The Zhuang nationality (Zhuang: bouxcuengh, English: bourau), formerly known as the Zhu long nationality, is a minority with the largest population in China. The national language is Zhuang, belonging to the Zhuang Dai branch of the Zhuang Dong nationality of the Sino Tibetan language family.
The Zhuang nationality originates from the "Xi'ou" and "Luo Yue" living in Lingnan area recorded in the historical records of the Han nationality in the pre-Qin, Qin and Han Dynasties. The Zhuang nationality is distributed in 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government. It mainly lives in the south, starting from Lianshan Zhuang and Yao Autonomous County in Guangdong Province in the East and Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan Province in the West, It reaches Congjiang County, Qiandongnan Miao and Dong Autonomous Prefecture, Guizhou Province in the north and Beibu Gulf in the south. Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region is the main distribution area of Zhuang nationality.
On October 12, 1965, according to the proposal of Zhou Enlai, then Premier of the State Council, and with the consent of the Zhuang people, and with the formal approval of the State Council, the word "Tong" of the Tong Nationality was changed into a strong word "Zhuang". According to the statistics of the sixth national census in 2010, the total population of Zhuang nationality is 16926381.
Zhuang Nationality Wiki:
|Chinese name||Zhuang Nationality|
|Domestic distribution||Guangxi, Guangdong, Yunnan, Guizhou, Hunan and other places|
|faith||Zhuang Taoism, Mohism, ancestors, nature worship|
|Traditional handicrafts||Zhuang brocade, hydrangea, bamboo woven goods|
|national culture||Bronze drum, folk song, drama|
|Medical achievements||Zhuang Medicine|
|Foreign distribution||Europe, America, Japan, Thailand, Vietnam|
Chinese PinYin : Zhuang Zu
Zhuang and Buzhuang were originally called Zhuang people. Translated and written in Chinese history books as "bump" and "Huo", the pronunciation of "Zhuang" was first seen in the literature of the Song Dynasty. After the founding of new China, it was uniformly written as "Tong".
On October 12, 1965, according to the proposal of Zhou Enlai, then Premier of the State Council, and with the consent of the Zhuang people, and with the formal approval of the State Council, the word "Tong" of the Tong Nationality was changed into a strong word "Zhuang". The word "Zhuang" has the meaning of health and will not be misunderstood. Since then, the Tong Nationality has been rewritten as the Zhuang nationality.
In addition to calling themselves "Buzhuang", Zhuang people also call themselves "buyue", "buyai", "Buyi", "Busha", "butu", "BuNong", "Buyang", "buman", "Burao" and "Budai". "Bu" means "man" in Zhuang language.
The "Xi Ou" and "Luo Yue" living in Lingnan area recorded in the historical records of the Han nationality in the pre-Qin, Qin and Han Dynasties are the most direct ancestors of the Zhuang nationality.
In the pre Qin period, a group called "Baiyue" was widely distributed in the coastal areas from the south of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River to the southeast of China. Xi'ou and Luo Yue, which were distributed in Guangdong and Guangxi, were part of them. They were still in the development stage of clan and tribal society at that time. In 221 BC, after the unification of the six countries, Qin Shihuang sent Wei Tu Sui to lead 500000 troops to enter Lingnan on five routes. He met strong resistance from the people of Western Ou in the area of Yuechengling. In 214 BC, the first emperor of Qin sent Shi Lu to lead his troops to open the Lingqu, supply food and pay, and transport the army. Only then did the Qin army defeat the people of Western ou, unify the Lingnan area, and set up Guilin, Nanhai and Xiang counties in Lingnan, formally bringing the area under the rule of the central dynasty.
According to archaeological data and historical records, the people of Xi'ou and Luo Yue had used copper and iron tools and began to enter the era of civilization. In particular, under the leadership of the leader Yi XuSong, they used the familiar jungle and mountains to fight, and could deal with hundreds of thousands of Qin troops for several years, forcing the Qin army to "understand armour and crossbow for three years", indicating that the social organization of the people of Xi'ou has been quite developed and can operate more effectively, and has entered the era of tribal alliance or Chiefdom. At that time, in order to ensure the military logistics supply of the southern expedition to Lingnan and defeat the resistance of the people of Western ou, Qin Shihuang also sent Jianlu to build a "Lingqu" in the northeast of Guangxi to connect the two rivers of Hunan and Li. The construction of Lingqu has greatly facilitated the traffic between the north and south of Wuling and is conducive to the economic and cultural development of Lingnan area. After the Qin Dynasty unified Lingnan, a large number of Han people moved to Lingnan and lived together with the Yue people. Since then, the political, economic and cultural ties between the people of Western ou and Luoyue and the people of all ethnic groups in the mainland have become closer, which has played a positive role in the further development of the Vietnamese society in the west of Lingnan.
From the Eastern Han Dynasty to the Wei, Jin, southern and Northern Dynasties, the indigenous peoples in Lingnan area (that is, the later two cantons) were known as "Wu Hu", "Li", "Liao" or "Li Liao". They were descendants of Xi'ou and Luo Yue. At the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, the war in the Central Plains and social unrest, many big family members moved to Lingnan to avoid chaos, which promoted the development of feudalization in Lingnan. Under its influence, the aristocrats with the big surnames of Li Liao who lived in Lingnan all over the world dominated all over the country, resulting in some "big surnames" that are "more powerful than local songs" in the society of Lingnan indigenous peoples. For example, the Xian family of Gaoliang and Hepu, the Ning family of Qinzhou and Hepu, the Li family of Guizhou and the Huang family of Gaoliang were all famous Aboriginal surnames in Lingnan during this period. They have the wealth of "thousands of miles away, more than 10000 slaves and maidservants, full of treasures". At the same time, there are a large number of poor ordinary workers in society, even "father and son have been slaves for generations".
Xian's surname is a big surname in Gaoliang area since the Qin and Han Dynasties. In the early years of Liang Datong in the Southern Dynasty, Mrs. Xian married Feng Bao, a Han nationality and Gaoliang Prefecture governor who moved south, and owned more than 100000 tribes. She was smart, wise and resourceful from an early age. She was able to appease the people of the Ministry and collect Baiyue and Han immigrants who moved south. In the Sui Dynasty, she was praised by Emperor Wen of the Sui Dynasty and was named Mrs. Qiao. Mrs. Xian has made great contributions to safeguarding national unity and local peace, which is respected by future generations.
During the Tang and Five Dynasties, the ancestors of the Zhuang nationality were still known as Li, Liao, Wuhu (Wuwu), etc., but there were also ethnic names named after regions or big family names, such as "Xiyuan man", "Huangdong man", "nongdong man" or "Dong man" and "Dong hooligan". After the Song Dynasty, there were new changes in the name of Zhuang nationality, such as "collision", "cloth soil", "native" and so on. After the yuan and Ming Dynasties, they were insulted and translated into "Xi", in addition, they claimed to be Zhuang, Nong, Lang, Tu, Sha and so on. These appellations used to have a certain regional nature, but in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the appellation of "Zhuang" has been widely seen in the whole Guangxi and western Guangdong, and has become the most common racial appellation of the Zhuang nationality. In 1952, it was uniformly called "Tong" (sound Zhuang). It was rewritten as "Zhuang" in 1965.
In history, the Zhuang people have launched countless uprisings against feudalism and oppression in order to resist the dark rule of the central dynasty and local local officials. Among them, the uprising led by Huang Qianyao, pan Chang'an and Huang Shaoqing in Xiyuan prefecture (Zuojiang River Basin) in the Tang Dynasty, the "Southern heaven" uprising led by Nong Zhigao, leader of Guangyuan Prefecture in the Song Dynasty, the local soldier uprising in Yizhou (Yishan and Nandan areas) in the Song Dynasty, the peasant uprising in Fushui prefecture (Huanjiang County, etc.) and Gutian County led by Wei Yinbao, a Zhuang farmer in the Ming Dynasty (Yongfu county) peasant uprising, Fujiang uprising, bazhai uprising, etc.
The Zhuang people also rose up with the people of all ethnic groups on many occasions to counterattack the armed aggression of Jiaozhi (later known as Annan) feudal rulers and Japanese pirates, and shoulder the important task of defending the sacred territory of the motherland's frontier.
In the early 11th century, Jiaozhi (now Vietnam) gradually became stronger under the rule of the Li Dynasty, and pursued the policy of foreign expansion. Taking advantage of the opportunity of the Northern Song Dynasty, which was busy resisting the Liao Dynasty and Xixia in the north and had no time to look south, it got rid of the control of the Song Dynasty and frequently invaded the jiangnongtong and Huangtong areas around China and the coastal areas of Qin and Lian. In the eighth year of Xining (1075) , King Li Qiande of Jiaozhi ordered Li Changjie, the Taiwei of his auxiliary country, to lead 100000 troops to invade Guangxi on a large scale. Qinzhou and Lianzhou were captured by water, and Yongping and Taiping villages were captured by land. In December of the lunar calendar, they invaded Yongzhou City (now Nanning City) Su min, the governor of Yongzhou Prefecture, urgently ordered the local soldiers and Han soldiers of all ethnic groups to enter the city to defend against the enemy. Finally, the city was broken because they were outnumbered and held on for 42 days. At that time, the strong men and Zhuang and Yao people in jiangxitong around Guangxi rose one after another to stop the Jiaozhi invaders and cut off their way. Soon, the reinforcements of the Song Dynasty came. With the concerted efforts of officers and soldiers, local soldiers and Zhuang and Han people, they finally defeated Jiaozhi The aggressors successfully defended the territorial integrity of the motherland.
During the Jiajing period of the Ming Dynasty, Japanese pirates invaded all parts of China's southeast coast, seriously threatening the security of Southeast China. The Ming government recruited "Liang Bing" to resist the enemy. Led by wa Shi, the wife of cenmeng, the late local official of Tianzhou prefecture (now Tianyang County), Guangxi, "Liang Bing" went to the southeast coast to resist the Japanese. In April of the 34th year of Jiajing of the Ming Dynasty (1558), Wa's "Liang Bing" and the "local soldiers" of Yongshun and Baojing, Hunan In the famous battle of Wang Jiangjing (now North of Jiaxing County, Zhejiang Province), the coordinated battle (composed of Tujia and Miao ethnic groups) wiped out more than 3000 Japanese pirates at one stroke and achieved the first great victory since the war against the Japanese. Later, the Vashi Liang army made many war achievements in lujingba and other battles. The people in Jiangsu and Zhejiang highly praised the Vashi Liang army's Anti Japanese spirit and widely preached that "the huawa family can kill the Japanese" Mrs. Vashi is worthy of being a heroine in the struggle against foreign aggression in Zhuang history, and is still praised by Zhuang people today.
After modern times, facing the invasion of capital imperialist forces and the corrupt rule of domestic reactionary ruling groups, the Zhuang people, together with the people of other nationalities, embarked on the road of anti oppression and liberation.
In 1851, the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom revolution, which shocked China and foreign countries, took place in the Jintian area of Guiping, where the Zhuang, Han and Yao nationalities lived together. At that time, thousands of Zhuang people took part in the Jintian uprising, accounting for about a quarter of the total number of Taiping army at that time. After the Taiping army left Guangxi and went north, many Zhuang soldiers and soldiers went north with the army, forming the basic backbone of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom and the Taiping army, and some became important leaders. Taiping Lu Liu, the first leader who died in the kingdom of heaven and later became king Mao, was the Zhuang Nationality in gaokengchong of Zijing mountain in Guiping; Wei Changhui, the northern king, was also the Zhuang Nationality in Guiping County; Xiao Chaogui, the Western King who served as a former military commander and made many military achievements when he went north and later died heroically in Changsha, was the Zhuang Nationality in Wuxuan County; he led the northern expedition to Tianjin and the forward force to Beijing, which shocked Li, two generals at home and abroad Kai Fang and Lin Fengxiang are both the Zhuang Nationality in Wuming County; Meng de en, the commander of the Chinese army and Zan Wang, who was in charge of the leadership and government in the late revolution of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, is the Zhuang Nationality in Pingnan County; they fought South and North, conquered Suzhou and annihilated Gordon's "victorious army" Tan Shaoguang, the king of mu, is the Zhuang Nationality in Xiangzhou. The revolutionary generals and officers and soldiers of the Zhuang nationality played an important role in the whole revolutionary battle of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom. In particular, the women of the Zhuang nationality, like men, moved to the north and south, risked life and death, "wrapped their heads barefoot, climbed rock valleys, braved men, and took up the battle with arms when they were in battle", which dealt a heavy blow to the corrupt officers and soldiers.
After the Taiping army went north, the flames of peasant uprisings in Zhuang areas rose one after another and became more and more prosperous. Among them, the large-scale peasant movement led by Chen Kai and Li Wenmao, the peasant uprising in Guigang led by Huang Dingfeng (Zhuang), the peasant uprising in Shanglin County led by Li Jingui (Zhuang), and Li Wencai (also known as Li Qi, Zhuang) The peasant uprising in Yongchun County led by Wu Lingyun and the "Yanling army" uprising fighting in the Zuojiang River Basin led by Wu Lingyun echoed with the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom from afar, cooperated with each other and jointly attacked the enemy, which wrote a glorious page in China's modern history.
In the 1970s and 1980s, after the French imperialists invaded southern Vietnam with violence, they then invaded northern Vietnam and southwest China. The Chinese people were forced to rise up and defend the motherland and support the Vietnamese people. The "black flag army" led by Liu Yongfu first went into battle It was established and developed in the Zhuang area, and its main force was the rest of the Zhuang peasant uprising led by the Zhuang peasant leaders Wu Lingyun and Wu Yazhong. More than 20 generals, including Huang Shouzhong, the former commander of the black flag army, and Wu Fengdian, the commander of the left camp, were the Zhuang Nationality in Shangsi and Ningming areas of Guangxi. When the French invaders invaded Hanoi and tried to advance along the Red River to China's border, the black flag army At the invitation of the Vietnamese government, the flag army, together with the Vietnamese army and people, fought back against the invaders, which made the invading army feel like a frightened bird. Tang Jingsong, a witness of the war at that time, wrote in his "volunteering diary": "the prisoners of Hanoi city often scream at themselves at night and shout the black flag, and the enemy's courage has fallen." The great achievements of the black flag army in resisting France and aiding Vietnam and defending the country will never be forgotten.
In February 1885, under the command of Nigri, the French army attacked Nanguan, the south gate town of our country, blew up the city wall, and arrogantly inserted a sign that said: "it is not the stone wall that protects the border, but the implementation of the treaty." Clamoring that China's gateway no longer exists, the only way out is to sign a surrender treaty. However, the Zhuang and Han people at the border have dealt a head-on blow to the arrogance of the enemy. They spontaneously organized to bravely resist the French invaders and vowed that "we will use the heads of the French invaders to rebuild our gateway" When Feng Zicai, the patriotic general of the Qing Dynasty, led Cui's troops to fight back, the people of Zhuang and Han nationalities actively supported him and finally achieved the world-famous "great victory in zhennanguan". Meng Da, a Zhuang farmer, led Feng Zicai's way. He also led a Death Squadron, wielding knives and spears, and killed hundreds of enemies. His heroic deeds are still praised by the Zhuang people on the border.
The Zhuang people also made great contributions to the revolution of 1911. In the Qin, Lian and Fangcheng uprisings in 1907, Sun Yat Sen appointed Wang Heshun (formerly Zhang Deqing), the leader of the Zhuang peasant uprising in Yongning County, as the "commander of the southern army of the Chinese people's army" to participate in leading the uprising. In the "zhennanguan" armed uprising launched in the same year, Sun Yat Sen appointed Huang Mingtang, the leader of the Zhuang peasant uprising in Qinzhou, as the leader of the uprising "Governor of zhennanguan" is based on Li Youqing (Zhuang nationality) of Pingxiang Prefecture As deputy governor, he captured zhennanguan pass, which was highly praised by Sun Yat Sen. in March of the next year, Sun Yat Sen launched the Yunnan Hekou uprising with Huang Mingtang as the commander and Guan Renfu and Wang Heshun as the Deputy commanders. In the Huanghuagang uprising in Guangzhou in 1911, many members of the Zhuang League took part in the battle. Among the 72 martyrs who died heroically in this battle, there were Wei Yunqing, Wei Shumo and other Zhuang Heroes. Nong Shida, the revolutionary leader of the Zhuang nationality, died in the national protection uprising against Yuan Shikai. All these fully show the revolutionary heroic spirit of the Zhuang people who dare to revolution and are not afraid of sacrifice.
Wei Baqun, known by Comrade Mao Zedong as "reading half of Marxism Leninism and red half of China", established the "Association for the transformation of Donglan comrades" in wuzhuan District of Donglan in 1921, and United more than 100 revolutionary youth to put forward "overthrowing the local tyrants and evil gentry", "eradicating corrupt officials" and "eliminating exorbitant taxes and miscellaneous taxes" In 1925, the Party established the first branch of the Communist Party of China in Guangxi in Wuzhou. In the winter of, Wei Baqun and others returned to Donglan after studying from the Guangzhou peasant movement workshop In the same year, Wei Baqun organized peasant armed forces, fought tit for tat against local landlords and gentry, and once again occupied Donglan county. At the end of 1928, Wei Baqun joined the Communist Party of China. Since then, He made unremitting efforts to establish, consolidate and develop the Youjiang Revolutionary Base Area.
At the same time, farmers in Fengyi, Enlong and other places, under the leadership of Huang Zhifeng of Fengyi Zhuang nationality, have been fighting against corrupt officials and heavy taxes since August 1924. After the Baise uprising, Huang Zhifeng successively served as the commander-in-chief of Youjiang red guards, the leader of the fourth column of the seventh Red Army, the deputy division commander of the 20th division of the seventh Red Army and the director of the staff office of the military headquarters. He went north with the army to the central revolutionary base Later, in 1934, he accepted the appointment of the Party Central Committee and returned to Youjiang Revolutionary Base to carry out work. Unfortunately, he was arrested and died heroically on the way.
In 1929, the CPC Central Committee sent Deng Xiaoping, Zhang Yunyi and ye Jizhuang to Guangxi to carry out work. In September, the CPC Guangxi Provincial Committee held the second party congress of Guangxi Province in Nanning. At the meeting, Deng Xiaoping conveyed the resolution of the party's Sixth National Congress. According to the "Sixth National Congress" On December 11, 1929, under the leadership of the Communist Party of China, Deng Xiaoping and Zhang Yunyi organized and launched the Zhuang, Han and Yao people on both sides of Youjiang River in Guangxi to hold the famous "Baise uprising" , the seventh army of the Chinese workers' and peasants' Red Army, with the participation of Zhuang, Han and Yao nationalities, was established. Zhang Yunyi was the commander, Deng Xiaoping was the political commissar, and three columns were under the jurisdiction. Wei Baqun served as the leader of the third column. On the same day, a meeting of farmers' representatives of all counties and soldiers of the seventh Red Army was held in Pingma Town, Tiandong, announcing the establishment of Youjiang workers' and peasants' democratic government, electing Lei Jingtian as the chairman and announcing the status of workers and peasants Wei Baqun and Chen Hongtao (Zhuang nationality) are members of the main government's political program and policies. Then, Baise, Fengyi (now Tianyang), Enyang (now Tianyang), Enlong (now Tiandong), Silin (now Tiandong), Xiangdu (today's county), Zhenjie (today's county) and guode (today's Pingguo County) in the Youjiang River Basin , longan, Donglan and Fengshan were liberated one after another, and worker peasant democratic governments at County, district and township levels were established.
On February 1, 1930, Yu Zuoyu led the fifth brigade of Guangxi police to declare an uprising in Longzhou, established the Eighth Army of the Chinese workers' and peasants' Red Army, with Yu Zuoyu as the army commander, Deng Xiaoping as the political commissar, and established the Zuojiang Revolutionary Military Committee. Then, Longzhou, Ningming, Mingjiang (now Ningming County), Chongshan (now Chongzuo county), Zuo county (now Chongzuo county) and Leiping in Zuojiang area (now Daxin), Wancheng (now Daxin), Yangli (now Daxin) And other counties have also been liberated one after another, and the county Revolutionary Military Commission has been established. While the revolutionary regime has been established in the counties along the Zuojiang and Youjiang river basins, the revolutionary regime has also been established in some areas of Du'an, Nandan, Tian'e, Lingyun, Hechi and other counties. So far, the Zuojiang revolutionary base in Guangxi has more than 20 counties in the West and southwest of Guangxi and a vast Zhuang area with a population of more than 2 million, The revolutionary struggle of the Zhuang people has entered a new climax.
During the Anti Japanese War, under the strong leadership of the Youjiang special committee of the Communist Party of China and local Party organizations, the Zhuang nationality and the people of all ethnic groups carried out a heroic Anti Japanese guerrilla war together, which made great contributions to the victory of the Anti Japanese war. In 1949, under the leadership of the party, all parts of Guangxi generally launched armed uprisings, launched people's guerrilla war, and actively cooperated with the southward troops of the Chinese people's Liberation Army By the end of 1949, Guangxi, Yunnan, Guangdong and other Zhuang areas were liberated one after another.
The Zhuang nationality is an indigenous nationality in the south. It was in the historical stage of independent development before the Qin and Han Dynasties. After the Qin and Han Dynasties, it has been under the governance of the central dynasty. The development of social politics, economy and culture is deeply influenced by the ruling policies of the central government and the social culture of the Han nationality, And this influence has been strengthened with the gradual deepening of the ruling power of the central dynasty and the increase of the immigrant population of the Han nationality. Due to the large regional differences affected, the social and political system and social structure of the Zhuang nationality before the founding of new China showed the characteristics of diversity.
In the eastern part of Zhuang nationality where Han and Zhuang live together, the social development of Zhuang nationality is greatly affected by Han nationality, which is in a similar development state with Han nationality, and its social and political system is in the development stage of feudal landlord system. In Western Guangxi and Wenshan Prefecture of Yunnan, where the Zhuang people live in compact communities, since the Tang and Song Dynasties, it has been mainly under the rule of Zhuang local officials (chieftains), in the development stage of feudal serfdom, and its social and political system is relatively special.
Within the jurisdiction of local officials (chieftains), local officials hold all the political, economic and cultural power, and set up power institutions to rule. The establishment of these authorities varies according to the level of chieftain, the size of jurisdiction and economic strength. In those tuzhou and tuxian counties with large jurisdiction and better social and economic development, civil and military officials are generally set up in their tuguan Yamen. Each tuzhou and tuxian county also has prisons under the jurisdiction of tuguan Yamen.
Under the local official yamen, there are also separate districts, sections, pavilions, outposts, capitals, roads, tuns, forts, slopes, towns, a and Fang. There are so-called foreign officials such as Tu mu, a mu, shaozheng, Baozheng, leaders and general Fang, who are responsible for checking spies, listening to lawsuits, organizing strong men, collecting taxes and so on. These constitute the rural power system in tuguan area. Through these organizations, local officials spread their influence to all villages and households under their jurisdiction and exercised rule over the people.
After the middle of the Ming Dynasty, the system of local officials (chieftains) became more and more backward and decadent, and the rule of local officials became more and more cruel. They were not only dissatisfied with the feudal central dynasty, but also hated by the Zhuang people. "Changing soil to flow" became a historical necessity. After more than 200 years of land conversion from the early Qing Dynasty to the Republic of China, the Western Zhuang region finally completely destroyed the feudal serfdom that could not adapt to the local social development, and the landlord economy achieved all-round development. The social organization structure of Zhuang nationality has changed greatly with the development of social economy and the deepening influence of Han culture since modern times.
The Zhuang nationality has always had the custom of living together. The big surnames of the ancient Zhuang nationality, such as Mo, Huang, Nong, Wei, Qin, Luo, cen, Meng, Guan and Gan, evolved on the basis of the original clan system and lived together for a long time. The so-called "Ju Dong pure surname" is also true. Under the influence of Han culture, clan organizations and clan culture in some Zhuang areas are relatively developed, with ancestral halls, clan rules and genealogies. In Zhuang villages inhabited by the same surname and family, the paternal relatives within three generations are called Fang clan, those outside three generations are called door clan or clan, and Fang, door and clan are collectively called family. Intermarriage is prohibited in the same clan. The internal relationship of the clan depends on the patriarch, clan property, ancestral temple and clan rules. The patriarch is generally held by men. Some places are naturally formed, and some places are inherited by the eldest son of direct blood. The duties of the patriarch are generally to manage the ancestral hall and the common property of the clan, organize and preside over sacrificial rites and other public activities, mediate internal disputes of the clan, preside over family property inheritance and foreign negotiations, etc. After the 1950s, due to the influence of the times, most ancestral temples in Zhuang areas have been destroyed and abandoned, and some have been used for other purposes. Clan activities have gradually weakened or stopped, and the impact of clan forces on the lives of Zhuang villagers has also weakened. However, in recent years, there has been a trend of revival of clan activities in some areas.
In Zhuang areas where clan forces and clan culture are underdeveloped, there is another form of village community management organization "dulao system". This is a more ancient Zhuang rural management organization, which is mainly composed of the management organization headed by "dulao", the Presbyterian Council and the villagers' assembly. "All old", also known as village old man, village old man, father old man, township old man, leader, langhuo, money leader, etc. Most of the bosses are formed naturally, and some are elected by villagers or appointed by the government. Generally, they are not paid. The main responsibilities of Du Lao are to lead the villagers to formulate village rules and regulations, maintain the social order of the village, take charge of the public property of the whole village, preside over the collective sacrifice ceremony, lead public construction, mediate disputes within and between villages, and so on. The Du Lao system operates by virtue of the legal system and customs of the Zhuang traditional society. Since the mid Ming Dynasty, with the deep penetration of state power into rural society, this system is also undergoing transformation and declining, and is gradually replaced by Baojia system and rural Jia system.
Baojia system was implemented by the Qing Dynasty to strengthen the government's intervention and control over the grass-roots society. In Zhuang areas, Baojia system has also been partially implemented. In the fourth year of Yongzheng (1726), the Qing emperor specially ordered the establishment of Baojia law in areas inhabited by Zhuang, Miao and other ethnic minorities and chieftain areas, referring to the mainland. In order to give full play to the function of Baojia, the Qing government put forward standards for the selection of Baojia's head, requiring the local people to "publicly recommend honest, literate and wealthy people to report to the official". However, because the political, economic and cultural structure of the Zhuang region is quite different from that of the Han region, the implementation of the Baojia system here can not be divorced from the local actual situation. For quite a long time, the first thing of Baojia was mostly held by Du laodeng, the leader of the traditional authority of the Zhuang nationality. Later, with the development of the Zhuang society and the gradual disintegration of the traditional social structure, the position of the head of Baojia was gradually replaced by powerful people such as landlords and rich peasants.
The Baojia system implemented in the Zhuang areas in the Qing Dynasty was mainly limited to the towns and suburbs of the mixed Zhuang and Han areas at first, and then gradually popularized. However, due to the scattered residence of Zhuang nationality, the small scale of villages, and the complexity of Zhuang social system, the implementation of Baojia system in Zhuang areas, especially in remote villages with inconvenient transportation, is greatly limited. In these places, traditional folk control systems, such as clans and village communities, play a more effective role.
Village a system
After Xingui system ruled Guangxi, it reformed the rural grass-roots social control system, and implemented a new grass-roots system in the county since 1933. In rural areas, "people must return to their families. Ten families are a, ten a is a village, ten villages are a township, and ten townships are districts"; "Top ten streets are streets, top ten streets are towns, and top ten towns are districts" in cities and towns, and the system of township (town) village (street) a has been established. By the summer of 1940, all counties in Guangxi, including Zhuang, Yao, Miao and other minority inhabited areas, had implemented a new rural grass-roots system.
Both Baojia system and rural Jia system are local grass-roots social power systems under centralized rule. Especially, rural Jia system plays a highly controlling role in rural society with its strict organizational system. With its comprehensive promotion in Guangxi Zhuang area, the process of Zhuang social and political integration has been rapidly promoted, and the modernization process of Zhuang society has also achieved great development.
After the founding of new China, with the development and completion of land reform, the traditional rural forces of Zhuang nationality were broken and the rural a system declined. Since then, the Communist Party of China has carried out democratic government building and township planning. The poor farm labourers who used to be at the bottom of society have been mobilized, the old clan and family social and cultural network of Zhuang rural society have been further disintegrated, and the state power has penetrated into the vast Zhuang villages in a form different from that of the Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China, The traditional social organization and structure of Zhuang villages have undergone fundamental changes. In the period of people's communization, the infiltration of state power into Zhuang grass-roots society and the intensity of management reached the peak of history. In the early 1980s, although the people's commune system was disintegrating, like other parts of the country, the rural system of townships, villages and villagers' groups then led the Zhuang villages, the process of Zhuang social and political integration was further promoted, and the modernization process of Zhuang society developed irreversibly.
On August 19, 1951, Longsheng autonomous region of all ethnic groups, including Zhuang, Dong, Yao and Miao, was established (renamed Longsheng Autonomous County in 1955). On December 10, 1952, the Western Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region was established in the western half of Guangxi, where Zhuang people live in compact communities. In March 1956, it was changed to an autonomous prefecture. As the Zhuang nationality has the largest population of ethnic minorities in China, it has formed an inseparable flesh and blood relationship with the people of Han, Yao, Miao, Dong and other ethnic groups in the long-term struggle, combining the populous and economically developed agricultural area in Eastern Guangxi with the western region with vast land and rich mineral resources, and establishing an autonomous region at the provincial level, It is more conducive to the development of the Zhuang people and the people of other nationalities. According to the wishes of the people of all ethnic groups in Guangxi, on March 15, 1958, the organizational system of Western Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Prefecture was abolished and the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region at the provincial level was established within the scope of the original Guangxi Province. On April 1 of the same year, Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture was established in Yunnan Province. On September 26, 1962, Lianshan Zhuang and Yao Autonomous County was established in Guangdong Province. Ethnic townships have also been established in the scattered areas of Zhuang nationality.
The ancestors of the Zhuang Nationality in the Tang and Song dynasties had new social and economic development. Agriculture is dominated by paddy fields, and cattle farming has been widely used. The farming technology has developed to the degree of "deep tillage and seed irrigation, ploughing and seed, but the foot of cattle and horses, eliminating the harm of borers, working day and night, and nourishing manure and soil". Therefore, there are scenes of "rice and millet are ripened again", "planting rice is like Huxiang", "grain is abundant and stored", "pigs, cattle, chickens and ducks are fat and have a lot of interest". The handicraft industry includes copper, iron, textile, etc., especially Jizi cloth and Zhuang brocade (called "Jibu" at that time). Jizi cloth, "white and thin", "cool and sweat free". Zhuang brocade is "white square pattern, wide width and large wisp" and "beautiful and thick, sincere and above the South". However, compared with the Central Plains, the development of social production is still relatively backward. Many areas still adopt the extensive farming method of on-site seed sowing, no seedling transfer, no irrigation, no fertilization and no weeding. Some remote mountainous areas even stay in the original production state of "slash and burn" and hunting for a living.
By the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the social and economic development of Zhuang areas had improved. In today's Wuming and Pingguo areas in Youjiang area, "the four fields are wide and the porch is open and beautiful. The stone mountains are undulating and winding, covering the plain, and the two waters merge around the mountains into the great immersion. The river is connected, and the business and goods are gathered together, which is more than the mainland." it is a place like Qingyuan where "there are many garrisons and close covers, so that cars are rare". It has also become a place where "scholars talk about scriptures and people grow from miscellaneous soldiers", A happy land where people of all ethnic groups live in peace and security. In Hengzhou area, people either build embankments to store water, or divert streams for irrigation. Such farmland has been quite common. The cultivation of paddy fields is also more meticulous. Sowing and seedling raising, intermediate tillage and weeding once or twice, so that the upper field can reach 2 stones per mu. The slope land is opened to she land to plant dry grass. After planting, it is also weeded once or twice, and the yield is similar to that of paddy field. Many Zhuang farmers in Shishan area have also mastered the technology of "turning calcined stone into ash" and applied lime to adjust the acidity of the land. Animal husbandry has also developed greatly. The raising of pigs, cattle, sheep and horses is very common. Some farmers with a small population even raise more than ten cattle. Their development level is roughly close to that of the adjacent Han areas.
Zhuang nationality is distributed in 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government in China, mainly living in the south, starting from Lianshan Zhuang and Yao Autonomous County, Guangdong Province in the East, Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province in the west, Congjiang County, Qiandongnan Miao and Dong Autonomous Prefecture, Guizhou Province in the north and Beibu Bay in the south.
Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region is the main distribution area of Zhuang nationality, with a total of 14.2071 million people (2000), accounting for 87.81% of the total population of Zhuang nationality. It mainly lives in Nanning, Chongzuo, Baise, Hechi, Liuzhou, Laibin, Guigang and other places.
In addition, 981000 people were distributed in Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan Province (2000), and 129000 people were scattered in other areas of Yunnan Province (2000); There are 42000 people (2000) in Lianshan Zhuang and Yao Autonomous County, Guangdong Province, and more than 4000 people (2000) live in Xiashuai Zhuang and Yao township of HUAIJI County adjacent to Lianshan; There are 16000 people in Congjiang County, Qiandongnan Miao and Dong Autonomous Prefecture, Guizhou Province (2000); There are more than 5000 people in Jianghua Yao Autonomous County, Hunan Province (2000).
The places where Zhuang people live are basically connected, most of them live together, and a considerable part of them live together with Han, Yao, Miao, Dong, Mulao, Maonan, Shui and other nationalities.
Zhuang nationality is a cross-border nationality, which is mainly distributed in northern Vietnam and adjacent to China except China. According to the different residence time in Vietnam, they are identified as Dai Yi and Nong, collectively referred to as t à y-n à ng. The language is Dai Nong, and the culture, customs and language are basically the same as those of Zhuang in China. Every new year's festival, weddings and funerals are invited. There are relevant records of Dai Yi and Nong nationalities in Vietnam.
There are 54 ethnic groups in Vietnam, of which the Dinon ethnic group has a total population of 2.7 million (2013), which is the most populous ethnic minority in Vietnam. With the increasingly frequent and in-depth cultural exchanges between China and Vietnam, national art forms such as tianqin (Zhuang: den, Vietnamese: then) are gradually carried forward in the two countries.
Zhuang people have no unified religious belief.
Zhuang people believe in many gods and worship the gods of heaven, thunder, earth, Boulder, tree, frog, flower woman and ancestors. After the Wei and Jin Dynasties, with the introduction of Taoism and Buddhism into Zhuang areas, the religious belief system of Zhuang changed under its influence, forming a multi God "religion" dominated by primitive Mo religion, integrating Taoism and Buddhism, and there were semi professional clergy - Shigong. Shigong has relatively complete religious rules and organizations, but there is no strict practice like Taoism. His function is to pray for folk blessings and disasters, expel ghosts and serve God; The Dharma has the characteristics of witchcraft, Taoism and Buddhism. At the same time, Zhengyi Taoism and Taiyi Taoism of the Han nationality are also popular in Zhuang areas. Their clergy are praised as Taoist priests in Zhuang language. Because they specialize in chanting scriptures and spells and seldom understand scriptures, they are also known as "Mr. Nan Bang" among the people. Although Taoist Gong obeyed the doctrines and rules of Taoism, he has also been transformed by the local religious culture of Zhuang nationality and has the nature of a alchemist. Taoist priests have no fixed temples, and mostly carry out temporary religious activities in the form of altar groups. In addition to those unique to Taoism, they also include Buddhism and Zhuang local gods.
Buddhism has little impact on Zhuang society because its doctrines and rules, such as paradise, abstinence and vegetarian, contradict Zhuang values and living customs. Although there are sporadic Buddhist temples in the Zhuang area, the scale and the number of abbots and nuns are far below the general temples in the Central Plains, and most of their believers are Han people living in the south. Nevertheless, some Buddhist doctrines and ideological propositions, such as accumulating virtue and doing good, being charitable, etc., have been recognized by the Zhuang people, and even the words "no repair in previous lives" reflecting the Buddhist doctrine of reincarnation of life and death have become the mantra of self blame of some Zhuang women.
After the mid-19th century, Christianity and Catholicism were also introduced into Zhuang areas, and Christian and Catholic churches were established in some towns of Zhuang areas to develop believers, but the impact was mainly limited to some urban residents.
Zhuang is one of the earliest nations to cultivate and grow rice. Rice culture is very developed, and rice has naturally become the staple food of Zhuang people. Rice is made in a variety of ways, including steaming, boiling, frying, stewing and frying. All kinds of rice, rice porridge, rice flour, rice cake, Ciba, zongzi and Tangyuan are the daily favorite food of the Zhuang people. If other materials are mixed, many more delicious and nutritious foods can be made, such as Babao rice, Babao porridge, bamboo tube rice, pumpkin rice, "colored glutinous rice", etc.
Zhuang people living in arid mountainous areas take corn as their staple food because they are not suitable for planting rice.
Zhuang people like to eat aquatic products. Fish, clams, snails and clams are all precious; Mushrooms, cicadas, snakes, birds and animals in the mountains and forests are also the daily delicacies of the Zhuang people.
Chewing betel nut is a traditional custom of Zhuang nationality, which is still loved by Zhuang women in Longzhou and other places in Guangxi. In some places, betel nut is a necessity for guests.
Most of the houses of the Zhuang nationality are the same as those of the local Han nationality. Zhuang villages in southwest and Northwest Guangxi still maintain the ancient traditional housing form "Ganlan", also known as "Malan". It is divided into upper and lower floors. People live on the top and livestock and sundries are kept below.
This form of housing is the housing characteristic of the ancient Baiyue nationality, which has a history of thousands of years. Because it has the advantages of adapting to the terrain and climate of southern mountainous areas and preventing the invasion of poisonous snakes and beasts, it has been extended to modern times.
With the development of the times, although the houses in Debao, Jingxi, Bama and other places have developed towards modern living rooms, which are constructed of masonry or reinforced concrete, the structures of some houses still retain the basic characteristics of dry columns.
The "Ganlan" style buildings in Longji Zhuang inhabited area of Longsheng Autonomous County are the most complete preserved so far.
Most of the Zhuang's clothes are the same as those of the Han nationality, but in the rural areas of Western Guangxi, especially the middle-aged and elderly women, they still preserve the characteristics of their own national clothes. For example, in the northwest of Guangxi, middle-aged and elderly Zhuang women mostly wear collarless, left lapel, embroidered piping clothes and piping, wide leg pants, embroidered apron at the waist, pleated skirt and embroidered shoes at the lower body, and like to wear silver jewelry; Zhuang women in Longzhou and Pingxiang, Southwest Guangxi, still wear black jackets with no collar and left lapel, black handkerchiefs wrapped in square shapes on their heads, and black wide legged pants on their lower bodies.
In ancient times, the Zhuang nationality had popular customs such as tattooing and chiseling teeth. Liu Zongyuan, a writer in the Tang Dynasty, once mentioned that the Dongmin in Liuzhou (one of the ancient names of the Zhuang nationality) were full of tattoos. The history book Taiping Huanyu Ji of the Song Dynasty also recorded that women in Guigang City had to chisel off a tooth when they got married, which was called "chiseling teeth" in ancient times. Now, these customs only spread sporadically in remote local areas.
Zhuang language belongs to the Zhuang Dai branch of the Zhuang Dong nationality of the Sino Tibetan language family. There are two major dialects, North and south, but the grammatical structure and basic vocabulary are roughly the same. The northern and southern dialects roughly take Yujiang and Youjiang as the dividing line and extend to Guangnan and Yanshan in Wenshan Prefecture, Yunnan Province. The northern dialect accounts for about 2 / 3 of the Zhuang population and is divided into 8 local language areas, namely Yongbei local language, Youjiang local language, guibian local language, Liujiang local language, Guibei local language, Hongshuihe local language, Qiubei local language and Lianshan local language; The southern dialect accounts for about 1 / 3 of the Zhuang population and is divided into five local language areas, namely Yongnan local language, Zuojiang local language, Dejing local language, Yanguang local language and Wenma local language.
Since the Tang and Song Dynasties, Zhuang folk have been popular with "local folk characters", which are based on Chinese characters and combined by the sound and meaning of Chinese characters. According to the statistics of Guzhuang Dictionary (first draft) published by the office of the leading group for the collation and publication of ancient books of ethnic minorities in Guangxi in 1989, there are more than 10700 words, of which 4918 are designated as normal characters. These characters are collected from the ultimatums, coupons, master songbooks, folk songs, stories and legends, genealogies, letters and inscriptions published or copied hundreds or hundreds of years ago, indicating that this square Zhuang character was widely popular among the people in Zhuang areas. However, due to the large regional differences and lack of norms of the ancient Zhuang characters, a unified Zhuang character cannot be formed among the Zhuang nationalities, and the communication mainly depends on Chinese. In 1955, the party and the people's government helped the Zhuang people create a Zhuang language based on the Latin alphabet, trained the backbone of the Zhuang language, and published books and newspapers. The Zhuang language played a positive role in literacy and publicizing the party's policies. In the 1980s, the revision of the Zhuang language program was completed to further popularize the Zhuang language, and the Zhuang language entered all kinds of schools at all levels again.
Zhuang nationality has created many myths, legends, folk stories, proverbs and other colorful folk literature. The long poem Buluotuo, created on the basis of Buluotuo myth, is an ancient and magnificent Creation Epic of Zhuang nationality and an encyclopedia of Zhuang society in prehistoric period. It is mainly spread in Bama, Donglan, Fengshan, Tian'e, Nandan, Hechi, Yishan, Du'an, Mashan and Baise, Tianyang, Tiandong, Pingguo and other counties in Youjiang River Basin. In the form of poetry, it vividly describes the formation of heaven, earth, sun and moon, the origin of mankind, the origin of various livestock and crops, as well as the social life of ancient people, and enthusiastically praises the great achievements of Buluotuo, a mythical figure known as the ancestor of Zhuang nationality. Through this epic, we can see the basic appearance of prehistoric Zhuang society and the life and production of Zhuang people.
From the 1950s to 1960s, there were Zhuang writers who pioneered novels in Guangxi, such as land's beautiful Nanning, Liu Yufeng's novel revenge in the mountain village, Zhuang poet Wei Qilin's narrative poem "100 bird clothes", Zhuang poet Huang Qing's lyric poem "song of the Red River", etc. "Hundred birds in clothes" was listed as one of the outstanding works in the 10th anniversary of the founding of the people's Republic of China in 1959. After entering the period of reform and opening up, Zhuang's literary creation is even more prosperous. The long night, a novel written on land, won the first prize for national minority literary creation. The Zhuang's long folk poem bubo, translated and sorted out by Zhuang poets Sha Hong and LAN Hongen, is known as the treasure of Chinese minority folk literature and art.
Wushu in Zhuang Township not only has a long history and tradition, but also has unique customs.
For example, in the Ming Dynasty, when a boy was ten years old, he had to teach him to practice martial arts. The local chieftain advocates martial arts, and the people also advocate martial arts. Every year in the slack season of winter, all villages in Zhuang Township hire masters to teach martial arts.
This custom lasted for a long time and continued until before and after liberation.
In the 1980s, in addition to the original traditional Chinese medicine institutions, Guangxi Natural Medicine Research Center and Guangxi Institute of ethnic medicine were established to carry out a targeted general survey of the Zhuang nationality. Medical books such as line point moxibustion of Zhuang medicine were also excavated and published.
Guangxi ethnic medicine institutions have actively carried out the research on ethnic minority medical technology and medicine, and made great achievements. Projects such as "exploration of basic theory and clinical experimental research of Zhuang medicine", "exploration, sorting and experimental research of internal science of Zhuang medicine" and "Research on crude drug standards of Zhuang Medicine" have won the second prize of Guangxi scientific and technological progress award.
A number of national, ministerial and provincial Zhuang pharmaceutical scientific research projects have passed the appraisal or acceptance.
Zhuang brocade is an original handicraft created by Zhuang women. Take cotton yarn as warp and velvet as weft. Warp threads are generally primary colors, and weft threads are woven into various beautiful patterns with various colors.
Zhuang brocade has bright color, exquisite weaving, soft texture, firmness and durability. The Zhuang people like the Phoenix, which symbolizes good luck. Therefore, "ten pieces of Zhuang brocade and nine pieces of Phoenix", the Phoenix on the Zhuang brocade is vivid and unique. Zhuang brocade has a variety of designs and colors and is widely used. It can be used as bed blanket, quilt cover, apron, suspender, belt, handbag, satchel, headscarf, clothing decoration, etc.
According to historical records, it was produced in the Tang and Song dynasties. In the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Zhuang women were famous all over the country for their good brocade weaving. After the founding of new China, Zhuang brocade, as a handicraft with rich national style, has been further developed. In addition to continuing to produce traditional patterns, it has also created more than 40 new patterns.
Bronze drums have a history of more than 2000 years. There are more than 600 unearthed and collected in Guangxi alone, and more than 1400 folk collected and registered. There are many types and sizes of copper drums, with a maximum diameter of 1.63 meters. The weight is 20 or 30 kilograms for the small and nearly 500 kilograms for the large.
The use of bronze drums has always been different, including military music, folk music, sacrificial music, as well as the symbol of power and wealth.
The bronze drum is not only a practical utensil, but also an exquisite work of art. It has both relief patterns and three-dimensional sculptures. It is a complex of carving art and vertical sculpture. It is a comprehensive artwork, reflecting the superb casting technology and artistic level of Zhuang craftsmen.
The commonly used folk instruments of Zhuang nationality include suona, bee drum, bronze drum, big drum, bronze cymbal, brass gong, Sheng, Xiao, flute, horse bone Hu, tianqin, etc.
Tianqin is the oldest plucked instrument of Zhuang nationality. It is mainly spread in Longzhou, Ningming and Fangcheng at the border between Southwest Guangxi and Vietnam. It has a history of thousands of years. In the widely spread legend of the Zhuang people, "Ma Le visits the horizon", the ancestor of the Zhuang people, Ma Le, went to the horizon to look for the sun playing the tianqin.
Zhuang dances include "Chung Tang dance", "Hydrangea dance", "shrimp fishing dance", "tea picking dance", "Pole Dance", "Copper Drum Dance" and so on.
The dance is characterized by distinct themes, vigorous steps, humor and liveliness, realistic feelings, sometimes passionate and generous, sometimes sentimental, which fully reflects the stubborn and distinct character of the Zhuang working people.
Zuojiang cliff murals, with a history of more than 2000 years, are mainly distributed on the cliffs on both sides of Zuojiang and its tributary Mingjiang River in Ningming, Longzhou, Chongzuo, Fusui and other counties in the southwest of Guangxi.
A total of 183 murals have been found, the most famous of which is the Huashan cliff mural on the Bank of the Ming River in Ningming County. The broad cliffs of Linjiang, which are about 200 meters wide and 50 meters high, are densely covered with various bright red portraits. At present, there are more than 1800 recognizable portraits, the largest of which is up to 2.41 meters high and the smaller is about 30 cm.
There are three main types of murals on Zuojiang Cliff: figures, animals and artifacts, with rough and powerful strokes. Zuojiang cliff mural is an outstanding and immortal artistic creation of Zhuang ancestors. Its content reflects the social life of ancient Zhuang ancestors to a certain extent.
Zhuang Opera is a stage art form of Zhuang nationality and a comprehensive art of Zhuang folk literature, music, dance and skills. Zhuang Opera can be divided into six types: Shigong opera, North Road Zhuang Opera, South Road Zhuang Opera, Funing Zhuang Opera, Guangnan Zhuang Opera and Lexi local opera.
Shigong opera is mainly spread in the Zhuang areas of Hechi, Liuzhou and other places. It is developed on the basis of "jumping God". It is said that it existed in the Tang Dynasty. Traditional plays include king Moyi, Miss White Horse, Shun Zhi bailing sea, etc.
North Road Zhuang Opera is mainly popular in Xilin, Tianlin, Longlin, Lingyun and Leye in the north of Baise City. It was first developed on the basis of Zhuang songs and folk acrobatics "bench play" in Jiuzhou, Xilin. It was formed in the Qianlong period of the Qing Dynasty. In the third year of Guangxu's reign (1877), the manuscript of Nong Zhigao, a relatively complete Zhuang Opera, appeared in Funing County, Yunnan Province. Later, he also sang plays such as Bu ya, Wen long and Shawnee, Third Sister Liu's coming to earth, cowherd, carp, Liu er's beating fan ghost and the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom.
Nanlu Zhuang Opera is mainly popular in Debao, Jingxi, Napo, Tiandeng, Daxin and other counties in the Southern Zhuang dialect area of Southwest Guangxi, as well as some townships in Tianyang and Tiandong. It is developed on the basis of the puppet show in Jingxi and the maai opera in Debao. Puppet shows with strings have a history of more than 100 years. Most of the plays are based on the traditional plays of the Han nationality, such as female generals of Yangmen, journey to the west, romance of the Three Kingdoms, etc. Ma'ai Zhuang Opera was originally sung with the "double reed" method, and then developed into the modern "ma'ai opera" tune by absorbing the folk "ma'ai tune", "Han long tune" and the singing tune of Jingxi puppet opera. Because Debao and Jingxi are the two birthplaces of Nanlu Zhuang Opera, Nanlu Zhuang Opera is also known as "Dejing Zhuang Opera".
Funing Zhuang Opera, Guangnan Zhuang Opera and Lexi local opera are all Zhuang operas in Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan Province. Their popularity is not wide. They are popular in Funing, Guangnan Babao and Wenshan respectively.
The performing art of Zhuang Opera has the characteristics of health, simplicity and liveliness. The music singing of Nanlu Zhuang Opera and Beilu Zhuang Opera is more colorful. The performance skills such as body shape, footwork, technique, martial arts and so on have their own uniqueness, with strong national color and style.
Most of the Zhuang nationality's festivals are the same as those of the local Han nationality. Traditional Han nationality folk festivals such as Spring Festival, Lantern Festival, spring and autumn social day, Qingming, Dragon Boat Festival, Mid Autumn Festival, Double Ninth Festival and new year's Eve are also Zhuang nationality's age festivals. Zhuang nationality's festivals with national characteristics are "March 3" Song Festival, "cow soul Festival" and "Zhongyuan Festival".
There are several regular folk song gatherings of Zhuang nationality every year, among which the "March 3" Song Festival is the most grand. The Zhuang nationality has always been famous for its ability to sing songs. As early as the Han Dynasty, Liu Xiang's Shuoyuan · shanshuo chapter recorded the Yue people's song sung by the ancestors of the Zhuang Nationality in the pre-Qin period. Zhuang folk songs are rich in form and content, including two or three sentences, three or four sentences or more; Popular seven character sentences and waist foot rhyme. There are disc songs (or "guess songs"), wedding crying songs, he xinju songs, Life songs, farming songs, current political songs, historical songs, etc. The characteristic of Zhuang song is that it is good at touching the scenery, holding things for metaphor, and singing vivid and moving lyrics in the form of guessing and questioning. It is said that there was a famous female singer Liu Sanjie in the Tang Dynasty who created melodious and far-reaching ballads to praise people's happiness in labor and love and expose the greed and inhumanity of the upper rulers. Therefore, she is still praised by the Zhuang people and is called "singing Fairy". Zhuang nationality has the tradition of regular gathering and singing, and the place of singing is relatively fixed. This specific place for collective singing is called "Song fair". Its early history can be traced back to the clan and tribe period, which originated from the religious activities of ancestors offering sacrifices to gods to pray for fertility and harvest, and then gradually evolved into a social activity of young men and women regularly gathering in the field, "speaking with songs" and "choosing spouses with songs", and then developed into a mass amusement Festival. Every fair day, men and women, old and young, far and near, gather here in costumes to enjoy their own national carnival. In 1984, the people's Government of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region officially designated the third day of the third lunar month as the national festival of Zhuang Nationality - "March 3" Song Festival.
"Cow soul Festival", also known as "Cow King Festival" and "seedling opening Festival". It is usually carried out on the day after spring ploughing. In some areas, it is fixed on the eighth day of April in the lunar calendar, because it is said that this day is the birthday of the ox king. It is said that the ox king was originally a God who came down to earth to help people cultivate under the orders of the Jade Emperor. People thanked him for his contributions and offered sacrifices to the ox soul on his birthday. On this day, every household groomed the cattle, trimmed the cattle pen, took a basket of five-color glutinous rice and a bunch of fresh grass, sacrificed the soul of the cattle next to the cattle pen, and then distributed half of the food and fresh grass to each farm cattle.
The "Zhongyuan Festival" on July 14 of the lunar calendar, also known as "Ghost Festival" and "ancestor worship Festival", is a major festival second only to the Spring Festival. The main content is ancestor worship and ghost worship. On this day, every family killed chickens and ducks (in the past, chickens were taboo as sacrifices, and only ducks or geese could be sacrificed, especially ducks. This festival is even called "duck Festival"), steamed cakes were made into steamed buns, and colored paper was cut into clothes and trousers for four seasons for sacrifice. After sacrificing our ancestors at home during the day, we have to go to the Shanjiao river at night to make wild sacrifices, burn incense, light candles, burn paper clothes, and pray for wild ghosts not to haunt us.
Zhuang polygamous family. In the past, "women marry men, and the husband lives from his wife" was more popular, and later transitioned to the paternal family dominated by "living from the husband".
Until modern times, the custom of "never leaving the husband's house" after marriage still prevails in rural areas of Zhuang nationality. On the day of the bride's marriage, more than a dozen sisters of the same generation accompany the groom to the groom's house. In some places, the bride returns to her mother's house immediately after the wedding. In some places, the bride and sisters of the same generation sing together in the new house, spend the wedding night together, and return to her mother's house the next day. Later, I went to my husband's house to work for a few days on busy farming or festivals. Generally, they don't live in their husband's house until two or three years later or after pregnancy.
This cultural phenomenon is considered to be a transitional form in the transformation process of Zhuang marriage system from "wife residence" to "husband residence".
There are two main burial methods in the traditional funeral customs of Zhuang nationality, namely, earth burial and cremation.
After the middle of Qing Dynasty, earth burial became the main burial method. The earth burial of Zhuang nationality takes "secondary burial" as the main burial style. The second burial, also known as bone picking burial and bone picking burial, is called "golden altar burial" and "Golden Bell burial" by the Zhuang nationality. The burial method is: after the death of relatives, bury them nearby in a thin coffin and start a "long tomb"; After three or five years of muscle decay, dig a grave, open a coffin, pick up its bones and put them into the pottery "golden altar", and then choose a geomantic treasure place to bury them and build a "round tomb". The above-mentioned cremation of the Zhuang nationality also uses the "golden altar" to store the ashes, and then choose a place for burial, which also belongs to the secondary burial type.
Since modern times, in order to show their identity, some rich and noble people have been buried at one time, and the cemetery has been built very grandly. They no longer do secondary burial, which is called "big burial" by the people. However, in the concept of the general public, this burial style is not valued or recognized.
Xu Song, the leader of Ou people in the west of Qin Dynasty. During the Qin Ou war, the leader of the tribal alliance who led the people of Xi Ou against the Qin army.
Jie Jun, the military leader of the Ou people in the west of Qin Dynasty and the originator of the famous mountain war at home and abroad.
Huang Qianyao, the leader of Huangdong Zhuang Nationality in Xiyuan.
Huang Shaoqing, leader of Xiyuan peasant uprising in Tang Dynasty.
Nong Zhigao once built "Dali kingdom" and "Southern heaven".
Mrs. Vashi - Anti Japanese hero.
Tan Gongbing, the northern Zhuang emperor, moved his capital to the river; The leader who first advocated the reform of the status of men and women, the reform of marriage customs, democratic reform and strengthening national unity.
Lu Rongting - Zhuang nationality, native of Wuming County, leader of the old GUI army and governor of Guangdong and Guangxi.
Wei Baqun - Zhuang nationality, leader of modern Chinese peasant movement.
Wei Guoqing - Zhuang nationality, former vice chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress and founding general.
Huang Xianyu, the Zhuang nationality, is the founder of modern Chinese ethnology.
Wei Jie - Zhuang nationality, deputy commander of Chengdu Military Region and member of the Central Advisory Committee.
Xian henghan, the Zhuang nationality, is the first Secretary of Gansu Province, a member of the Central Committee and the Military Commission.
Joys and sorrows - Zhuang nationality, former vice chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress.
Qin Yingji - Zhuang nationality, former chairman of the autonomous region.
Zheng Jianxuan - Zhuang, Ningming, physicist.
Luo Yingxiong - Zhuang, Xincheng, physicist.
Yin Hanhui, Zhuang nationality, from Wuming County, Institute of geotectonics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, has made great contributions to the success of China's first atomic bomb explosion.
Zheng Zhipeng - Zhuang, Ningming, physicist, academician of the New York Academy of Sciences.
Wei Yu - Zhuang nationality, Guilin native, academician of Chinese Academy of engineering.
Zhou Shaoning - Zhuang nationality, Wuming people, world-famous Chinese American painters, and so on
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Uighurs mainly live in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, mainly distributed in the south of Tianshan Mountain. The oasis around Tarim Basin is the center of Uighur settlement, especially Kashgar oasis, Hotan oasis, Aksu River and Tarim River Basin. Turpan. Wei Wu Er Zu
Bai nationality is the 15th largest ethnic minority in China, mainly distributed in Yunnan, Guizhou, Hunan and other provinces. Among them, the Bai nationality in Yunnan Province has the largest population, mainly living in Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture,. Bai Zu
Tujia nationality (Tujia Language: bifzivkar) is a nation with a long history. It has a national language. It belongs to the Tibetan Burmese language family of the Sino Tibetan language family, close to the Yi language branch. There is no national languag. Tu Jia Zu
She nationality is one of the ethnic minorities with a small population in China, with a total population of 708651 (2010). It is distributed in some mountainous areas in more than 80 counties (cities) in Fujian, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Guangdong, Guizhou, Anh. She Zu
Gaoshan Nationality mainly lives in Taiwan Province of China, and a few scattered in coastal areas such as Fujian and Zhejiang Province. Gaoshan ethnic groups mainly live in the mountainous areas in Central Taiwan, the longitudinal valley plain in the Eas. Gao Shan Zu
The Tu nationality is one of the ethnic groups with relatively small population in China. The Tu language belongs to the Mongolian language family of Altai language family. In 1979, the state created the Tu language based on Latin letters and in the form . Tu Zu
Gelao nationality, ethnic origin and ancient Liao (L ǎ o) It is related to people. The national language is Gelao language, belonging to the Sino Tibetan language family. There is no national language, and Chinese is commonly used. Gelao people worship th. Yi Lao Zu
Tajik belongs to the Europa Indian Mediterranean type. The national language is Tajik, including two dialects of selekkur and wahan. It belongs to the Pamir branch of the Iranian language family of the Indo European language family.. Ta Ji Ke Zu
The De'ang Nationality, also known as "Bulong nationality", is a mountain minority in the border area between China and Myanmar. Its national language belongs to the wa De'ang language branch of the mon Khmer language family of the South Asian l. De Ang Zu
Yugur Nationality from the Uighurs nomadic in the erhun River Basin in the Tang Dynasty. They use three languages: Yugur (yaohur) belonging to the Turkic language family of Altai language family, Yugur (Engel) belonging to the Mongolian language family of. Yu Gu Zu