）It is a minority nationality with the largest population in China. Its language is Zhuang language, belonging to the Zhuang Dai branch of the Zhuang Dong language group of the Sino Tibetan language family.
The Zhuang nationality originated from "Xi'ou" and "Luo Yue" in Lingnan area recorded in Han historical records in pre Qin, Qin and Han Dynasties. It is distributed in 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government in China, mainly in the south, starting from Lianshan Zhuang and Yao Autonomous County in Guangdong Province in the East, Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan Province in the West and Qiandongnan Miao and Dong Autonomous Prefecture in Guizhou Province in the north Jiangxian, South to Beibu Gulf. Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region is the main distribution area of Zhuang nationality.
On October 12, 1965, according to the proposal of Zhou Enlai, the then Premier of the State Council, and with the consent of the Zhuang people, the State Council officially approved the change from "Tong" to "Zhuang". According to the sixth national census in 2010, the total population of Zhuang nationality is 16926381.
Zhuang and Buzhuang were originally the Zhuang people who claimed to be themselves. In Chinese history books, it is translated as "bang", "zhe" and so on, and its pronunciation is "Zhuang", which was first seen in the literature of Song Dynasty. After the founding of new China, it was written as "Tong". On October 12, 1965, according to the proposal of Zhou Enlai, premier of the State Council at that time, and with the consent of the Zhuang people, the State Council officially approved the change from "Tong" to "Zhuang". The word "Zhuang" has a healthy meaning and will not be misread. From then on, the Tong Nationality was changed into Zhuang nationality. In addition to calling themselves "Buzhuang", Zhuang people also call themselves "buyue", "buyai", "Buyi", "Busha", "butu", "BuNong", "Buyang", "buman", "Burao" and "Budai". "Bu" means "human" in Zhuang language.
Ethnic origin development
The "Xi'ou" and "Luo Yue" living in Lingnan area recorded in the historical records of Han nationality in the pre Qin, Qin and Han Dynasties are the most direct ancestors of Zhuang nationality. in the pre Qin period, a group called "Baiyue" was widely distributed in the coastal areas from the south of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River to the southeast of China. Among them, Xi'ou and Luoyue, which are distributed in Guangdong and Guangxi, were still in the development stage of clan society. In 221 B.C., after the first emperor of Qin unified the six states, he sent a half million army led by Tu Sui, who divided his troops into five routes and marched into the south of the five ridges. In 214 B.C., Qin Shihuang sent Shi Lu and his troops to open Lingqu, provide food and transport troops. Only then did the Qin army defeat the people of Xi'ou and unify Lingnan area, and set up Guilin, Nanhai and Xiang counties in Lingnan, bringing the area under the rule of the central dynasty. According to archaeological materials and historical records, the people of Xi'ou and Luoyue had already used copper and iron ware and entered the era of civilization. Under the leadership of Yixu song, the leader of Xi'ou people, they could fight with hundreds of thousands of Qin troops for several years by using the familiar forests and mountains, forcing them to "not understand the armour and crossbow for three years", which shows that the social organization of Xi'ou people has been quite developed and can operate effectively, and has entered the era of tribal alliance or Chiefdom. At that time, in order to guarantee the military logistics supply for the southern expedition to Lingnan and defeat the resistance of the people of Xi'ou, the first emperor of Qin also sent supervisors to build "Lingqu" in the northeast of Guangxi to communicate with Hunan and Li rivers. The construction of Lingqu has greatly facilitated the traffic between the north and south of Wuling, and is conducive to the economic and cultural development of Lingnan area. After the unification of Lingnan in Qin Dynasty, a large number of Han people moved to Lingnan and lived together with Yue people. Since then, the political, economic and cultural ties between the people of Xi'ou and Luoyue and the people of all ethnic groups in the mainland have become closer, which has played a positive role in the further development of the Yue society in the west of Lingnan. From the Eastern Han Dynasty to the Wei, Jin and southern and Northern Dynasties, the indigenous people in Lingnan area (later in Guangdong and Guangxi) were known as "Wu Hu", "Li", "Liao" or "Li Liao", who were descendants of Xi'ou and Luo Yue. At the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, the Central Plains was in war and the society was in turmoil. Many big family members moved to Lingnan in order to avoid the chaos, which promoted the feudal development of Lingnan. Under its influence, the aristocrats with big surnames of liliao who lived in Lingnan all over the world became masters one after another, which led to the emergence of some "big surnames" in Lingnan aboriginal society. For example, the Xian surname of Gaoliang and Hepu, the Ning surname of Qinzhou and Hepu, the Li surname of Guizhou, and the Huang surname of Gaoliang are all the famous Aboriginal surnames in Lingnan during this period. They have the wealth of "thousands of miles, more than ten thousand slaves and treasures". At the same time, there are a large number of poor, even "father and son generation slave" ordinary workers in the society. Xian's family name is a big family name in Gaoliang area since Qin and Han Dynasties. In the early years of Liang Datong in the Southern Dynasty, Mrs. Xian married Feng Bao, a Han nationality and Gaoliang prefect who moved to the south. She owned more than 100000 tribes. She was intelligent, wise and resourceful since childhood. She was able to pacify the people of the Ministry, collect Baiyue and the Han immigrants who moved to the south. In the Sui Dynasty, she was praised by Emperor Wen of the Sui Dynasty and was granted the title of Mrs. Qiao. Mrs. Xian has made great contributions to the maintenance of national unity and local peace, and is respected by later generations. During the Tang and Five Dynasties, the ancestors of Zhuang nationality were still known as Li, Liao, Wuhu (Wuwu), etc., but there were also some names named after regions or surnames of big nationalities, such as "xiyuanman", "huangdongman", "nongdongman" or "Dongman", "Dongmeng" and so on. After the Song Dynasty, there were new changes in the name of Zhuang nationality, such as "bang", "Bu Tu", "Tu Ren". After the yuan and Ming Dynasties, they were insulted and translated as "Yao". In addition, they claimed to be Zhuang, Nong, Lang, Tu, Sha and so on. In the Ming and Qing Dynasties, "Zhuang" was widely used in Guangxi and western Guangdong, and became the most common ethnic name of Zhuang nationality. In 1952, it was unified as "Tong" (Yinzhuang). In 1965, it was rewritten as "Zhuang".
Internal and external struggle
In history, in order to resist the dark rule of the central dynasty and local local officials, the Zhuang people launched numerous anti feudal and anti oppression uprisings. Among them, the uprising led by Huang Qianyao, pan Changan and Huang Shaoqing in Xiyuan prefecture (Zuojiang Valley) in Tang Dynasty, the uprising led by Nong Zhigao in Guangyuan Prefecture in Song Dynasty, the uprising led by tubing in Yizhou (Yishan and Nandan area) in Song Dynasty, the peasant uprising in Fushui prefecture (Huanjiang County) in Song Dynasty, and the uprising led by Wei Yinbao in Gutian County (Yongfu county) in Ming Dynasty are relatively large-scale and far-reaching The peasants uprising, the Fujiang uprising and the bazhai uprising, etc. The Zhuang people, together with the people of all ethnic groups, fought back against the armed aggression of the feudal rulers of Jiaozhi (later called Annan) and the Japanese pirates, shouldering the important task of defending the sacred territory of the motherland's frontier. At the beginning of the 11th century, Jiaozhi (today's Vietnam) gradually became strong under the rule of Li Dynasty, and carried out the policy of foreign expansion. Taking advantage of the opportunity that the Northern Song Dynasty was too busy resisting the Liao Dynasty and Xixia Dynasty in the north to look south, it got rid of the control of the Song Dynasty and frequently invaded and plundered jiangnongdong, Huangdong, and the coastal areas of Qin and Lian. In 1075, Li Qiande, the king of Jiaozhi, ordered Li Changjie, the assistant state's Taiwei, to lead 100000 troops to invade Guangxi. Qinzhou and Lianzhou were captured by water and Yongping and Taiping villages by land. In December of the lunar calendar, they invaded Yongzhou City (now Nanning City). Su Yu, the governor of Yongzhou, sent local soldiers and Han soldiers of all ethnic groups to the city to defend against the enemy. At last, because he was outnumbered, the city broke down after 42 days. At that time, the Zhuang people and the Zhuang and Yao people in Xietong of Zuojiang River in Guangxi stood up one after another to stop the Jiaozhi invaders and cut off their way back. Soon, the Song Dynasty came to help. With the concerted efforts of the officers and soldiers, the local soldiers and the people of Zhuang and Han nationalities, they finally defeated the Jiaozhi invaders and successfully defended the territorial integrity of the motherland. During the Jiajing period of Ming Dynasty, Japanese pirates invaded the southeast coastal areas of China, seriously threatening the security of the southeast coastal areas. The Ming government recruited "liangbing" to fight against the enemy. Under the leadership of Wa, the wife of cenmeng, a late local official in Tianzhou prefecture (now Tianyang County), the "liangbing" went to the southeast coast to fight against the Japanese. In April of the 34th year of Jiajing in the Ming Dynasty (1558), Wa's "liangbing" cooperated with the "tubing" (composed of Tujia and Miao) in Yongshun and Baojing of Hunan Province, annihilated more than 3000 Japanese pirates in the famous battle of wangjiangjing (now Jiaxing County, Zhejiang Province), and achieved the first great victory since the Anti Japanese war. After that, Wa's soldiers made many achievements in lujingba and other battles. The people of Jiangsu and Zhejiang highly praised the Anti Japanese spirit of Wa's Liang soldiers and widely recited "Hua Wa family can kill the Japanese.". Mrs. Wa is worthy of being a heroine in the struggle against foreign aggression in the history of Zhuang nationality, and is still praised by Zhuang people. After modern times, facing the invasion of capital imperialist forces and the corrupt rule of domestic reactionary ruling groups, the Zhuang people, together with the people of other nationalities, embarked on the road of anti oppression and liberation. In 1851, the Taiping Revolution took place in the Jintian area of Guiping, where Zhuang, Han and Yao nationalities lived together. At that time, thousands of Zhuang people took part in the Jintian uprising, accounting for about a quarter of the total number of Taiping troops at that time. After the Taiping army left for the north of Guangxi, many Zhuang soldiers went north with the army and formed the basic backbone of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom and Taiping army, and some became important leaders. Lu Liu, the first leader of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom who died, was the Zhuang Nationality in gaokengchong, Zijing mountain, Guiping; Wei Changhui, the northern king, was also the Zhuang Nationality in Guiping County; Xiao Chaogui, the Western King, who served as the former general of the army and made many contributions to the war when he went north, and died in Changsha, was the Zhuang Nationality in Wuxuan County; he led the army to the northern expedition, arrived in Tianjin, and advanced to Beijing
Chinese PinYin : Zhuang Zu
Release Time:2021-03-07 00:21:36
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