Li Bing (year of birth and death, birthplace unknown), known as the land and sea, the Warring States period famous expert in water conservancy engineering. From 256 B.C. to 251 B.C., he was appointed as the prefect of Shu county (now Chengdu area) by King Zhao of Qin Dynasty. During this period, Li Bing controlled the water and created a miracle. He recruited migrant workers to set up many water conservancy projects in the Minjiang River Basin, among which Dujiangyan water conservancy project, which he and his son built together, is the most famous. For thousands of years, the project has laid a solid foundation for Chengdu plain to become a land of abundance. In memory of Li Bing and his son, two kings temple was built in Dujiangyan. Dujiangyan has also become a famous scenic spot. Historical water control celebrities.
After finishing the construction of Dujiangyan, he built a water conservancy project in Luoshui Town, Shifang, Sichuan Province. Later, he died here and was buried in Zhangshan next to Luoshui town. He was respected as the leader of Sichuan by later generations. On both sides of the section between gaojingguan and Luoshui, there are Dawang temple and Erwang temple built to commemorate Li Bing and his son. Deng Xiaoping, Jiang Zemin and other party and state leaders once wrote inscriptions for Li Bing's mausoleum.
Life of the characters
Li Bing, a water conservancy scientist in the Warring States period, also studied astronomy and geography. In the last years of emperor Zhaoxiang of Qin Dynasty (about 256-251 BC), he was the governor of Shu. He presided over the construction of Dujiangyan, an early irrigation project in China, at the mountain pass of Minjiang River in Dujiangyan City (formerly Guanxian county), Sichuan Province, which made Chengdu Plain rich. According to the records of Shu annals of Huayang, Li Bing once set up a stone scale in Dujiangyan, which was an early water level observation facility in China. He also built irrigation and shipping projects such as Wenjing River (now Chongqing County West River), Baimu River (now Qionglai South River), Luoshui River (now shiting River) and mianshui River (now Mianyuan River), as well as cable bridges and salt wells. He also built a Wuchi road connecting the Central Plains, Sichuan Ya'an Mingshan district police station and Yunnan. The common people cherish his merits and build temples to commemorate them. After the Northern Song Dynasty, the story of Li Erlang, the son of Li Bing, who helped Li Bing to control the water, still spread.
The Erwang temple built at the head of Dujiangyan canal is a commemoration of Li Bing and his son's great cause of water control. Most of the inscriptions are the technical essentials of irrigation water conservancy project maintenance. Every year during the Qingming Festival, local residents will hold sacrificial activities and boiling water ceremony in Erwang temple. Li Bing has become a god worshipped by the people in Dujiangyan irrigation area, and the religious activities related to water strengthen the connection between the government and water users in irrigation area management.
There are different opinions about Li Bing's native place in the academic circles. Until 1999, Li Baosheng, a descendant of the Li family in Shanxi Province, read a book called Dujiangyan, in which it was mentioned that Li Bing's clan and birthplace are still unknown. Remembering that there was a record in his genealogy that "Li Bing, the first ancestor of Li Bing, went to Sichuan to control the water", he excitedly sent a letter to the Dujiangyan municipal CPPCC, which revealed this eternal mystery and confirmed that Li Bing's native place was Yuncheng, Shanxi Province. However, there are different views. Tan Jihe, President of Sichuan history society, thinks that Li Bing's identity and ancestral home are a mystery in the history circle. There are two modern mainstream views: one is Shanxi, the other is Shaanxi. Because of the lack of evidence, it can not be confirmed. The genealogy of Li Baosheng family has not been recorded before 52 generations, so it is difficult to become direct evidence. "In history, there are still many genealogies in which the former celebrities are listed as the ancestors." Why does the genealogy only record the 52nd to 70th generations? Li Baosheng explained: the trend of revising genealogy was only prevalent in the Qing Dynasty. In the early days, most people would not revise genealogy.
Even his name is incomplete in historical records. "Shu Shou Bing" is recorded in the book of historical records on rivers and canals. It has no surname. Li Bing, the governor of Shu, is recorded in the annals of the canal in the Han Dynasty, which has all kinds of names and surnames. The records of the historian and the history of the Han Dynasty simply recorded his deeds of "digging away from the pile, avoiding the harm of foam water, and crossing the two rivers in Chengdu". According to various ancient books and records, historians reckon that he was born in the period of King Zhao of Qin Dynasty and served as the prefect of Shu county from 276 BC to 251 BC.
Li Bing died at the construction site of the shiting river treatment because of chronic fatigue. The Shifang article in the records of places of interest in Shu states that "there is a big grave on the cliff behind Zhangshan mountain, and the stele says: the burial place of Li Bing in Qin Dynasty. According to the ancient Shu records, after Li Binggong matched the Xia Dynasty, he became an immortal in the later City, and hid his clothes in the tomb of Zhangshan. " According to the geographical records of the Tang Dynasty, "Dalang (Wang) temple is located 50 miles north of Shifang, the sun of Dapeng mountain, and the shrine of Li Bing, the prefect of Shu." Li Bing died here in the future. It is recorded in the geographical records of the Tang Dynasty: "Dalang (Wang) temple is located in the north of ZhiBei, the sun of Dapeng mountain, and the shrine of Li Bing, the prefect of Shu."
Li Bing was an outstanding Water Conservancy Engineer, designer and organizer of Dujiangyan. Dujiangyan, which is well-known at home and abroad, is located in the middle reaches of Minjiang River in the middle of Sichuan Province. The whole project is composed of three main projects: Fenshui weir, Feisha weir and baopingkou. It is a rare miracle in the history of water conservancy projects in the world because of its large scale, suitable location, reasonable layout, flood control, irrigation and navigation. For more than 2000 years, it has been playing a huge role in irrigation and drainage, ensuring the local agricultural production.
In ancient times, Sichuan was called "dry land" or "red land". Sichuan people have been fighting against floods for generations. In the ninth year of emperor Huiwen of Qin Dynasty (316 BC), the state of Qin annexed Shu. In order to build Shu into an important base, Qin decided to control the flood of Minjiang River thoroughly. At the same time, Li Bing, who was proficient in water control, was sent to replace Zhang Ruo, a statesman, as the governor of Shu. There is no written record of the time when Li Bing was the governor of Shu, which is between the 30th year of King Zhao of Qin Dynasty and King Xiao of Qin Dynasty (277-250 BC).
When Li Bing arrived in Shujun, he saw the serious local disasters: the Minjiang River, which originates from Minshan Mountain in the north of Chengdu Plain, has high mountains and deep valleys along both sides of the river, and the current is turbulent; when he arrives near Guanxian County, he enters a flat River, and the water potential is huge, which often breaks the embankment and causes flooding; the large amount of sediment carried from the upstream is also easy to deposit here, raising the riverbed and aggravating the flood; especially in the southwest of Guanxian city There is a Yulei mountain, which hinders the eastward flow of the river. Every summer and autumn flood season, it often causes drought in the East and flood in the West. Soon after he took office, he began to carry out large-scale water control work.
Li Bing and his son Erlang made a field trip along the Bank of the Minjiang River to understand the water regime and topography, and worked out a plan for harnessing the Minjiang River. Li Bing found that the selection of channel head for Kaiming water diversion project was unreasonable, so the Kaiming water diversion mouth was abandoned and the Dujiangyan water diversion mouth was moved up to the Yulei mountain of Guanxian County, the top of alluvial fan in Chengdu Plain, so as to ensure a large amount of water diversion and form a smooth channel head network. Dujiangyan, built by Li Bing, is very simple in historical records. However, based on these records and combined with the structural analysis of Dujiangyan project, it can be basically determined that the Dujiangyan constructed by Li Bing is composed of Yuzui, Feisha weir, baopingkou and channel network.
In the process of building the diversion weir, after the failure of using the riprap in the middle of the river to build the weir, Li Bing opened up a new road and made bamboo workers weave large bamboo cages of three feet long and two feet wide, filled with pebbles, and then sank into the bottom of the river one by one. Finally, he overcame the rapids of the river and built the diversion dike. According to the annals of Yuanhe County written by Li Jifu in the Tang Dynasty, "qianweiyan (the name of Dujiangyan in the Tang Dynasty) is twenty-five miles southwest of the county. Li Bing made it to prevent the river from breaking. Broken bamboo cage, round diameter of three feet, ten feet long, solid stone. It's so tired that it's choked up. " This method uses local materials and is easy to construct and maintain. Moreover, the layer by layer accumulation of gabion can not only avoid the breakup of dike, but also reduce the direct pressure of flood by using the space between pebbles, so as to reduce the risk of dike collapse.
The front end of Fenshui levee is like a fish head, so it is called "fish mouth". Yuzui is a diversion weir built in the middle of Minjiang River upstream of baopingkou. It is named because the top of the weir is shaped like Yuzui. According to the records of Huayang state, the "Peng" of Li Bing's "choking the river" refers to the fish's mouth. It divides the Minjiang River into inner and outer rivers and plays the role of navigation, irrigation and flood diversion. The West River is called Waijiang, which is the normal flow of the Minjiang River; the East River is called Neijiang, which is the main channel of the irrigation canal system. The head of the canal is baopingkou, which flows through baopingkou and is divided into many large and small channels, forming a crisscross fan-shaped water network to irrigate thousands of miles of farmland in Chengdu Plain. On both sides of the diversion weir, large pebble dikes are built. The inner river side is called inner diamond dikes, and the outer river side is called outer diamond dikes, also known as "gold dikes". After the completion of the weir, there will be few floods and droughts in the Chengdu Plain irrigated by the Neijiang River.
Later, in order to further control the amount of water flowing into baopingkou, a flat flume and a "Feisha Weir" spillway for flood diversion were built at the tail of Yuzui breakwater. The Feisha weir is also built with pebbles packed in bamboo cages, and the weir crest should be at a suitable height. When the water level of the Neijiang River is too high, the flood will overflow the Feisha weir and flow into the Waijiang river through the flume to protect the Neijiang irrigation area from flooding. At the same time, due to the vortex effect of the flow flowing into the outer river over the Feisha weir, the sediment deposition around the baopingkou is effectively washed away. There is a certain proportion of the water distribution of the fish mouth. During the spring ploughing season, the amount of water in the inner river accounts for about 60%, and that in the outer river accounts for about 40%. During the flood season, the amount of water in the Neijiang River exceeds the irrigation requirement, and it is overflowed by the Feisha weir.
Baopingkou is the gate to control the amount of water in Neijiang River. In order to control the flow of the Neijiang River, Li Bing and his son stood as stone men in the river as a ruler to observe the water level. According to the records of Huayang state, Shu Zhi, Li Bing was "a man of three stones, a man of three rivers, and a god of the river.". Water can not be exhausted to the foot, Sheng does not have the shoulder. This is the earliest record of shuize, which shows that Li Bing has basically mastered the general range of water level fluctuation of Minjiang River. According to the records of history · the book of rivers and canals, "Shu Shou ice chisels away from the pile to prevent the harm of foam water", which means that Li Bing chisels the mouth of a precious vase. Because of the "precipitous cliffs and dangerous obstacles"
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