Zhang Zhizhong (October 27, 1890 - April 6, 1969), male, originally named Ben Yao, was later renamed Zhi Zhong, whose name was Wen Bai. He was born in Chaoxian County, Anhui Province (now Chaohu), a key general of Huangpu department, a second-class general of the Chinese National Revolutionary Army, and a patriot. In 1932, he was the commander of the Fifth Army during the Anti Japanese war in Songhu on January 28, 1932. In November 1937, he was the chairman of Hunan Province and was dismissed because of the "11.13 Changsha Fire" incident. In 1945, he was transferred to the Political Department of the Kuomintang military commission and Secretary of the three people's principles Youth League; in 1949, he called General Tao Zhiyue and Xinjiang chairman Bao erhan to promote the peaceful liberation of Xinjiang; after the founding of the people's Republic of China, he successively served as vice chairman of the northwest military and political Commission, vice chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, vice chairman of the National Defense Commission of the people's Republic of China, vice chairman of the National Defense Commission of the people's Republic of China, vice chairman of the northwest military Members of the National Committee of the Chinese people's Political Consultative Conference and vice chairman of the Central Committee of the Revolutionary Committee of the Chinese Kuomintang have made contributions to promoting national unity and socialist construction. He died in Beijing in 1969.
During his tenure in the Kuomintang, Zhang Zhizhong was recognized and valued by Chiang Kai Shek, but he insisted on the peaceful coexistence between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party. After the liberation war, Zhang Zhizhong was known as the "General of peace" in view of his contribution to China's peace. The former residence of Zhang Zhizhong is reserved as a memorial. His works include Memoirs of Zhang Zhizhong, etc.
Life of the characters
Zhang Zhizhong was born on October 27, 1890. His grandfather was a farmer and his father was a handicraft worker. Zhang Zhizhong entered a private school at the age of six and studied for ten years. Because of his poor family in his youth, he wandered around in the next six years. He once worked as an apprentice in the shop "Lv Desheng" run by a boss named LV Weicai in fenglehe town (now Feixi County), Anhui Province. Since then, he began to contact and read newspapers and liked to write accounts. In his autobiography, he intended to take this as the starting point of his wandering life. After that, he served as a backup soldier in the salt smuggling camp in Yangzhou, served as a backup policeman in Anqing patrol police station, and then went to Yangzhou Patrol Police Training Institute for training. Three months later, he graduated and became a full-time policeman.
In 1911, when the revolution of 1911 broke out, Zhang Zhizhong took part in the anti Qing uprising in Yangzhou.
In 1912, he entered the army's second preparatory school.
In 1916, he graduated from the third infantry division of Baoding military academy.
In 1917, he went to Guangdong to participate in the law protection movement, and successively served as company commander, battalion commander, general staff of Guangdong Guangxi army headquarters, division chief of staff and general staff of Guangxi Army Academy.
At the beginning of the 13th year of the Republic of China (1924), he expressed his support for Sun Yat Sen's establishment of the three revolutionary policies. In December, he served as the acting chief and head of the military corps of the third phase of the Huangpu Military Academy. At the same time, he also served as the chief of staff of the second division of the National Revolutionary Army and the chief of staff of the Guangzhou garrison command. He has worked closely with Zhou Enlai and Yun Daiying, members of the Communist Party of China, and formed a profound friendship.
In July 1926, he took part in the Northern Expedition and successively served as the deputy commander of the general command of the National Revolutionary Army and the chief educator of Wuhan Branch of Huangpu Military Academy. After that, he once went to Europe and America for investigation.
After July 1928, he served as the director of the training department and the director of education of the Central Army Academy of the Kuomintang. He also served as the division commander of the second division of the Kuomintang. He took part in Chiang Kai Shek's war against Feng Yuxiang and Yan Xishan.
In January 1932, he was also the commander of the Fifth Army and led his troops to take part in the Songhu Anti Japanese war on January 28 in Shanghai, which dealt a heavy blow to the Japanese army.
In December 1933, he was the commander in chief of the Fourth Army of the Kuomintang. He led the army into Fujian and took part in the siege of Fujian people's government.
When the Xi'an incident happened in 1936, he advocated a peaceful settlement.
the period of the war of Resistance Against Japan
After the outbreak of the Anti Japanese war in 1937, he served as commander in chief of the ninth group army and commander in chief of the left wing army, took part in the "August 13" Anti Japanese war in Shanghai (Songhu battle), and replaced He Jian as chairman of Hunan Province. From November 20, 1937 to January 17, 1939, in any year and two months, he cooperated with the Hunan Provincial Committee of the Communist Party of China to promote the rapid development of the Anti Japanese and national salvation movement in Hunan, which laid the ideological, organizational and mass foundation for the victory of the positive anti Japanese war. At that time, the person in charge of the Hunan Provincial Committee of the Communist Party of China called it the "golden age" of the cooperation between Hunan and the Communist Party of China.
In 1938, Zhang Zhizhong, as the top military commander of Hunan Province, launched the "scorched earth policy", mistaking the "new wall River" three hundred miles away from Changsha for the "New River" five kilometers away, which led to an ancient "11.13 Changsha Fire". The fire lasted five days and nights from November 13 to 17, destroying the prosperity of the ancient city for two thousand years. Changsha became one of the cities that suffered the most losses during the Anti Japanese war. The strategic mistakes of the military authorities and the humiliation of the military and political authorities in Hunan Province were considered to be the direct causes of the disaster. Therefore, Zhang Zhizhong, as the military and political chief of Hunan Province at that time, was also to blame. On November 20, he was dismissed from his post due to the Changsha fire.
In the 29th year of the Republic of China (1940), he was Minister of the Political Department of the Military Commission of the national government and Secretary General of the three people's principles Youth League. In these important posts, Zhang Zhizhong worked hard and set up self-discipline such as "strictly keeping secrets" and "few words and opinions" for himself. He was careful in his words and deeds and worked hard, which won the favor of Chiang Kai Shek.
In 1941, after the Wannan incident, he wrote to Chiang Kai Shek and advocated to continue the cooperation between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party and resist Japan together.
In May 1945, he was elected to the Executive Committee and Standing Committee of the Central Committee of the Kuomintang at the Sixth National Congress of the Kuomintang. Entrusted by Zhou Enlai, Zhang Zhizhong successfully rescued more than 100 Communist Party cadres who had been imprisoned by Sheng Shicai for many years in Xinjiang, made them return to Yan'an safely, and preserved a number of important backbone forces for the Communist Party. After the victory of the Anti Japanese War, he served as the director of the northwest camp of the Kuomintang government and chairman of Xinjiang province. He rescued a group of Communists who were imprisoned in Xinjiang by Sheng Shicai and returned to Yan'an. During the second Civil Revolutionary War, he was the only Kuomintang general who had never fought with the Communist Party, and was known as the "General of peace". On behalf of the Kuomintang, he went to Yanan many times to negotiate with the Communist Party.
War of Liberation
In January 1946, he represented the Kuomintang in the three member group of military mediation and advocated peaceful settlement of domestic problems.
In April 1949, he served as the chief representative of the peace negotiation delegation of the Kuomintang government. He went to Peiping to negotiate with the representatives of the Communist Party of China. The two sides agreed on Article 24 of the internal peace agreement. After the agreement was rejected by the KMT government, Zhou Enlai accepted his advice to stay in Peiping and issued a statement on the current situation. In September, he participated in the first plenary session of the Chinese people's Political Consultative Conference and the founding ceremony, and contributed to the peaceful liberation of Xinjiang.
On May 4, 1949, the Executive Yuan ordered Zhang Zhizhong to be removed from the post of military and political chief in Northwest China and replaced by Guo Jiqiao. On June 26 of the same year, Zhang Zhizhong issued "my statement on the current situation", stating his "political proposition of peaceful nation building and the political rebirth of the state and individuals", which is tantamount to declaring his separation from the Guangzhou national government. He was the only super heavyweight who belonged to the Communist Party of China among the senior generals of Huangpu's core, the highest ruling group at that time, and had a great impact on the top leadership of the Kuomintang at that time. In August of the same year, Zhang Zhizhong was invited to attend the first plenary session of the Chinese people's Political Consultative Conference. In September of the same year, he called Tao Zhiyue and baoerhan to promote the peaceful liberation of Xinjiang. He was expelled from the Kuomintang Central Committee in October.
After the founding of new China
Since the founding of the people's Republic of China in October 1949, he has successively served as vice chairman of the northwest military and political Commission, vice chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, vice chairman of the National Defense Commission of the people's Republic of China, member of the National Committee of the Chinese people's Political Consultative Conference, and vice chairman of the Central Committee of the Revolutionary Committee of the Chinese Kuomintang. He has made contributions to promoting national unity and socialist construction.
He died in Beijing on April 6, 1969.
Achievements and contributions
In 1924, during the first cooperation between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party, Zhang Zhizhong firmly supported Dr. Sun Yat Sen's three major policies of "uniting Russia, uniting the Communist Party and supporting agriculture and industry", which played a role in promoting the stability of the domestic situation.
In 1939, he took charge of Hunan Province and put forward "honesty, uprightness, bravery and diligence" as the training of Hunan Province. At the same time, he punished corruption with the spirit of solemnity and meticulousness. The whole society took on a new look. He resolutely carried out the policy of uniting the Communist Party against Japan and made Hunan one of the Anti Japanese bases.
After the outbreak of the Anti Japanese war in 1938, Zhang Zhizhong, as a representative of the Kuomintang, negotiated with the Communist Party for many times to ensure the stability of the Kuomintang Communist United Anti Japanese front.
In 1946, Zhang Zhizhong repeatedly rescued 131 Communist Party members arrested in Xinjiang, including 23 children, which laid the foundation for the peaceful liberation of Xinjiang.
During the Chongqing negotiation in 1945 and the Beiping negotiation in 1949, he negotiated peace with the Communist Party of China on behalf of the Kuomintang. In September 1949, he called General Tao Zhiyue and chairman Bao erhan of Xinjiang to promote the peaceful liberation of Xinjiang and made great contributions to peace.
After the founding of the people's Republic of China, Zhang Zhizhong thought over the country's major policies and important general plans, and put forward many of his own opinions and suggestions for the decision-making of the central leadership.
From 1925 to 1926, he took part in the first and second Eastern expeditions to pacify the rebellion of Yang Ximin and Liu Zhenhuan, the warlords of Yunnan and Guangxi
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