Song Dynasty is a popular China literary genre. Song Ci is one of the new styles of poetry compared to the ancient poetry. It is the essence of Song Dairu's wisdom and the highest achievement of the Song Dynasty. The sentence of Song Ci is long and short, which is easy to sing. Because it is the lyrics of he Yue, it is also called Qu Zi Ci, yue fu, Yue Zhang, Chang Chang Ju, Shi Yu, Qin Qu, etc.
It began in the southern Liang Dynasty, formed in the Tang Dynasty and flourished in the Song Dynasty. Song Ci is a shining pearl in the crown of ancient Chinese literature. In the langyuan of ancient Chinese literature, it is a fragrant garden. With its colorful and varied verve, it competes with Tang poetry for novelty and Yuan opera for beauty. It has always been regarded as a unique combination with Tang poetry and represents the prosperity of literature of a generation. Later, there was the book Song Ci with the same name.
Su Shi, Xin Qiji, Liu Yong and Li Qingzhao are the representatives of Song Ci.
Ci is a kind of musical literature. Its emergence, development, creation and spread are directly related to music. The music of Ci is Yan music, also known as banquet music. It was mainly used for entertainment and banquet in Sui and Tang Dynasties, and became popular in Sui Dynasty. The origin of the CI with Yanyue can be traced back to the Sui Dynasty. Volume I of bijimanzhi written by Wang Zhuo of Song Dynasty says: "since the Sui Dynasty, the so-called tunes have been gradually flourishing, and they were slightly prosperous in the Tang Dynasty." At first, Ci was mainly popular among the people. The collection of Dunhuang Quzi CI included more than 160 works, most of which were folk songs from the prosperous Tang Dynasty to the late Tang Dynasty. Around the middle Tang Dynasty, poets such as Zhang Zhihe, Wei Yingwu, Bai Juyi and Liu Yuxi began to write Ci, which introduced this style into the literary world. In the late Tang and Five Dynasties, literati CI had a great development. The creation of Wen Tingyun, a poet of the late Tang Dynasty, and the Southern Tang poets represented by Li Yu and Feng Yansi, a poet of the Huajian School, all made important contributions to the maturity of CI style and the establishment of basic lyric style. Finally, CI has become one of the most prominent literary styles in ancient China. In the Song Dynasty, the creation of CI became more and more magnificent, and a large number of outstanding Ci writers emerged. Many famous and excellent works emerged one after another, and various styles and schools appeared. There are more than 13000 CI works in Quan Song Ci, which can be inferred from this number. Although the origin of Ci was early, the peak of its development was in the Song Dynasty. Therefore, later generations regarded Ci as the most representative literature in the Song Dynasty, juxtaposed with poetry in the Tang Dynasty, and the so-called "Tang poetry and Song Ci" came into being.
The lyrics of Quzi come from the folk, and its natural tendency is vulgar and vulgar. Due to the rediscovery of a large number of "Quzi Ci" in Dunhuang Grottoes, the view that CI originated from folk literature has been widely recognized. In Sui and Tang Dynasties, Quzi Ci was originally sung with a new kind of music - "Yanyue". "Yan" means "Banquet", and "Yan music" is the popular music between banquets. The performers and singers are the lower level musicians and geisha with low cultural quality.
In Tang Dynasty, western region music flowed into China in large quantities, which was called "Hu Bu". "Jie Gu Lu" contains 131 songs, nearly half of which are foreign songs. Many of the tunes that were later used as Ci tunes can be identified as foreign music. For example, "moon watching Brahman" was originally Indian music, and "sumuzha" was originally kuci music.
In Tang Dynasty, many of the tunes were originally folk songs. Mr. Ren Erbei's Jiaofang Ji Jian Ding made an investigation on the folk tunes in Jiaofang's tunes one by one. For example, "Zhuzhi" was originally a folk song of Sichuan and Hunan. In Tang Dynasty, Liu Yuxi's "preface to Zhuzhi words" said: "Yu Lai Jianping (now Wushan, Sichuan), Li Zhonger's song" Zhuzhi "played Piccolo and drums to go to the festival. The singer Yang Mei Sui dance, to music for more virtuous. If you listen to the sound, you will find Zhonghuang Zhongzhi's feather and Zuzhang Jijie's voice like Wu's Another example is that the book 257 of "maixiuliangqi" and "Taipingguangji" quoted "Wang Shi Jian Wen Lu" to describe Zhu Liang in the Five Dynasties, "long blowing" maixiuliangqi "in front of the hall, Shi pengmai ' The creation of folk songs in the Song Dynasty is still very vigorous. It is said in the history of the Song Dynasty · music annals that "there were many people who wrote new songs in the Northern Song Dynasty", such as Gu Yan'er, Yun Ling and so on. The two main sources of Yanyue tunes lay the foundation for the vulgar and simple literary features of Yanyue and its songs. In the process of singing, spreading and playing its entertaining function, the lyrics are more stable. The innate vulgar features of the lyrics are quite different from the orthodox aesthetic tradition of elegance and uprightness. The traditional education received by the majority of lyric writers, and the aesthetic concepts given to them by history and society, all play a conscious or unconscious role in their appreciation and creation of lyrics. To get rid of vulgarity and return to elegance is the urgent and unremitting pursuit of CI poets.
It appeared in the Tang Dynasty and was popular among the people at first. After five dynasties to two Song Dynasties, CI got great development and became the main literary form in Song Dynasty. Song Ci mainly describes amorous feelings. Zhang Yan said: "the wind and the moon are tossed, the temperament is written by Tao, and the words are euphemistic in poetry. The voice of the cover comes from the voice of the warbler and the tongue of the swallow, which is a little close to emotion. " (etymology Volume II) is a summary of this feature. Song Ci is the first special style to express love in the history of Chinese literature. "Poetry expresses ambition, words express emotion" and "words are gorgeous" are the main trend of Song Ci. The themes of Song Ci concentrate on the sadness of spring and autumn, the sadness of parting, the romance and the love between men and women, which are directly or indirectly related to "amorous feelings". Su Shi, who is regarded as the founder of bold and unconstrained Ci by later generations, most of his Ci is still in the scope of "Yanke". Even the themes other than "amorous love" are permeated by the mainstream tendency, which is more or less "gorgeous". The mainstream tendency of Song ci writing belongs to the obscene "Zheng Wei" who was rejected by Confucius, and runs counter to the elegant articles. It has only the superficial pursuit of hedonic life, but no deep meaning for aftertaste. Therefore, on the one hand, people of Song Ci indulge in the enjoyment of sound and color, on the other hand, they cover up and explain themselves. Later generations "for the honor to avoid shame, for the sage to avoid", but also for the meaning of its interpretation. It is inevitable for people to indulge in enjoyment. They are full of emotions and singing. Afterwards, I felt that it was not elegant and shameful. This kind of contradiction generally exists in the creation of lyrics. If we can make the expression of erotic feelings implicit and obscure, it seems that we are interested in sending it, so that the recipient will have the idea of unlimited metaphor. Based on this standpoint, the main direction of Song Ci creation is "removing vulgarity and restoring elegance", which is from unconsciousness to consciousness, from sporadic efforts to the formation of creative schools, and from creative practice to emergence.
Su Shi should be said to be the final founder of the tradition of literati lyric, and some people think that this is also the beginning of the downhill road of historical development, Song Ci is just blindly sentimental landscape, or song to Ming Zhi. Chen Shidao used "poetry as Ci" to evaluate Su Ci, which is the essence of innovation of Su CI in Taoism. On the whole, the process of "elegance" of Ci is also a process that CI gradually moves closer to poetry, striding over the boundary between "expressing ambition" and "expressing emotion". Therefore, Lu Fuzhi said: "elegance is the most important thing, and it is still a branch of poetry. It's not elegant, it's not eloquent. " Before Su Shi, this process was gradual, but it was a rapid evolution. First of all, Su Shi's Ci expanded the scope of CI. Su Shi's temperament, mind and knowledge are also integrated into his poems. Liu Chenweng's preface to xinjiaxuan's Ci poetry says: "when the ci poetry reaches Dongpo, it's like poetry, like prose, like the wonders of heaven and earth." When he went out hunting, he said with pride: "he will pull a bow like a full moon, look northwest and shoot Sirius." (jiangchengzi hunting in Mizhou) he looks at the moon and misses his younger brother Su Zhe, so he realizes the philosophy of life: "people have joys and sorrows, and the moon has Yin, Qing and wanes. It's hard to complete this matter." (when will the bright moon appear) when he ascends the historic site, he sighs: "when the river goes to the East, the waves will be washed away, and there will be people who have lived in the past." (niannujiao) colorful, it is dizzying. The fourth volume of Liu Xizai's general theory of Arts sums up that "Dongpo's Ci is quite like Lao Du's poetry, because it has no intention and nothing can't be said." Secondly, Su Shi's Ci improved the quality of his ci. Su Shi's "Poetry into Ci" combines the poet's "emotion" with the poet's "ambition". The moral and children's private feelings are found in the CI. In the CI, he sets up a grand array and stands at attention. Even if you write about a girl's love, your character is very high. The beauty in "congratulating the bridegroom" who "treats all the flowers and waves and accompanies you alone" can be compared with Du Fu's "beautiful woman" in which "the sky is cold and the sleeves are thin, and the sun is leaning on the bamboo at dusk". Therefore, Hu Yin's preface to the words beside the wine called Su's Ci "a wash of Qi Luo Xiang Ze's state, get rid of the degree of planning Wan Zhuan, make people look far and high, hold up a song, and feel heroic beyond the dust." In Dongpo, the style of CI began to be respected. Thirdly, Su Shi reformed the style of CI. In Su Shi's Ci poems, it is often the clear and magnificent scenery, in which the broad-minded mind of the poet is slowly revealed. The traditional style of Song Ci is "graceful" and "bold" and Su Shi is the pioneer of "bold" Ci style. All these "poetic" innovations have rapidly changed the essence of CI. Kuang Zhouyi affirmed that "in the period of Xifeng, CI studies were extremely prosperous, and Su Changgong advocated elegance, which was a struggle for a generation." (Volume 2 of Huifeng Cihua) Liu Xizai changed a point of view and said: "Taibai's memory of qin'e has a solemn and stirring voice. In the late Tang Dynasty and the Five Dynasties, it only tends to be graceful and beautiful until Dongpo
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