The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (Luxemburg: grossherzogtum L è tzebuerg, German: gro ß herzogtum Luxemburg, French: Grand Duch é de Luxemburg), referred to as Luxemburg, is located in the northwest of Europe, surrounded by neighboring France, Germany and Belgium. It is an inland country and the only remaining grand duchy in the European continent. Because of its small territory and many ancient castles, it is also called "pocket kingdom" and "country of thousand castles".
The terrain of Luxembourg is full of changes. In history, it is located in Germany and France. The terrain is dangerous. It has always been an important military fortress in Western Europe, and has the title of northern gibraltarian.
Luxembourg was unified in 963. From the 15th century to the 18th century, it was ruled by Spain, France and Austria, and became a grand duchy in 1815. It became a neutral state in 1867 and abandoned it in 1948.
Luxembourg is a highly developed capitalist country and the richest country in the world. It is one of the founding members of the European Union and NATO. It has a number of subordinate institutions of the European Union, such as the European Court of justice, the European audit house and the European investment bank. It is known as the "third capital" of the European Union after Brussels and Strasbourg. At the same time, it is a highly developed industrial country, the most important private banking center in the euro area, and the second largest investment trust center in the world after the United States. Finance, radio and television, and steel are the three pillar industries of its economy. The country's unemployment rate is very low, and the average life expectancy is 80 years old.
On December 26, 2019, Luxemburg ranked 66th in the top 500 cities of the world in 2019.
In ancient times, it belonged to Gaul region, and its inhabitants belonged to the Belgian tribe. It was conquered by the Roman Caesar army in the 1st century BC.
In the 5th century, the Franks invaded and became a part of the kingdom.
After the breakup of the Frankish Kingdom, Luxembourg became the territory of Sigfried, the Earl of Arden, in 963. In 1060, his descendant Conrad became the count of Luxembourg in the Holy Roman Empire, and the territory of Luxembourg was basically formed.
In 1308, count Henry IV of Luxemburg was elected as the Holy Roman emperor, known as Henry VII, which created the Luxemburg Dynasty of the Empire (1308-1437).
In 1364, Luxembourg became a duchy.
In the 15th century, Luxembourg was controlled by the Duke of Burgundy.
At the beginning of the 16th century, Charles I returned to the Habsburg dynasty.
In 1556, it came under the rule of the king of Spain.
From the end of the 16th century, the iron smelting industry in Luxembourg began to develop.
In the 17th century, Luxembourg was involved in a 30-year war.
In 1659, the Treaty of peace of Pyrenees was signed, and some areas in the south of Luxembourg were assigned to France.
From 1684 to 1697, France occupied all of Luxembourg.
After the war of Spanish Succession in 1714, Luxemburg was transferred to Austria with the western Netherlands.
From 1795 to 1814, France occupied Luxembourg.
In 1815, the Vienna conference decided that Luxembourg should be promoted to a grand duchy with King Netherland as its grand duchy. At the same time, it joined the German Confederation and was garrisoned by the Prussian army. Some areas in the east of Luxembourg belonged to Prussia.
In 1830, Netherland was divided into two kingdoms, the Netherlands and Belgium. In 1839, the Treaty of London stipulated that the western half of Luxembourg belonged to Belgium, and the eastern half became an independent country with the king of the Netherlands as its grand duke.
In 1848, the European Revolution spread to Luxembourg and began to formulate a constitutional monarchy.
In 1866, Luxembourg seceded from the German Confederation.
In 1867, the Treaty of London established Luxembourg as an independent and neutral country.
In 1868, a constitutional monarchy was made.
In 1890, he got rid of the rule of the king of the Netherlands and became independent of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg under the leadership of Nassau Weilburg.
At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, Luxembourg's economy developed rapidly, especially the iron and steel smelting industry became the main industry and developed industrial country.
In the first World War, the German army occupied Luxemburg, and the Dagong and the government were controlled by Germany.
In 1921, Luxembourg and Belgium entered into a customs economic union.
In 1944, the German army occupied Luxemburg during the Second World War. Dagong and the government went into exile in England. The people of Luxembourg fought against fascism.
In 1945, after the war, Luxembourg joined the United Nations.
In 1948, it established a customs economic union with Belgium and the Netherlands.
In 1949, he joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and gave up his status as a neutral country.
In 1958, he joined the European community.
In 1972, Luxembourg amended its constitution for the fourth time. Now there is a unicameral parliament in Luxembourg, to which the cabinet is responsible. The main political parties are the Christian socialist party, the Socialist Workers' Party and the Democratic Party.
On November 16, 1972, Luxembourg established diplomatic relations with China.
Since 1974, in order to adapt to the increasingly fierce competition in the international market and change the single situation of domestic economic structure, the government of Luxembourg has carried out the policy of industrial diversification and made some achievements. The economy has further developed. In the 1980s, the per capita steel output reached 16 tons, ranking far the top in the world and becoming one of the international financial centers.
It became a member of the Schengen zone in 1995 and one of the first Euro countries in May 1998.
Luxembourg is located in northwest Europe, bordering Germany in the East, France in the south, and Belgium in the West and North. For the land locked countries.
The terrain is high in the north and low in the south. The erslin area of Arden plateau in the North accounts for 1 / 3 of the whole area. In the south is the gutland plain.
The climate of Luxembourg belongs to the transitional climate between ocean and continent. The annual temperature is relatively moderate. The average temperature in January is 0.8 ℃, and that in July is 17.5 ℃; the annual average temperature is 9 ℃, and the average annual precipitation is 782.2 mm. The climate in the north is cold, the average temperature in winter is below 0 ℃, and the minimum temperature is about - 15 ℃; the average temperature in summer is about 18 ℃; the climate in the south is pleasant, the average temperature in winter is 2 ℃, and the average temperature in summer is 17.5 ℃ - 19.5 ℃. The average annual temperature is 9 ℃, and the average annual precipitation is 782.2mm.
Luxembourg is relatively poor in natural resources. The forest area is nearly 90000 hectares, accounting for about one third of the land area. Luxemburg is rich in iron resources, mainly distributed in the "laterite area" of the gutland plain in the south, with high iron content and maroon soil, so it is called "laterite country". In 2010, 270 million tons of iron ore reserves have been proved, which is the most important mineral resource in Luxembourg.
The country is divided into Luxemburg, Diekirch and grevenmacher, with 12 special districts and 106 towns. The governors of provinces and cities (towns) shall be appointed by the grand duke.
(as of 2013)
The name of Luxemburg comes from the name of its capital. In the 3rd century A.D., a fortress was built near buk, which was called lutzelburg by the Germanic Franks, which means small castle in ancient High German. Lutzel means small. In 963 ad, siegfruck, the younger brother of count Arden, built a castle on the ancient Roman road on the Bank of the arzette River, which was composed of a steep and tortuous gorge. He used the name luzer castle, which was later mistaken for the present name.
The Luxemburg flag is rectangular, with a ratio of 5:3 or 2:1. The flag is composed of three parallel equal horizontal rectangles, which are red, white and light blue from top to bottom. Red symbolizes the warm and brave national character, and also symbolizes the blood of martyrs who died in the struggle for national independence and national liberation; white symbolizes the simplicity of the people and the pursuit of peace; blue represents the blue sky, which means that the people have gained light and happiness. Together, the three colors symbolize equality, democracy and freedom.
The national emblem of Luxembourg is divided into three types, large, medium and small. The central design is a shield emblem, with ten horizontal bars painted in white and blue. In the middle is a red lion with a golden crown and an angry shape. There is a crown of Archduke on it. There are two lions guarding the shield in the middle. The national emblem of great power is the middle national emblem with a cloak, a grand duke crown on the top and a medal on the bottom. The great power emblem is in the form of a cloak. In the gold, red and white cloak with a golden crown on the top, there is an emblem. The shield is composed of white and blue parallel stripes, on which is painted a red lion standing upright with a crown. Red, white and blue are the colors of the national flag. There is a golden crown on the top of the emblem, a golden lion on each side, a ribbon around it, and an Okun medal hanging from the bottom. The national emblem symbolizes that Luxembourg is a grand duchy.
Our motherland, by Mikael Lenz, by Jane Anthony chennen.
National Anthem Lyrics:
Heaven, you have a strong hand to rule the lower countries and protect Luxembourg from foreign shackles and disasters.
Your spirit of freedom will always be rewarded to China, so that the bright sun of freedom will never set.
Let the bright free sun never set from now on.
The official languages of Luxembourg are French, German and Luxemburg.
Chinese PinYin : Lu Sen Bao
Zhang Jinlong. Zhang Jin Long
Huang Jingxin. Huang Jing Xin
He yingxuan. He Ying Xuan
Zhang Chao. Zhang Chao
Deng Linying. Deng Lin Ying
Fu Yujing. Fu Yu Jing
Bailey. Bei Li
Zhang Aiqin. Zhang Ai Qin
Tavani . Hu Jia Ai
Guo Minger. Guo Ming Er
Zheng Nan. Zheng Nan
consolidate. Gong Gu