Chen Liang (October 16, 1143-1194), formerly known as Chen runeng, was named Longchuan with the name of Tongfu. Wuzhou Yongkang (now Zhejiang Yongkang) people. He is a thinker and writer in the Southern Song Dynasty.
Chen Liang "is very talented and likes to talk about military affairs. In the time of emperor Xiaozong of Song Dynasty, he was recommended by Wuzhou to Jietou. Qiandao five years (1169), on the "Zhongxing five.". In the fifth year of Chunxi's reign (1178), yique wrote again, discussing current affairs extremely, opposing peace talks, and advocating resistance to Jin Dynasty. He was hated and jailed twice. After he got out of prison, he was more ambitious. In the 15th year of Chunxi's reign (1188), he wrote a letter for the third time, suggesting that the prince should supervise the army and garrison in Jiankang to show his determination to recover. In the second year of Shaoxi reign of emperor Guangzong of Song Dynasty (1191), he was falsely accused and released from prison for the third time. In 1193, Shaoxi was promoted to the number one scholar by song Guang's clan. He was granted a letter to the magistrate of Jiankang government. He died before he took office. He was 52. In the Song Dynasty, Li Zong was named Wen Yi.
Chen Liang advocated "the study of meritorious service" of governing the world and helping the people, put forward that "those who enrich the universe are nothing but things, and daily use are nothing but things", accused Neo Confucianism of empty talk about "moral life", and founded Yongkang school. He was friendly with Zhu Xi, but was not compatible with the theory of learning. His political comments are full of momentum and sharp writing. His poems are also emotional and bold in style, showing his political ambition. His works include Longchuan anthology, Longchuan Ci, etc.
Life of the characters
On September 7, the 13th year of Shaoxing, Emperor Gaozong of the Southern Song Dynasty (October 16, 1143), Shenshi was founded,
Born in Huanglong grottoes, Yongkang, Wuzhou, a declining family of taxi people, it was named as
It was only in the early years of emperor Xiaozong that his name was changed to Liang.
It is said that Chen Liang is a descendant of the Chen family of Yingchuan in the Han and Wei dynasties. In his narration, he said: "the Chen family is rich in their hometown. It's old, but their descendants are scattered in the first five generations. They often lose their shelter." In his grandfather's generation, Chen's family was rich and prosperous. "At that time, there were hundreds of people who got together," and "in the next few years, life and death were very difficult, so why not have it?" from then on, it declined. Chen Liang's great grandfather, Chen Zhiyuan, went to Beijing to defend himself with military force during Xuanhe (1119-1125) of Huizong of Song Dynasty, and died with General Liu Yuanqing in the anti Jin war. His grandfather, Chen Yi, was "wise and courageous" and his father, Chen ciyin, had just come of age and worked for the whole family. His mother was only 14 years old when he was born, so the responsibility for Chen Liang's education was mainly borne by his grandfather and grandmother. They have great expectations for Chen Liang. Chen Liang later recalled: "the emperor's ancestors, the emperor's ancestors, taught me in order to learn, hoping that they would be able to stand in this world, and that they would be able to be kudos." If you are young, your name will be bright, and your father will be the same
According to historical records, Chen Liang "was born with brilliant eyes and outstanding talent spirit. He liked to talk about soldiers and talk about life, and wrote thousands of words." From the beginning of his youth, he showed his intelligence, brilliance and extraordinary ambition. At the age of 18, he examined the success and failure of the ancient soldiers in the past dynasties, and wrote 20 pieces of "zuogu Lun", discussing 19 historical figures. Zhou Kui, the Minister of Wuzhou at that time, read this book and appreciated it very much. He praised it as "a scholar of other countries" and "please be a guest". However, it is hopeful to put Zhou Kui's life into the moral norm. In the first year of song Xiaozong's Longxing reign (1163), Zhou Kui was appointed as an official and appointed Chen Liang as his aide. Zhou Kui taught the doctrine of the mean and the great learning, saying: "reading this can refine the theory of life." However, Chen Liang was not interested in this. He later said, "between Xinji and Renwu in Shaoxing, Yu discussed military affairs with extreme ideas, which was promised by the great officials of the Ming Dynasty at that time. Instead, he taught the doctrine of the mean and the great learning. Yu could not understand it. However, when he came back to the times with ancient prose, the study of moral life gradually began." Although Chen Liang knew something about the theory of moral life, he thought that the theory of moral life was not helpful to the reality, and could not solve the cause of anti gold unification. Therefore, he did not follow the path designed by Zhou Kui. Instead, he continued to study the history of his predecessors and wrote two works, yinghaolu and Zhongxing heredity From the lessons, we can draw lessons from the rejuvenation of China.
In 1168, the 24-year-old Chen Liang changed his name to "the first tribute to the countryside, and then to the Imperial Academy". The next year, the imperial court made peace with the Jin people. "The world is happy, but fortunately it has a rest." only Chen Liang thought that it was impossible. As a cloth clothed man, he connected with Wu Shu. This is the famous five treatises on Zhongxing in history. Chen Liang went back to his hometown to teach and give lectures.
In his youth, Chen Liang took part in the imperial examination twice, but failed. He said: "when you hear that the ancients were good at literature, you are still good at being an official. An official will do his own way, and an official will write his own way. If the way is not in me, then what can I do?"
In the fifth year of Chunxi (1178), Chen Liang wrote to the emperor three times in succession, vehemently criticizing the government's state policy since Qin Hui and the unhealthy atmosphere of Confucian scholars and scholars sitting empty handed and talking about their lives, which moved Xiaozong. Xiaozong "wanted to publicize the imperial court to encourage the officials, release the past affairs with seeds, order to go to the palace, and promote them", but Chen Liang refused. This is because Zeng Zhen, the favorite Minister of Xiaozong, wanted to get in touch with Chen Liang before he was summoned by Xiaozong. As Chen Liang knew, "he fled beyond the yuan.". Because of the outspokenness of the memorials, they were hated by the rulers. After returning to his hometown, someone accused him to the Ministry of punishment. He Dan, the Minister of punishment, hated Chen Liang and arrested him for the crime of "committing a crime by saying something" and tortured him. Xiaozong learned about this and issued an imperial edict to avoid death. After Chen Liang returned to his hometown, there was another murder by his family boy. He was accused by his enemies as Chen Liang's instigator. Chen Liang's father was imprisoned in Zhou prison, and he was sent to Dali prison. Because of the rescue of the Prime Minister Wang Huai and his good friend Xin Qiji, they were saved from death. In the three years after returning home, they had a confrontation with Zhu Xi about "the debate of justice and profit between Wang Huai and Zhu Xi".
After two punishments in prison and long-term repulsion, Chen Liang did not change his ambition to restore the Central Plains. In 1188, Chunxi personally went to Jingkou (Zhenjiang) of Jiankang (Nanjing) to observe the terrain. He wrote the poem "niannujiao · dengduojinglou" and described the area of Jingkou of Jiankang: "one water is strewn, and three Liang are lost, making a competitive power. What happened in the Six Dynasties? "It's just a long drive. You don't have to look back and take the middle class oath." It is advocated that the natural danger of the Yangtze River should not be regarded as a gateway to cut off the northern border of Southern Xinjiang, but as a springboard for the northern expedition to the Central Plains and the recovery of lost land. And again, he suggested that Xiaozong should be supervised by the prince and stationed in Jiankang to show the world's determination to recover. At this time, Xiaozong decided to practice internal Zen, but the memorial was not reported. This time, not only did it not reach Xiaozong's hand, but it angered many bureaucrats because it pointed out the current malpractice. "Yao was angry in the court and thought he was crazy," and "wanted to kill me on the way.".
After Chen Liang returned to his hometown, he once attended a local banquet. The host put pepper powder in Chen Liang's soup. The man who was sitting with him died suddenly when he came home. His family falsely accused Chen Liang of poisoning and murder. Therefore, Chen Liang took another lawsuit and went to Dali Temple Prison. Later, Zheng ruxie, a young minister, pleaded in front of emperor Guangzong of Song Dynasty. On the surface, this imprisonment is a criminal case, but in fact, there are political reasons behind it. After he was released from prison, Chen Liang said: "Liang committed an unnecessary crime. At first, he wanted to injure his life with others. Later, he wanted to injure his body with bribes. He refused to go to prison, but he could not find a crime It can be said that it's very critical. "
Chen Liangjie was worried about the state affairs and the rejuvenation of the nation. In many letters, he put forward many good suggestions to the imperial court. Although he was appreciated by Xiaozong, he was not appointed.
In 1193, when Chen Liang was 51 years old, he took part in the Jinshi examination of the Ministry of rites. His strategy theory was highly appreciated by Guangzong and ranked first in the imperial examination. From then on, he won the first prize. In his poem of thanking song Guangzong, he said: "revenge is the ambition of one's life. It is not a Confucian official with grey hair on his temples." He also said in Kaowen of suizu: "if you can't report to your parents, don't replace them. In the past 70 years, the great responsibility has its own way. It is not the completion of a great task, but the real shame. "
After that, Chen Liang was appointed to Jiankang army and sentenced to official business. However, he died on March 26, 1194 at the age of 52 because of long-term "hardship, internal friction and high physique". Later, at the request of Ye Shi, the Minister of the Ministry of official affairs, the court granted Chen Liang a son as an official.
After Chen Liang died, his good friend Xin Qiji wrote a memorial to Chen Tongfu. In 1221, Ye Shi wrote the epitaph of Chen Tongfu and Wang Daofu.
In May 1238, at the suggestion of Qiao Xingjian, Prime Minister Zuo, Emperor LiZong of the Song Dynasty bestowed Chen Liang a posthumous title of "Wen Yi". In the early years of Chunyou, he began to worship the temples in Yixiang.
During the reign of Chunxi, Chen Liang wrote a letter to song Xiaozong, proposing to manage Jingxiang in order to restore the Central Plains. On the situation of Jingxiang area, he said: "the place of Jingxiang is connected with wuhui in the East, Bashu in the west, Huxiang in the south pole, Guanluo in the north, stretching from left to right, all of which are good opportunities to forge ahead. Now, if we can reclaim the land and wash the people, we can use it to vent our Qi, so that we can catch Guan Luo's Qi, and then we can compete with China. "
Chen Liang also thought that Qi and Qin were like two arms, "we must first lift Qi in the East and Qin in the west, then we can consolidate the things in our belly to the south of the great river and the north of Changhuai river." However, at that time, Qi and Qin were controlled by Jin people, and Jin people attached more importance to defending Qi and Qin than Jingxiang, so Jingxiang could maintain a situation of attack and defense in the Southern Song Dynasty: if Jin people attacked Huainan, song soldiers would go out from Jingxiang north, and then the pressure of Huainan would be reduced; if Jin people focused on Jingxiang, they would be restrained by the East and West forces
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