Qiu Chuji (1148-1227), whose name is tongmi, was born in Qixia, Dengzhou (now in Shandong Province). He was a Taoist in the Jin Dynasty and early Yuan Dynasty, and one of the "north seven truths" of Quanzhen School of Taoism. At the age of 74, he went to the western regions to persuade Genghis Khan to stop killing his people.
Life of the characters
Qiu Chuji became a monk at the age of 19. The next year, he worshipped Wang Chongyang as his teacher and followed him. He was very close to Xuanji. Together with Danyang son Ma Yu, Chang Zhenzi Tan chuduan, Chang Shengzi Liu chuxuan, Changchun son Qiu Chuji, Yu Yangzi Wang Chuyi, Guang ningzi Hao Datong and Qingjing Sanren sun Buer, he was called "Quanzhen seven sons". After his emergence, Wang Chongyang lived in a cave in Shaanxi Province for six years, painstakingly practicing Taoism. Later, he lived in seclusion in Longmen Mountain (now Southeast of Baoji City) for 7 years. In 1190, the emperor ordered the people of Qichang to return to the capital. In the autumn of 1214, the second year of Zhenyou, yang'an'er volunteer army in Shandong Province was successfully recruited. Jin Ting and the Southern Song Dynasty sent envoys to invite him, but they did not answer the imperial edict. After hearing his name, Emperor Taizu of the Yuan Dynasty sent envoys to invite him from Naiman (now in Mongolia). Qiu Chuji resolutely led 18 disciples to travel thousands of miles from Laizhou. After two years, he arrived at Daxueshan in the western regions. When Taizu asked him how to govern the world, he answered that he should take "respecting the heaven and loving the people" as the foundation; when he asked about the way of long-term vision, he answered that he should have a clear mind and few desires; and he said that those who want to unify the world "must care about not killing people.". Taizu deeply understood his words, received a lot of courtesy, and respected him as an immortal. Later, Li Zhichang, Qiu's disciple, wrote the journey of Changchun immortal to the West. After Qiu Chuji returned to Yanjing (today's Beijing), Taizu gave him a tiger amulet and a seal, ordered him to take charge of Taoism in the world, and issued an imperial edict to exempt all taxes and duties of Taoists. Therefore, Qiu Chuji issued an ultimatum, established eight churches, such as equality, Changchun and Lingbao, established a large number of temples, set up altars for Jiao, opened up four sects at one time, and gathered Taoist partners, which made great development of Quanzhen Taoism. In 1227, the 22nd year of emperor Taizu of Yuan Dynasty, Qiu Chuji emerged in Baoxuan hall and was buried in chushun Hall of Baiyunguan (now Qiuzu Hall of Baiyunguan in Beijing). In 1269, the sixth year of the reign of emperor Shizu of the Yuan Dynasty, he issued an imperial edict to present "the immortal bishop of Changchun performing Taoism". In the third year of yuanwuzong's reign (1310), he was granted the title of "Changchun Quande deifying Mingying Zhenjun" and later called "Changchun Zhenren".
The Dragon sect founded by Qiu Chuji is the main sect of Quanzhen Taoism. He basically inherited Wang Chongyang's thought, and advocated that pure heart and few desires were the foundation of cultivation. He has written two volumes of "Da Dan Zhi Zhi", which systematically expounds the theory and method of internal alchemy cultivation. In addition, he also wrote the six volume of "Xi Xi Ji", which was kept in the orthodox daozang. Qiu Chuji has many disciples, such as Yin Zhiping, Li Zhichang, song Defang, and so on. They are all well-known scholars. Yin Zhiping's beiyoulu and other books creatively inherited and developed Qiu Chuji's thought of three religions in one, which is one of the most important theoretical works of Quanzhen Taoism in Yuan Dynasty.
Revitalizing Quanzhen Taoism and Taoism as a whole
Although Qiu Chuji has been engaged in religious activities for a long time, he has a keen insight into social problems. He knew that the development of religion must be fully supported by the ruling class. In the 28th year of Dading (1188), he first won the favor of Jin Shizong, who believed in Taoism at that time. He publicized his ideas to the supreme ruler and achieved success. Jin Shizong not only personally gave Da Tao a commendation and let him preside over the Spring Festival ceremony, but also ordered the statue of Wang Chongyang, founder of Quanzhen Taoism, to be built in the temple as a memorial, which undoubtedly played an important role for Qiu Chuji to expand the influence of Quanzhen Taoism and improve his social status.
In the third year of Taihe (1203), Liu chuxuan died, and Qiu Chuji was the fifth leader of Quanzhen Taoism. From 1203 to 1219, he preached in Penglai, Zhiyang, Yexian, Beihai and Jiaoxi. After meeting Genghis Khan in the snow mountain, Qiu Chuji made use of the palace to issue an ultimatum, appeased a large number of civilians and made them join the Quanzhen Taoism, thus exempting them from the exorbitant taxes. At that time, the influence was so great that people from all walks of life swarmed into the gate of Quanzhen Taoism. Literati and officials were proud to be friends with Quanzhen Taoists. Other schools of Taoism and even some Buddhist temples also put up the banner of Quanzhen Taoism. In the spring of 1224, Qiu Chuji presided over Tianchang temple at the invitation of Yanjing officials. In 1227, Genghis Khan issued an imperial edict to change the name of Tianchang temple to Changchun Palace (now baiyun temple in Beijing), and presented it with a "golden tiger card", saying that "all Taoist affairs should be handled by the" immortals ", that is, he asked Qiu Chuji to take charge of Taoism in the world. Taking Changchun palace as the base of Quanzhen religion, Qiu Chuji established Taoist temples in various places and promoted them to the whole country. With the support of the Yuan government, Quanzhen Taoism was prosperous for a time. Qiu Chuji has been in charge of Taoism for 24 years. During this period, he actively exerted his influence in politics and society, making the development of Quanzhen Taoism and even the whole Taoism prosperous.
Seeing Genghis Khan's "stop killing" on his journey to the West
In May 1219, Genghis Khan sent envoys to Shandong to invite Qiu Chuji to meet the Mongol Empire. In the first month of the lunar calendar in 1220, Qiu Chuji selected 18 disciples, including Yin Zhiping, to leave Haotian temple in Shandong Province and set out for the West. At this time, he was 73 years old. After twists and turns, in April 1222, Qiu Chuji arrived at baluwan palace in the "big snow mountain" (today's Hindu Kush mountain) via Tiemenguan to meet Genghis Khan, realizing the meeting of the dragon and the horse (Genghis Khan belongs to the horse, Qiu Chuji belongs to the Dragon). In the autumn and winter of the same year, Genghis Khan summoned Qiu Chuji three times to inquire about the methods of governing the country and keeping in good health. Genghis Khan ordered Yelu Chucai to compile these dialogues into Xuanfeng qinghuilu. Li Zhichang, one of the 18 disciples who followed Qiu Chuji all the way to the west, later wrote a book named "journey of Changchun immortal to the west", which has important historical value.
Qiu Chuji's meeting with Genghis Khan is an epoch-making event with profound significance in the history of religion. According to the records of xuanfengqinghuilu, Qiu Chuji's influence on Genghis Khan is mainly reflected in the following aspects: first, he publicized the policy of "eliminating violence and stopping killing", which alleviated the cruel killing policy of the Mongolian rulers to the people in the conquered areas to a certain extent. Aiming at Genghis Khan's desire for longevity, Qiu Chuji urged him to combine the pursuit of immortality with good deeds, and advised Genghis Khan that the key to maintaining his life was to "consolidate the spirit inside and cultivate the virtue outside". The spirit of internal consolidation is not to invade everywhere, and the external cultivation of Yin virtue is to stop killing. In the later period of Genghis Khan's reign in the Central Plains, the policy was moderate. Mu Huali and his successors, who were officials in Shandong Province, mostly adopted recruitment measures against local resistance. Of course, it was driven by many factors, but Qiu Chuji's snow mountain theory undoubtedly had an important impact. Since then, Qiu Chuji continued to advise the general of Mengyuan to reduce the slaughter of the people. The second is to publicize the thought of helping the world and the people, which has made contributions to the restoration and development of the social economy in the Central Plains, the relief of the poor people, and the stability of social order.
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