative repertoires are "Four Characters" ("Xue Li Zhengdong", "Fanli Hua Zhengxi", "Yao Gang Zhengnan", "Yan Wang Zhengbei"), "Four Shafts" ("King Zhao", "Sha Mei Case", "Sha Guosong", "Sha Guo Huai") and "Eighteen Old Books". "New Eighteen Editions" and so on.
Since its establishment in 1948, Jiangsu Bangzi Opera Troupe has produced a large number of popular performing artists and excellent plays. Famous performing artists include Zhang Hong and Yanling, who won the ninth and eighteenth Plum Blossom Prizes for Drama. Excellent repertoires include: Carmine, Red Plum, Victory Canal, Mind, Square Tower, Da Shen Gong Temple, Li Ping Er, Huashan Love and Enmity, etc.
A famous dramatist
Jiang Huajiazi (1745-1828) of Fengxian County is one of the founders of Bangzi Opera in Xuzhou. Jiang Huajiazi was born in Hongdong, Shanxi Province. His ancestors migrated to Fengxian and settled in Jiangdanlou. Jiang Huajiazi studied, acted and taught operas all his life, and made every effort to develop the singing music of Bangzi opera. When they were older, they built theatres with their own suitcases, and gradually formed the Jiang school with beautiful work, rich singing voice and standard formulas.
In addition to Jiang faction, Bangzi in Jiangsu also formed Yin, Dai and Jia factions.
Yin Fengzhe (1845-1935), originally from Juye, Shandong Province, fled to Bianzhuang Village, Pei County in Xianfeng, and became famous at the age of 14. In the past ten years, Xianfeng has run three courses in Miaodaokou, a total of 200 disciples. He is good at facial expression, performance and singing. Yin Qichangqing, the son of Yin Qichangqing, is known as "the King of Flowers and Faces" because of the fact that blue is better than blue. Yin's father and son and 200 disciples gradually formed the Yin school.
Dai Jinshan (1872-1936) is a 13-year-old Huangpu native of Tongshan. He is good at acting, dan, Jing and ugly, and is famous for his time. His two daughters, Dawa and Erwa, are well-known for their true biography and fine arts. In addition, they train dozens of disciples in their school classes, forming an influential Dai school.
Jia Xiande (1912-1993) was 11 years old. He was a teacher of his father in Chunquan Class. He lived in both civil and military fields. He devoted all his life to singing, performing, facial makeup, drama repertoire, drama instructor and excellent both in virtue and art. His disciple, Zheng Civilization, followed by his teacher, sings well and has the reputation of "the first life of North Jiangsu". In addition, Guilan, Jia's daughter, has a beautiful singing table, forming a popular Jia school.
In 1992, Jiangsu Bangzi Opera Troupe performed in Jinjing with "Da Shen Gao Miao" and "Li Ping Er", and Zhang Hong won the 9th Meihua Award in one fell swoop. In 2000, Jiangsu Bangzi Opera Troupe performed in Jinjing with "Hua Shan Qing Qiu", and Yanling won the 18th Meihua Award in one fell swoop.
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