Miao nationality is an ancient nationality, scattered all over the world, mainly distributed in China's Guizhou, Hunan, Hubei, Sichuan, Yunnan, Guangxi, Hainan and other provinces, as well as Southeast Asia's Laos, Vietnam, Thailand and other countries and regions.
According to historical documents and Miao people's reputation, the ancestors of Miao people first lived in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, and their ancestors were Chiyou. During the "three Miao" era, they moved to Jianghan Plain. Later, due to the war and other reasons, they gradually moved south and West, and entered the southwest mountainous area and yunguigaoyuan. Since the Ming and Qing Dynasties, a part of the Miao people have migrated to Southeast Asian countries, and from these places they have migrated to Europe and America in modern times.
Miao nationality has its own language. Miao language belongs to Miao branch of Miao Yao language family of Sino Tibetan language family, which is divided into three dialects: Western Hunan, eastern Guizhou and Sichuan Guizhou Yunnan. Because of the long-term contact between the Miao and the Han, some of the Miao people know both Chinese and use Chinese. Miao's religious belief is mainly nature worship and ancestor worship..
In China's 2010 population census, the total population of Miao Nationality in China is 9426007, ranking the fourth among ethnic minorities.
Miao people call themselves hmub (homophonic: Mu), hmongb (homophonic: Meng), hmaob (homophonic: Mo), MAOB (homophonic: Mao), some areas call themselves ghabnus (homophonic: ganao), ghabxongb (homophonic: gexiong), debsongb (homophonic: daisou), etc. He called them "long skirt Miao", "short skirt Miao", "red Miao", "white Miao", "Green Miao" and "Huamiao" and so on. After the founding of new China, they were collectively referred to as Miao nationality.
In ancient times, Miao people got their names from "Jingchu", "jingman" and "Nanman". After Yu's cruel war against "Sanmiao", there was no record of "Sanmiao" in the literature of Central Plains. Jingchu, Chujing, jingman, Nanman and other different calls generally refer to the Miao people's community. His predecessor was Sanmiao. From Shang Dynasty to the late Warring States period, the descendants of Sanmiao appeared in the history books under the cover of "Jing", "Chu" and "man". These names confuse Miao with other ethnic names. After Song Dynasty, Miao was separated from some mixed names of "man" as a single national name.
The age of legend
Miao can be traced back to the legend of Yanhuang five or six thousand years ago. At that time, the Jiuli tribal alliance led by Chiyou appeared in the lower reaches of the Yellow River and the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, and the other two tribal groups led by Shennong and Xuanyuan of the Yellow Emperor formed on the Gansu Shaanxi Loess Plateau.
Yandi and Huangdi developed from west to east along the Yellow River and fought with Chiyou successively in Zhuolu. Chiyou first defeated Emperor Yan, "Chiyou is to chase the emperor, fighting for Zhuolu, nine corners of the left." Later, Yandi and Huangdi united to defeat Chiyou. "When Xuanyuan came, Chiyou was the most violent and could not be defeated. So Huangdi was the commander of all the princes and fought with Chiyou in the field of Zhuolu, so he killed Chiyou."
After the death of Chiyou, the world was in chaos, and the Yellow Emperor painted a portrait of Chiyou to deter the world. Only then did the world settle down. After the defeat of Chiyou's Jiuli group, most of them migrated to the south, which started the migration history of Miao people. So far, the legend of Chiyou has been widely spread among the Miao people. They always believe that Chiyou is their ancestor.
Legend has it that in ancient times, the Miao people lived on the edge of the Yellow River, with a total of 81 villages. Their leader was called Chiyou. Chiyou got rid of the "Chui Er Yao Po", which was harmful to the Miao people, and made the people live and work in peace and contentment. Later, the three demon babies of the Yao Po invited Chilong Gong and Huanglong Gong (i.e. Yandi and Huangdi) to revenge, and Chiyou led the Miao people The Chinese people fought bravely and defeated Chilong and Huanglong for many times. Chilong and Huanglong joined forces with Lei Laowu (Lei Gong), flooded Miao soldiers, captured and killed Chiyou, and burned "81 village". The remaining Miao people were forced to leave their hometown.
Miao nationality is the earliest rice farming nationality, which planted rice in ancient times. In the primitive society, the Miao nationality used leaves as clothing, caves or tree nests as home and women as leaders, which was reflected in a large number of Miao ancient songs. From the kinship appellation system in some areas, we can also see the traces of the transition from matriarchy to patriarchy, from consanguinity marriage to dual marriage. After the Qin and Han Dynasties, the feudal dynasty established counties in most of the Miao areas, and implemented the policy of "accepting but not rebelling, and abandoning but not pursuing" for treason. The ancestors of Miao Nationality in Wuxi area have begun to engage in agricultural production. They have mastered the spinning and dyeing technology of weaving with wood skin and dyeing with grass seeds, and product exchange has appeared. In the Wei, Jin, northern and Southern Dynasties, due to the continuous development of productive forces in Wuling area, the original society of Miao began to disintegrate gradually. The clan commune originally composed of blood relationship gradually developed into a rural commune with geographical relationship. During the Tang and Song Dynasties, the Miao people gradually entered the class society, and the leaders of the rural commune had the right to control the land. The feudal economy of the Han nationality promoted the formation and development of the feudal economy of the Miao nationality through frequent contacts between the Han and Miao Nationalities. Some "chieftains" and "Shuai" became hereditary "local officials" who owned a lot of land. The Miao people in these "local officials" became serfs (known as "Tianding"), farming the land of the Lords, paying rent and taxes and doing unpaid labor, and had to participate in the fighting among the Lords and work for them.
In order to strengthen the relationship between the central and local governments, the Southern Song Dynasty began to use official positions to win over the leaders of all ethnic groups. Many local officials were rewarded and later became chieftains of different sizes.
During the yuan and Ming Dynasties, the economy of the feudal lords in the Miao area had developed considerably. In 1502, the central government of the Ming Dynasty began to implement the policy of "changing the land to flow" in Chengbu Miao District of Hunan Province, and other regions began to dispatch officials. The rise of the landlord system in the Miao area weakened the chieftain regime based on the Lord system. The feudal dynasty limited the power of Tusi, which made the Tusi system decline. By the end of Ming Dynasty and the beginning of Qing Dynasty, some other areas of Miao nationality began to change their land to flow, which made the landlord economy develop smoothly. However, the laer mountain area in Western Hunan, the Leigong Mountain Area in Southeastern Guizhou and the Guzhou mountain area were still in the state of "no monarch, no subordinate" and were collectively referred to as "Shengjie" by the feudal dynasties. Its social development is still at the end of the rural commune.
During the reign of Yongzheng in Qing Dynasty, the large-scale "conversion of land to flow" played a great role in promoting the collapse of feudal lords and the development of landlord economy. However, the military conquest of the "living world" caused a large number of casualties of the Miao people and seriously damaged the local productivity. With the development of feudal landlord's economy, the annexation of land and the concentration of wealth intensified day by day. During the reign of Emperor Qianlong, the big landlords with 1000 or 2000 stone millet had appeared in Western Hunan. During the reign of emperor Jiaqing, the big landlords with 7000 stone millet had appeared. It was then that the feudal lords basically died out.
After the Opium War in 1840, the Miao nationality area became a semi colonial and semi feudal society. For the sake of national independence and liberation, the Miao people, together with the people of other nationalities, waged an arduous struggle and made contributions to both the old democratic revolution and the new democratic revolution. After 1949, after the democratic reform and socialist transformation, the Miao nationality region implemented regional national autonomy.
According to experts' research, the five major migrations of the Miao Nationality in history are as follows:
The data are from the 2010 population census of China.
The Miao population ranks fourth among the ethnic minorities.
Distribution in China
According to the distribution of the Miao Nationality in China, it is characterized by large dispersion and small settlement. In terms of the number of people, there are more people living in compact communities than in scattered communities.
Rongshui Miao Autonomous County, Guangxi (November 26, 1952)
Weining Yi Hui Miao Autonomous County, Guizhou Province (November 11, 1954)
Qiandongnan Miao and Dong Autonomous Prefecture, Guizhou (July 23, 1956)
Qiannan Buyi and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, Guizhou (August 8, 1956)
Chengbu Miao Autonomous County, Hunan Province (November 30, 1956)
Songtao Miao Autonomous County, Guizhou Province (December 31, 1956)
Hunan Xiangxi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture (September 20, 1957)
Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province (April 1, 1958)
Pingbian Miao Autonomous County, Yunnan Province (July 1, 1963)
Zhenning Buyi and Miao Autonomous County, Guizhou Province (September 11, 1963)
Ziyun Miao Buyi Autonomous County, Guizhou Province (February 11, 1966)
Guanling Buyi and Miao Autonomous County, Guizhou Province (December 31, 1981)
Southwest Guizhou Buyi and Miao Autonomous Prefecture (May 1, 1982)
Xiushan Tujia and Miao Autonomous County, Chongqing (November 7, 1983)
Youyang Tujia and Miao Autonomous County, Chongqing (November 11, 1983)
Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, Hubei Province (December 1, 1983)
Pengshui Miao and Tujia Autonomous County, Chongqing (November 10, 1984)
Luquan County, Yunnan Province (1985)
Jinping Miao Yao Dai Autonomous County, Yunnan Province (1985)
Yinjiang Tujia and Miao Autonomous County, Guizhou Province (December 13, 1986)
Jingzhou Miao and Dong Autonomous County, Hunan Province (February 19, 1987)
Daozhen Gelao and Miao Autonomous County, Guizhou Province (November 1987)
Gelao and Miao Autonomous County, Wuchuan, Guizhou (November 1987)
Hainan Qiongzhong Li and Miao Autonomous County (November 20, 1987)
Baoting Li and Miao Autonomous County, Hainan Province (December 1987)
Mayang Miao Autonomous County, Hunan Province (October 31, 1988)
Distribution in Southeast Asia
Chinese PinYin : Miao Zu
Release Time:2021-03-07 00:21:24
Mongolian. Meng Gu Zu
Miao Nationality. Miao Zu
Tujia Nationality. Tu Jia Zu
Hani Nationality. Ha Ni Zu
Li Nationality. Li Zu
Shui Nationality. Shui Zu
Daur nationality. Da Wo Er Zu
Nu nationality. Nu Zu
Russian nationality. E Luo Si Zu
Ewenki nationality. E Wen Ke Zu
Oroqen nationality. E Lun Chun Zu
Jinuo Nationality. Ji Nuo Zu