Pingxiang spring Gong
Pingxiang Spring Gong is a traditional form of music evolved from Primula in Pingxiang, Jiangxi Province. It is widely spread in Pingxiang City and its surrounding areas. It uses Pingxiang dialect and has a folk art of rap and singing. The origin of Pingxiang Spring Gong has not been accurately recorded in the historical literature. From the content of the traditional song book of Chungong, it can be inferred that the singing of Chungong in Pingxiang had appeared in the middle of Qing Dynasty.
The traditional Pingxiang Spring Gong is performed by one person. The singer wears a yellow satin or cloth bag, ties a small drum about 200 cm in diameter to his left abdomen, hangs a small brass gong of the same size beside the drum, holds a drum stick in his left hand and a gong mallet in his right hand, beats the interlude music between the entrance and the passage of the song. With rap as the main part and performance as the supplement.
On June 7, 2008, Pingxiang Spring Gong declared by Pingxiang City, Jiangxi Province, was listed in the second batch of national intangible cultural heritage Quyi Catalogue with the approval of the State Council.
Heritage serial number: 756 V-63.
Pingxiang spring Gong originated from spring. Early peasants were not clear about seasonal changes. In order not to delay peasants'sowing, every spring, the court sent people to the countryside to ring gongs to remind peasants to cultivate. With the popularity of the calendar, the Spring Gong has lost its original meaning and become a traditional folk culture.
Spring Gong is generally believed to have evolved from the folk primrose. The old calendar was not popular, and the primrose carried gongs and drums on their backs, compiled 24 solar terms into songs, and went door to door to remind people to sow in time. After the popularization of almanac, the Spring Gong gradually evolved into a form of music to celebrate the New Year, spread good luck, report good luck and sing stories of characters. Artists'mobile singing also spread Spring gongs to Yichun, Wanzai, Liling and Liuyang in Hunan.
In 1956, Rong Xiaoshan, an artist of the Spring gong, performed at the first Chinese Folk Art Festival held in Beijing, setting a precedent for the Spring Gong to reach the hall of elegance. In 1998 and 2002, Pingxiang Chunlong participated in the 3rd and 4th Chinese Opera Festivals successively in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, and Chang'an Grand Theatre, Beijing, as the only representative of Jiangxi. Spring Gong has become a "cultural card" of Pingxiang. From singing to singing by two or more people, from simple Gong and drum accompaniment to the addition of Erhu, Pipa and Suona accompaniment, Pingxiang Chunlong has made innovations in content and form. But there is no special funds, lack of venues and facilities, professional creators and performers, which is also the current situation of Chungong, a folk treasure.
Chunlong has a history of nearly 200 years in Pingxiang. Because the peasants at that time were not clear about the seasonal changes, in order not to delay the peasants to sow spring farming, the court sent people to the countryside every spring to sing gongs and announcements, mobilizing peasants to cultivate. With the advent and popularization of the calendar, the Spring Gong has lost its practical significance. So, from before liberation, in January every year, some folk artists who know a little about the art of rap and singing went to villages in the form of beating gongs and drums in their hands and singing hymns in Pingxiang dialect in their mouths, in order to get a small amount of money from their masters. Spring Gong became a means of livelihood for the poor at that time.
After the founding of New China, a group of activists of Pingxiang folk rap art processed Pingxiang Chunlong artistically and made great changes in the singing tune. In the 1950s, Rongmou, a well-known local artist, knocked on the Pingxiang Spring gong at Tiananmen Gate in Beijing and sang into the Great Hall of the People. In order to improve the artistic taste of Pingxiang Chunlong, Yong Kaiquan, the former deputy head of Pingxiang Tea Picking Opera Troupe, composes the clear-sung Pingxiang Chunlong and integrates the anti-sentiment of Pingxiang Tea Picking Opera into Pingxiang Chunlong. It overcomes the weaknesses and shortcomings of the original low-key and unclear pronunciation, makes the performer's voice sometimes low-pitched and sometimes high-pitched, overcomes the situation that the original instrument is single and one person "fights" alone, and makes some large instruments serve for this unique rap art.
Chungong sings in Pingxiang dialect. Its basic singing method is seven-character sentences. Sometimes, in order to increase the rhythm change, it also adopts the roll-singing of pallets in operas. These tones are closely combined with Pingxiang dialect and have strong local characteristics.
According to legend, ordinary artists only dare not enter the traditional Chinese medicine shop. Although the owners are well paid, the hundreds of names of traditional Chinese medicine often make artists shy and stop, looking at the salivable bounty and daring not ask for it. Of course, there are also "masters" who dare to eat this fat, but they are only rare.
Pingxiang Chungong is a wonderful flower in Chinese music circle. Singing the spring Gong in Pingxiang dialect with local flavor and local characteristics is like talking and singing. Its bright rhythm, lively language and flexible performance form are the magic weapon to attract audiences. Most of the lyrics belong to chanting style, one thing praises, up to three emperors and five emperors, loyal ministers and good generals, down to three religions and nine streams, seventy-two lines, each has its own lyrics.
Inheritance and Protection
Pingxiang Chunlong once represented Jiangxi Province in the Third Chinese Quyi Festival held in Inner Mongolia in 1998. In 2002, Pingxiang Chunlong once again represented Jiangxi Province in the Fourth Chinese Quyi Festival held in Beijing and entered the famous Chang'an Grand Theater. A few years ago, because the citizens were very fond of Pingxiang Spring Gong, the relevant departments first recorded Pingxiang Spring Gong into tapes and promoted it. Within a few days, it was snapped up by the citizens. At that time, the sounds of spring gongs were everywhere in the streets and alleys of Pingxiang, from which we can know the populace's love of Pingxiang spring gongs.
Yong Kaiquan, known as King Chungong, said that Pingxiang Chungong was born in spring and belongs to folk music. It is a typical rap art. It sings the Party's great achievements, the prosperity of the motherland and the happy life of the people in Pingxiang dialect. Its content is positive, its voice and tone are inspiring, and it has local flavor and local artistic characteristics. It is a rare folk art. Treasures.
Yongkaiquan (Member of China Quyi Artists Association): Pingxiang Chunlong is Pingxiang's "local specialty". Pingxiang Chunlong lacks professionals to excavate, innovate, research and develop. There are few professional creators and professional rap and singing performers, and there has been a situation of green and yellow. In the long run, this art treasure is likely to be lost. This phenomenon hopes to attract the attention of the relevant departments, and Pingxiang Spring Gong art support, training professionals, folk art treasures to carry forward!
The origin of Pingxiang Spring Rong has not been found in the historical documents. From Li Yu, the emperor of the Southern Tang Dynasty, to Zhu Yuanzhang, the great ancestor of the Ming Dynasty, wrote peach symbols to welcome the Spring Festival, to advocate the people to paste Spring Festival couplets to celebrate the Spring Festival. Although it involves the theme of welcoming the Spring Festival, it can not be determined if it is not related to Pingxiang Spring Gong. According to the narration and folklore in Pingxiang Spring Gong's traditional song book, there are three kinds of views on the origin of Pingxiang Spring Gong, one is "Primula Spring". The second is the theory of "Welcoming Spring and Receiving Fortune". Third, the two surnames of "Zhou Wu".
Folk tradition is more from the "Primula Spring" evolved. In the old days, after the Spring Festival, primers carried gongs and drums and went door to door to tell people about the farming season of that year, reminding people to sow farmland in time. With the advance of the times and the gradual popularization of almanac, the singing content of Chungong began to change, becoming a form of music to congratulate people on the New Year, spread good luck and report good luck, and gradually developed into the story of rappers. At the same time, due to the mobile singing of artists, the Spring Rong has also spread from Pingxiang's urban and rural areas to Yichun, Wanzai and other counties, as well as Liling and Liuyang in Hunan, which are adjacent to Pingxiang.
After the founding of the People's Republic of China, the Spring Gong artists and amateur performers made some reform attempts, creating a form of collective singing, adding accompaniment instruments and dance movements. At the same time, many new songs and lyrics were compiled to praise the heroes and model characters, satirize and criticize the old ideas and customs within the people, and make Pingxiang Chunlong develop new.
Current situation of inheritance
Spring Gong is a rare charm of traditional folk art in Jiangxi Province because of its local flavor and local artistic characteristics. Spring Gong once represented Jiangxi Province in the Third Chinese Quyi Festival held in Inner Mongolia in 1998 and Jiangxi Province in the Fourth Chinese Quyi Festival held in Beijing in 2002. A few years ago, the relevant departments first recorded Pingxiang Spring Gong on tape, which was warmly welcomed by the citizens.
It's a joy to see and hear from a young age. But there aren't many people who learn this. I hope that more people will be engaged in this work after the application.
In 2005, Pingxiang City started to declare "Pingxiang Spring gong" as a national intangible cultural heritage protection project.
In 2008, Pingxiang Chungong was listed in the second batch of national intangible cultural heritage Quyi catalogue.
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