Wu Zuguang (Wu Zhaoshi, Wu Shao) (1917-2003), one of the most influential, famous and legendary cultural elders in contemporary China, is a native of Changzhou, Jiangsu Province, a famous scholar, dramatist, calligrapher and social activist.
The main representative works include the drama Phoenix, Zhengqi song, returning on a snowy night, wandering in the river and lake, Pingju flower as a medium, Peking Opera three hits of pottery and three springs, director's film Mei Lanfang's stage art, Cheng Yanqiu's stage art, and six volumes of Wu Zuguang anthology.
Wu Zuguang's ancestral home is Wujin County, Jiangsu Province. He was born in Beijing in April 1917. His father Wu Ying was an official, but he was famous for his poems, essays, books and paintings. He was also a connoisseur of cultural relics. The cultural atmosphere of the family has a certain influence on young Wu Zuguang. When he was in middle school, he not only tried his literary works for the first time, published some poems and essays, but also was attracted by the special charm of Peking opera art. He went to the opera garden, held up "actors" and indulged in them. He unconsciously accepted the enlightenment education of drama art. This had a profound impact on his later drama creation. After graduating from middle school, he entered the literature department of Sino French university and studied for only one year. At the invitation of dramatist Yu Shangyuan, he went to Nanjing National Academy of drama as secretary of the president's office, and later served as a teacher of Chinese language and Chinese drama history. From then on, I got to know Cao Yu, a playwright who taught in the school. Six months after arriving in Nanjing, the school moved to Changsha, Hunan, Chongqing, Sichuan and Jiang'an. In 1937, when the Anti Japanese war broke out, Wu Zuguang finished his first play Phoenix. The play was widely performed in Hong Kong as well as in the front and back, and was highly praised. This encouraged the author to choose screenwriting as his lifelong career. During the ten years from 1937 to 1947, Wu Zuguang created eleven plays, and with his unique artistic contribution, he gained his position in the history of modern drama.
The development of reality and the author's deepening life experience promote the change of his artistic creation in thought and art. Wu Zuguang's drama creation has experienced three different stages of development. At the beginning of the Anti Japanese War, inspired by his high patriotic enthusiasm, he wrote "phoenix", "children's army" and "Zhengqi song", which is the first stage. At this time, whether based on reality or history, he focused on the current national struggle to resist foreign enemies and defend the motherland. The four act play Phoenix is based on the deeds of Miao Kexiu, a martyr of the Northeast Anti Japanese volunteer army. The play eulogizes Miao Kexiu's hard and tenacious struggle against Japanese aggressors under the leadership of the "Chinese young iron blooded army" in the White Mountains and black waters. Some scenes are fascinating, vivid and moving. However, in the initial stage of drama, he is not proficient in plot structure, character description and language refining. In some places, he still applies the old drama techniques he learned from the drama garden. At this time, the audience of the national crisis first asked for a clear Anti Japanese theme and patriotic passion. Therefore, the play aroused strong repercussions. The one act children's drama "children's army" (1939) continues the theme of "phoenix", which describes the story of primary school students in enemy occupied areas who become Anti Japanese children's army.
Before the founding of the people's Republic of China
In 1934, the novel "the resentment of Gong e" was his first work. After the July 7th incident, he went to Hunan and Sichuan with drama schools to teach Chinese and Chinese drama history. He studied liberal arts in China and France University in 1936. In 1937, Wu Zuguang was appointed secretary of the principal office of Nanjing National Academy of drama. In the same year, he created the Anti Japanese drama Phoenix, which became a powerful weapon for the national drama circle to fight against the Japanese aggressors. In the following years, he created songs of righteousness, returning home on a snowy night, running at night in Linchong, cowherd and weaver girl, and youth travel, which made a great impact on the drama world. All the above works were included in Wu Zuguang's drama selections. In 1945, the supplement of Xinmin Evening News, edited by him, first published Mao Zedong's poem Qinyuan spring · snow. In 1946, he founded the "luminous cup" supplement of Xinmin Evening News and the "Qingming" magazine in Shanghai. He also created "ghost catching biography" and the new drama "Chang'e rushes to the moon" to denounce the reactionary rule of the Kuomintang. Later, he was persecuted by the Kuomintang reactionaries and fled to Hong Kong. In 1947, he edited and directed many films in Hong Kong, such as "the soul of the nation", "never lose youth", "tears of mountains and rivers", "spring breeze and autumn rain" and "returning home on a snowy night". After the founding of the people's Republic of China, Wu Zuguang successively created the film "red flag song" and children's drama "except for the four evils" reflecting the spinning women.
From 1937 to 1948, Wu Zuguang was a lecturer of Nanjing National Academy of drama, director of Chongqing Central Youth Drama Society and China drama society, supplement of Xinmin Evening News, editor in chief of Qingming magazine, director of Hong Kong Greater China Film Company and director of Hong Kong Yonghua film company.
After the founding of the people's Republic of China
After 1949, Wu Zuguang served as director of the Central Film Bureau and Beijing Film Studio, director of Mudanjiang cultural troupe, screenwriter of China Opera School, China Opera Research Institute and Beijing opera academy, professional creator of art Bureau of the Ministry of culture, member of China Federation of literary and art circles, executive director and vice chairman of China Dramatists Association, and honorary chairman of Friendship Publishing Company. After the founding of the people's Republic of China, Wu Zuguang published drama series "snow collection", prose collection "flowers of art", and directed many art films. After 1954, Wu Zuguang directed films "Mei Lanfang's stage art", "Luoshen" and "tears of barren mountains", which left precious materials for Mei Lanfang and Cheng Yanqiu, two masters of Beijing opera. In 1957, he was wrongly classified as a rightist and transferred to Beidahuang (Heilongjiang reclamation area) to work.
He returned to Beijing in 1960 and worked as a playwright in the experimental Peking Opera Troupe of the Central Opera School and Beijing Peking Opera Troupe. He wrote such plays as Wu Zetian, Feng QiuHuang and San Da Tao San Chun. He is a member of the fifth to eighth CPPCC National Committee. In 1963, he and his wife Xin Fengxia rewritten the screenplay of Pingju "flower is the medium", which can be regarded as a model for the renovation of traditional opera. In 1979, he was transferred to the art Bureau of the Ministry of culture to engage in professional creation. After smashing the gang of four, he wrote the Peking Opera "Red Lady" and the drama "wandering the river", both of which were very popular. On April 9, 2003, he died of coronary heart disease in Beijing at the age of 86.
Bibliography of research materials
The stage art of returning home on a snowy night (edited by Wang Zheng et al.), 1984, drama
Wu Zuguang's joys and sorrows (Xu Guorong, Zhang Jie), 1986, Sichuan literature and art museum
San Da Tao San Chun
Wu Zuguang's works in the 1960s were made into color stage art feature films by Changchun Film Studio in 1983.
In the Five Dynasties, Zheng en, a wandering hero, was beaten by Tao Sanchun, a melon girl, for stealing watermelons. When Zhao Kuangyin saw her outstanding talent and appearance, he matched her up, and Zheng en was married to Tao Sanchun.
After Chai Rong ascended the throne, he granted Zhao Kuangyin the title of king of Nanping and Zheng en the title of king of Beiping, and granted Zheng en permission to marry Sanchun. Sanchun missed Zheng en day and night after she left. The imperial envoy asked her to go to Beijing to get married. She rode a donkey and led her younger brother Tao Hu to the capital. When they came to Shilibao outside Bianjing City, they met Gao Huaide, a general sent by Zhao Kuangyin and Zheng en. Gao Huaide disguised himself as a red bearded horse and threatened to make Tao Sanchun his wife. Tao Sanchun was very angry and fought with him. After a fierce battle, Tao Sanchun defeated Xiangma. Gao Huaide in helpless, spit out the truth. After hearing the news, Tao Sanchun burst into the palace in anger and wanted to settle with Zheng en.
Zheng en saw Tao Sanchun break into the golden hall and hide quietly. Chai Rong saw that Sanchun had no court, and ordered the imperial army to take her down. The imperial army was beaten by Sanchun, and General Gao huailiang was also beaten to the ground. Chai Rong had to order Zhao Kuangyin to find Zheng en overnight and marry them.
Zheng en asked about the results of the battle of Shilibao? Gao Huaide lied that he secretly shot the eagle feather arrow and shot Sanchun off the mount. After hearing this, Zheng en thought that he had destroyed the prestige of Sanchun, and then he went back to the mansion to get married. In order to put on the airs of the Lord, Zheng en said he was thirsty in the bridal chamber and asked Sanchun to pour him tea. Sanchun suppressed his anger and ignored it. When he found that there was oil Bangzi on the table, he thought that Sanchun intended to humiliate him and asked the maid to take the family law to punish Sanchun. Sanchun couldn't bear it. He started with Zheng en and knocked him to the ground in a few rounds. Knowing that he was invincible, Zheng en ran out of the bridal chamber and called Gao Huaide to help. Gao Huaide has gone nowhere.
After hearing the news, Chai Rong and Zhao Kuangyin came to persuade them to fight. In front of them, Tao Sanchun established selling oil clappers as the law of the Zheng family to show that he would never forget his roots. Zheng en kneels down to apologize and admits his mistake. The couple make up. Chai Rongfeng and Tao Sanchun, as a brave wife of Yipin, were allowed to participate in the government.
Flowers as a medium
In 1963, it was produced by Changchun Film Studio and written by Wu Zuguang. This screenplay is known as a model of the renovation of traditional opera.
Wang Junqing and her cousin Li Yuee, childhood sweetheart, two small love, vow to marry forever. Wang Mu thought sun XINCHE and entrusted Ruan Ma to marry Junqing. Ruan Ma agreed with Zhang Wuke for him, but Junqing refused. After several questions, Junqing confides her true feelings, but Yuee doesn't marry her, and she will never empathize with others. The queen mother was helpless and asked Ruan Ma to go to yue'e's house to talk to her.
Li Maolin, the father of yue'e, thinks that the relationship between men and women is not good enough and refuses to marry. Junqing learned of this, and her condition is getting worse. Ruan Junqing would like to go to the garden, and Wang Yuqing would like to see her. But Junqing was seriously ill and couldn't go. Ruan Ma had another plan and asked her cousin Jia Junying to go on a blind date. Junying and Wuke meet in the garden. Wuke shows that he is very talented and elegant. He gives a red rose to show his promise. Junying presents the red rose to Junqing. Junqing refuses, and Ruan's mother gives advice to the queen mother
Chinese PinYin : Wu Zu Guang
Zhao Yongyao. Zhao Yong Yao
Yin Zongjie. Yin Zong Jie
Wen Guiyu. Wen Gui Yu
Huang Lijia. Huang Li Jia
Wei Lai. Wei Lai
Zhang Yanli. Zhang Yan Li
Li Zhenwei. Li Zhen Wei
Zhang Songlin. Zhang Song Lin
Shen Dawei. Shen Da Wei
crystal. Shui Jing
Wang Jiaru. Wang Jia Ru
Zhang Mingjie. Zhang Ming Jie