Wu Rui (1928.8.14-2008.2.10), born in Beijing, China, is a biochemist, one of the important pioneering scholars in the fields of DNA sequencing, genetic engineering and biotechnology. He is an academician of Taiwan's Academia Sinica, a foreign academician of the Chinese Academy of engineering, and a professor of Cornell University.
In 1949, Wu Rui went to the United States with his family; in 1950, he received a bachelor's degree in chemistry from the University of Alabama; in 1955, he received a doctor's degree in biochemistry from the University of Pennsylvania; in February 1961, he became an American citizen; in 1966, he became an associate professor of Biochemistry and molecular biology of Cornell, and was promoted to a professor in 1972; from 1976 to 1978, he served as director of the Department of Biochemistry, molecular and cell biology of Cornell In 1982, he was elected as an academician of Taiwan's Academia Sinica; in 2001, he was elected as a foreign academician of the Chinese Academy of engineering; in 2003, he was elected as a member of the American Association for the advancement of science; in 2004, he was appointed as a professor of molecular biology and genetics.
Wu Rui's main research fields are molecular biology and plant biology. He has made outstanding contributions to the invention of genetic engineering technology and DNA sequencing methods.
Life of the characters
Wu Rui was born in Beijing in 1928. In January 1949, his father Wu Xian was invited to be a visiting professor at the University of Alabama, so his family went to the United States. In 1950, he received a bachelor's degree in chemistry from the University of Alabama. in 1955, he received a Ph.D. in biochemistry from the University of Pennsylvania, and then conducted postdoctoral research under Professor efriam racker of the New York City Institute of public health. In February 1961, Wu Rui became an American citizen. Before joining Cornell University, he also did some research work at Stanford University and the University of Pennsylvania. He is a senior research fellow of the Medical Research Council of the National Science Foundation at Cambridge laboratory in the United Kingdom, and a visiting associate professor of biology and chemistry at MIT. In 1966, he became associate professor of Biochemistry and molecular biology at Cornell University and was promoted to Professor in 1972. in 1976, he was the director of the Department of Biochemistry, molecular and cell biology of Cornell University (up to 1978). In March 1980, after 31 years of absence from the motherland, Wu Rui, 51, with his mother, mother-in-law, sister, sister and wife, returned to China for the first time and lived in Beijing and Shanghai for more than a month. In 1982, he was elected to the Academia Sinica of Taiwan. In 1988, he came to Taiwan on academic leave to establish the Institute of molecular biology of Academia Sinica, and served as the first director (until December 1989). In November 2001, he was elected as a foreign academician of the Chinese Academy of engineering. In 2003, he was elected a member of the American Association for the advancement of science. In 2004, he was appointed professor of molecular biology and genetics of liberty Hyde Bailey. On February 10, 2008, Wu Rui died of cardiac arrest at isaka youga medical center. He was 79 years old.
Achievements in scientific research
DNA sequencing methods
In 1970, Wu Rui first invented DNA sequencing and other DNA cloning techniques. After further improvement by other scientists, these methods have been applied to today, laying the foundation for the sequencing of rice and human genome. in 1971, Wu Rui applied primer extension to DNA sequencing, which became an important step in Sanger sequencing. Primer extension was also used in other two Nobel Prize projects: PCR by Kary Mullis and site directed mutation by Michael Smith. in 1976, he invented linker and adaptor, which were used in genetic engineering, including the synthesis of lactose operon with biological activity, and became an important condition for the development of cDNA cloning and differential display technology. since the 1980s, Wu Rui has made a leading contribution in rice transgenic technology. His laboratory has enhanced the resistance of rice to pests, drought and salt by transferring different genes. The principle is also applicable to other crops. After that, his team developed transgenic rice varieties resistant to insects, drought and salt. They isolated a protease inhibitor II from potatoes, which can induce rice to produce a protein that interferes with the digestive process of the stem borer, thereby inhibiting the insect's appetite and reducing insect damage. In another study, they transferred a barley gene that is resistant to salinity and drought into rice, allowing the rice to grow in saline conditions and quickly eliminate the damage caused by drought. In the third study, they introduced trehalose producing bacterial genes into a variety of widely cultivated rice varieties, thereby increasing rice tolerance to drought, salinity and temperature.
Jack Szostak, a doctoral student directed by Wu Rui (he studied biochemistry with Wu Rui in 1972 and continued postdoctoral research after graduation in 1977), won the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine in 2009. Dr. Wu Naihu, who was sent to Cornell University in 1983, is a professor at the Institute of genetics and developmental biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. At the beginning of 1981, Wu Rui learned that Professor Li Zhengdao of Columbia University in the United States had launched the cusbea program. He immediately contacted Li Zhengdao to explore the possibility of launching similar programs to help biology students study in the United States. Li Zhengdao appreciated this idea and contacted with senior Chinese officials, which eventually led to Wu Rui's creation of Sino US biochemistry program After many consultations with the Ministry of education, the number of students in cusbea program was determined to be up to 60 each year. From 1982 to 1989, more than 400 Chinese students were enrolled in cusbea program to study postgraduate courses in the United States, of which more than 100 were teaching in well-known universities or holding important positions in the industry.
On June 19, 1983, Wu Rui was employed as honorary professor of biochemistry in Beijing Medical College. From 1982 to 1995, Wu Rui served as the scientific consultant of the China Center for biotechnology development, chairman of the Scientific Advisory Committee of the Institute of bio Agricultural Sciences, Academia Sinica, chairman of the Advisory Committee on genetically modified plants projects of the National Science Council of Taiwan, and the Scientific Advisory Committee on genetic engineering and Biotechnology of the international exchange center of the National Science Council of Taiwan Chairman, etc.
Wu Rui's father, Wu Xian, is the first generation biochemist in China. His mother, Yan Caiyun, is the first female scholar in China to engage in biochemical research. Wu Rui is the eldest son of his family. He also has two elder sisters, Wu Wanxian and Wu Wanlian, one younger sister, Wu Wanming, and one younger brother, Wu Ying. Wu Rui and his wife Christina have two children, Albert Wu and Alice Wu.
With hundreds of admirers and friends from Cornell and even all over the world, he is a pioneer in the field of recombinant DNA technology and plant genetic engineering. (Professor, Department of molecular biology and genetics, Cornell University) VolkerM.Vogt ）Wu Rui often attends our plant breeding seminars. He always sits in the first row and takes notes carefully. I am very moved to see such an outstanding scientist interested in the basic work of postgraduates and always looking forward. (Elizabeth Earle, Professor of plant genetics and breeding) Wu Rui is not only a gentleman but also a scholar. His dedication to rice research, his enthusiasm for discovering new knowledge and his unremitting guidance to a whole generation of young scientists will be deeply missed by many of his friends, colleagues and students. He has made a great contribution to the development of rice transformation system, which has been widely used in the whole rice planting area and solved many problems restricting rice production. (Susan mccouch, Professor of plant genetics and breeding) Wu Rui is tireless in helping others. His generosity and spirit will accompany us forever. He and I have a dream to see our research achievements benefit people all over the world, and we strive for this dream. I am grateful to him for giving me a great opportunity to work in Cornell University and participate in the research of transgenic rice. (long term collaborator and senior research assistant of Wu Rui, Ajay Garg) Wu Rui has done a lot of fruitful work to promote the development of talent cultivation and high-tech field of bioengineering in China. His cusbea project has trained more than 400 Chinese students, among which more than 100 have become professor level discipline leaders. He once served as the director of the bioengineering Advisory Committee of the State Science and Technology Commission and the co chairman of the R & D planning committee of the Ministry of agriculture. He also helped Taiwan to establish the Institute of molecular biology and the Institute of bio Agricultural Sciences. He played an important role in promoting the development of biotechnology in China and promoting cross-strait exchanges and cooperation. (review by Chinese Academy of Engineering)
In 1997, Dr. Tang Zhaosheng, director of the Institute of molecular biology of Singapore, proposed the establishment of the Wu Rui foundation, which immediately received positive response from Chinese scholars in the United States. In February 1998, the wurui association was established in UCLA. In 2004, the Wu Rui association was renamed the Chinese biologists Association, representing more than 3000 Chinese in North America and other regions
Chinese PinYin : Wu Rui
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