Construction Skills of Felt House of Kazakh Nationality
Kazakh mattress building skills, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Tacheng area local traditional skills, one of the national intangible cultural heritage.
Kazakh mattress house is constructed by expandable wooden fence. It is surrounded by a circle of straw mats, which are woven with various colors of silk yarn and covered with white cloth embroidered blankets. The top of the carpet house is like a dome. The carpet covered can be opened upward so that the sunshine can be obtained in the tent.
In June 2008, Kazakh felt house construction technology was approved by the State Council of the People's Republic of China and listed in the second batch of national intangible cultural heritage list, heritage number: _-183.
The construction of felt house of Kazakh nationality is an ancient craft, which has a history of more than 2,000 years.
In the Han Dynasty, the fine princess married to King Wusun sang in the song Yellow Crane: "My family married me to the heavenly side, far from the foreign King Wusun. The fornix serves as a wall, and the meat serves as a pulp. I wish to return to my native land for the Yellow Oriole because I think of my heart injury. This poem describes the felt room. The "dome" in the poem is the dome, which is the structural form of the felt house. It can be inferred that the princess Xijun described the felt room. This shows that in the period of Wusun Ancient Kingdom, the Kazakh people's ancestors have popularized the mobile architecture, and the construction technology has made a qualitative leap.
Kazakh felt house construction techniques include carving, carving, chisel, weaving, tie, dyeing and other processes, the process is quite complex. The carpet builder made dyes and dyed colorful wool to weave curtains and roll felt, without any drawings and patterns, edge embroidery.
Kazakh mattress house is round in outline, simple in appearance but complicated in craftsmanship. All building materials and processes are completed by hand. It is not only convenient to carry, but also durable, comfortable to live, and has the characteristics of cold, rain and earthquake prevention.
Inheritance and protection
Kazakh people's carpet building skills show their superb wisdom and infinite creativity, which indicates that Kazakh people's handicraft skills have reached a superb level, which condenses Kazakh people's aesthetic concept, humanistic thought, folk characteristics and historical memory, and has important reference value in the study of minority aesthetics, folklore and other fields.
Kazakh felt house occupies an important position in Chinese residential buildings. The mechanics and material methods involved, comprehensive dynamic plastic arts and technological ideas are of great research value.
The emergence of industrialized production of cheap and beautiful carpets, embroidered carpets and portable steel tube houses has brought great impact on the traditional construction techniques of Kazakh carpet houses. The handicraft inheritors of this minority are on the older side, and are gradually decreasing. The handicraft inheritance of this minority has no worries about successors and needs to be protected urgently.
Dalekhan Habidihi, selected as the representative successor of the third batch of national intangible cultural heritage projects, declared in Tacheng area of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, declared the project: Kazakh mattress building skills.
In 2013, Yerk, the inheritor of Kazakh carpet house construction technology, wanted to let the villagers around him make carpet houses with him, and form an industry of carpet house production. His Xinyuan County Saike National Handicraft Professional Cooperative was established. Through the form of joint venture, 57 villagers participated in the cooperative, and more than 20 felt houses were sold annually in the cooperative.
In September 2016, at the Xinjiang International Convention and Exhibition Center, Kazakh felt room appeared in the textile exhibition hall of the Fifth China-Asia-Europe Expo.
In August 2016, Kazakh felt house appeared at the 4th Silk Road Xinjiang Cultural and Creative Industries Expo.
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