Jin Jun, male, from Xiaoxian County, Anhui Province, was born in December 1957. He graduated from Chinese Department of Suzhou University in 1981. He works for the Propaganda Department of Xiaoxian county Party committee. Now he is the director of Chinese Calligraphers and Painters Association and Xiaoxian Calligraphers Association. He has been fond of calligraphy since childhood. After working, he studied calligraphy. He first started with Yan Kai, and then followed the trace of Wang Xizhi, a great calligrapher. He searched for cursive calligraphy among huaisu, Zhang Xu and Zhu Zhishan, and he has been following his hand for decades. Later, Liu Huimin, Yan zizhao and Zheng Zheng, the local famous calligraphers and painters, made his calligraphy works both elegant and elegant. His works have been shortlisted and won prizes in various national competitions for many times.
His works have been published in people's daily, Anhui Daily, Anhui economic daily, modern rural daily, Anhui Business Daily, dawn daily, Wanbei Morning Journal, etc. His works and biographies have been included in the dictionary of international contemporary calligraphers and painters and the list of contemporary Chinese celebrities.
It is the army of Jin Dynasty in Chinese history. The state of Jin rose in the north of Liao. The army of Jin destroyed Liao by destroying it and then the Northern Song Dynasty. In the military aspect, it adopted the meng'an-mou'ke system of unifying the army and the people, and its iron cavalry and firearms were excellent, which defeated many powerful countries one after another.
The Jin army can be divided into its own army, other army, State Army and national army. The first two are the main force, and the second two are the auxiliary wings. At first, slave owners and feudal lords should join the army. After taking possession of Han land, the system of conscription was mainly carried out. Han people and other ethnic minorities were issued as soldiers, which was called "conscription army". In the later period, the system of conscription was also carried out.
After the Jin dynasty ruled the Central Plains, it imitated the Han system and implemented the military salary, subsidies and other measures. There was an example of "reward" for retired officers. The surrender of the song army, often retain the original system, still with the Han generals.
The Jin army was also dominated by cavalry, followed by infantry. A cavalry with many horses is used to wearing heavy armour. With the increase of soldiers from different tribes, the number of infantry increased greatly. The size of the navy is also large, but its combat effectiveness is weak. In addition to cold weapons, guns, iron guns, flying muskets and other firearms are also used. Later, when Mongolia invaded the south, the Jin army used firearms to fight against Mongolia. Chizhan Hexi, the general of 1232, was stationed in Bianjing. "The one who guarded the city was famous for his artillery. He was famous for thunder. He was filled with medicine in an iron can. He lit it with fire, and the gun was on fire. His voice was like thunder. He heard it a hundred miles away, and he surrounded it for half an acre. The fire was burning and the armor and iron were penetrating.".
The military organs were originally set up with Dutong, but later changed to marshal's office and Privy Council to assist the emperor in commanding the whole army. During the war, the emperor appointed the prince to lead the army, and called him marshal, deputy marshal and other temporary positions. The border defense military institutions include the Department of recruitment and the Department of unifying the armed forces. The army of Jin Dynasty adopted the system of Meng an MOU Ke, which combined the social and military system, that is, the system of a hundred men and a thousand men. As early as the Nuzhen period, all adult men were soldiers. They were engaged in production at ordinary times and took part in fighting in war. Their weapons and food were almost self-sufficient. About 1000 households are divided into meng'an and about 100 households into mou'ke. Mou'ke is equivalent to a centurion and meng'an is equivalent to a chieftain. Wanhufu governs meng'an, and meng'an governs mou'ke. Under mou'ke, there are 50, 10, and Wu organizations. Most of the troops are allocated to one principal and one deputy. In wartime, the Deputy army can supplement the principal army. Soldiers are hereditary. Soldiers can be replaced by their children, but they cannot be slaves.
With the continuous southward movement of the Jin Dynasty, the system of mutual adaptation between the meng'an-muke system and the slavery system was gradually destroyed, "he was engaged in the study of Zhongzhou's floating and sweeping style while he was the best in pommel horse" (Volume 2 of Chen Liang Ji, one of the five treatises on Zhongxing, the theory of Zhongxing). It is a very common phenomenon that the feminism is weakening day by day. In the reign of emperor Shizong of the Jin Dynasty, aluhan was appointed as the commander of the Western Shaanxi army. "There are few military records in Shaanxi, and the old rules are supplemented by children, but there are too many materials to be used. Aluhan was selected and supplemented by Ali Xi and qigushou" (Biography of Bolu aluhan, volume 91 of the history of the Jin Dynasty).
When Jin people came to the Central Plains, they were in a weak position in economy and culture. This made them face the severe challenge of the strong culture of Han nationality from the day they ruled the Central Plains. In the collision and fusion of the two cultures, consciously accepting the excellent elements of heterogeneous culture and using them for our own use is the proper meaning of the development of a national civilization. Unfortunately, the aristocratic groups of Jin Dynasty, including officers at all levels of the army, had already lived a comfortable life supported by the Han people, and the whole society was in a state of singing and dancing. In this situation, they are not interested in the positive contents of Han culture, such as diligence and thrift, self-improvement, but they are infatuated with the negative parts, especially the rich and extravagant lifestyle of the Central Plains aristocrats, which is characterized by the strong living room, the expensive public space and the extravagant entertainment. According to historical records, at that time, these people changed their Han names one after another, with the fashion of "elegant songs, Confucian costumes, sending interest and chanting" as the fashion. Many people also lingered in the GouLan tile shop all day long, indulging in the sound and lust of dogs and horses. The heroic and enterprising characteristics of the Nuzhen people have long been lost. Coupled with the lack of strict training in a peaceful environment, the Jin army was increasingly relaxed. For example, the Jin army was famous for its riding and shooting skills, but once on the birthday of emperor Shizong, the Jin imperial guard won only seven arrows in the archery competition with the mission of the Southern Song Dynasty, but the other side even won 50 arrows. He was so angry that emperor Shizong scolded them on the spot for "eating well, sleeping well and being lazy". The decline of military equipment in Jin Dynasty can be seen from this.
Shi Xu has a poem: "Lang Jun sits on a horse, carves an arc in his arms, and twists a pair of golden maids in his hands. After all, where can Taiping be used? It can only be used to decorate the map of early travel. " It is known that "if the imperial army is not available, the poet is deeply worried.". In 1168, the imperial court selected bodyguards from Meng an MOU Ke, but "most of them can't bow and arrow" (Biography of Heshi lieliang Bi, Volume 88 of Jin history). After the rise of Mongolia, the Jin army was defeated in the battle of Yehuling and finally moved to Bianjing.
When hedonism and extravagance became the mainstream value orientation of a dynasty and infiltrated into the core parts of the regime, including the army, even if the supreme authorities called for it, they could not go back. In 1234, the main force of the Jin army was besieged and annihilated by the Mongolian and song allied forces in caizhou, and the Jin Dynasty came to the end of its history.
Chinese PinYin : Jin Jun1
Chen Qiuyan. Chen Qiu Yan
Li Jun. Li Jun4
Li Jide. Li Ji De
Ma Zhiqin. Ma Zhi Qin
Ma Guoyao. Ma Guo Yao
Quan Xiuxian. Quan Xiu Xian
Fang Chao. Fang Chao
Liu wuqi. Liu Wu Qi
Ma Xinmo. Ma Xin Mo
Zhao Yuanyuan. Zhao Yuan Yuan
Wang Qian. Wang Qian
Chen Qian. Chen Qian