Uighur (Uighur): ئۇيغۇر， English: Uygur), the national language is Uighur, belonging to the Turkic language family of Altai language family, which is divided into three dialects: Central, Hotan and Luobu.
Uighurs mainly live in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, mainly distributed in the south of Tianshan Mountain. The oasis around Tarim Basin is the center of Uighur settlement, especially Kashgar oasis, Hotan oasis, Aksu River and Tarim River Basin. Turpan Basin at the eastern end of Tianshan Mountain is also a relatively concentrated area of Uygur nationality. A small number of Uighurs have settled in the Ili Valley, Jimsar and Qitai to the north of Tianshan Mountain. In addition, a small number of Uighurs are also distributed in Taoyuan County, Hunan Province and Mianchi County, Henan Province.
According to the statistics of the sixth national census in 2010, the total population of Uighur is 10069346.
Uygur Nationality Wiki:
|Chinese name||Uygur ethnic group|
|total population||9.87 million (2009)|
|Representative food||Nang, pilaf, roasted steamed stuffed bun, noodles|
|traditional festival||Rouzi Festival, gulbang Festival, noruzi Festival|
Chinese PinYin : Wei Wu Er Zu
"Uighur" is a national self proclaimed, which is generally considered to mean "unity", "unity" and "assistance".
In different historical periods, Chinese documents have different translations of this family name. It is called "yuan he" in the literature of the 4th century. It was called "Weihe" in the literature at the end of the 6th century and the beginning of the 7th century. Before 788, it was called "Huihe" in the literature. From 788 to the 1370s, it was called "Uighur". From the 1370s to the 1740s, it was called "Wei wu'er". From the 1740s to the early 20th century, it was called "Hui Department" and "entangled Hui".
It began to be called "Uygur" in 1935 and has been used until now.
The ethnic origin of Uygur nationality can be traced back to the "Ding Ling" (Ding Ling and Ding Ling) nomadic in the south of Baikal Lake in the north and northwest of China, between Erqis River and Balkash Lake in the 3rd century BC. Some people also believe that the ancestors of the Uygur nationality were related by blood to the Huns.
In the 3rd century BC, "Ding Ling" lived on the northern edge of mountain forest and Mongolian grassland, lived on hunting and animal husbandry, and was successively enslaved by the Huns, Xianbei and Rouran Khanate on the grassland. After the 4th century, "Ding Ling", also known as "tiele", "Tieli", "Chile" or "Chile", is distributed on the Eurasian northern grassland, which starts from the Volga River in the west to the Xing'an Mountains in the East. Because the wheels they use are tall, they are also called "high cars". The area around Baikal Lake is called tiele in the East. The "Yuanhe" department became the first of the "Gaoche" departments in the 5th century, that is, the "Weihe" among the "tiele" departments in the 7th century.
In the middle of the 5th century, a tiele tribe with ASHNA as the core appeared in the east of Junggar basin, which is called "Turk". In 552, ASHNA established the Turkic Khanate including the whole Mongolian grassland and Junggar basin, making other tiele tribes its subordinates. The cruel rule of the Turkic aristocracy aroused the resistance of the tiele tribes. In order to compete with the Turkic nobles, nine larger tribes in the eastern tiele, such as "Weihe", "Fugu", "Tongluo" and "bayegu", have formed a regional "Huihe" tribal alliance, which is called "tiele with nine surnames" for short.
The first generation of Khan who unified the nine tiele departments was Gu Li Peiluo. In 744 (the third year of Tianbao), the Huihe alliance led by Gu Li Peiluo, with the cooperation of the army of the Tang Dynasty, overthrew the Turkic Khanate and established Mobei Huihe Khanate. The territory of Huihe Khanate includes the Mongolian grassland area to the south of Baikal Lake, to the north of Yinshan Mountain, to the west of Xing'an Mountain and to the east of Altai mountain. The original names of the tribes basically disappeared and were collectively referred to as "Huihe". In that year, Gu Li Peiluo was canonized as Huairen Khan by the Tang Dynasty, and Huihe Khanate became a vassal state of the Tang Dynasty. Since then, all dynasties of Khan accepted the canonization of the Tang Dynasty. Huihe always maintained friendly and subordinate relations with the Tang Dynasty, and twice sent troops to help the Tang Dynasty calm the "an Shi rebellion". In 788 (the fourth year of Zhenyuan of the Tang Dynasty), kharton Mohe of Huihe wrote to the Tang Dynasty, taking the meaning of "whirling as light as Uighur", and changing Huihe into "Uighur".
The first generation of Khan who unified the nine tiele departments was Gu Li Peiluo.
In 744 (the third year of Tianbao), the Huihe alliance led by Gu Li Peiluo, with the cooperation of the army of the Tang Dynasty, overthrew the Turkic Khanate and established Mobei Huihe Khanate. The territory of Huihe Khanate includes the Mongolian grassland area to the south of Baikal Lake, to the north of Yinshan Mountain, to the west of Xing'an Mountain and to the east of Altai mountain. The original names of the tribes basically disappeared and were collectively referred to as "Huihe". In that year, Gu Li Peiluo was canonized as Huairen Khan by the Tang Dynasty, and Huihe Khanate became a vassal state of the Tang Dynasty. Since then, all dynasties of Khan accepted the canonization of the Tang Dynasty.
Huihe always maintained friendly and subordinate relations with the Tang Dynasty, and twice sent troops to help the Tang Dynasty calm the "an Shi rebellion". In 788 (the fourth year of Zhenyuan of the Tang Dynasty), kharton Mohe of Huihe wrote to the Tang Dynasty, taking the meaning of "whirling as light as Uighur", and changing Huihe into "Uighur".
In the middle of the 9th century, the Uighurs were defeated by the cunning Cannes. The Uighur tribes dispersed one after another, some were captured by qiagas, some moved south to the mainland, but most moved to the western regions and entered the jurisdiction of anxidu protectorate and the west of Khotan. Others arrived in western Gansu and went to Tubo.
Some of the Uighurs who moved westward entered the eastern Tianshan Mountains. In 866, Pu Gujun, the Uighur leader living in Beiting and Turpan, attacked from Beiting. The general who defeated Tubo was still afraid of heat and seized important places such as Xizhou, Beiting and Luntai. From then on, the Uighurs established Gaochang Uighur kingdom with Gaochang as the center. Its sphere of influence starts from Hami in the East, Aksu in the west, Yili River in the north and Tubo in the South (between Hotan and Dunhuang today).
The Uighurs who moved westward also entered the grassland areas of Central Asia. In the middle of the 10th century, the Uighurs united with the Geluolu, Yangmo and other nationalities to establish a powerful Kara Khan dynasty. At first, the capital city was established in balashagung city (now the southwest of the source of the blowing River in Balkash Hunan), and later moved to Kashgar. When it was strong, its jurisdiction included Shule, Shache, Yutian, Hotan and other places in today's Xinjiang. At the beginning of the 11th century, Yusuf khadir Khan destroyed the Li Dynasty in Khotan and spread Islam to Hotan area. During the reign of the Kara Khan dynasty, it played an important role in promoting the economic development of local ethnic groups, advocating the settlement of nomadic Turkic tribes and spreading Islam.
At the beginning of the 12th century, some Khitans, led by Yelu Dashi, moved from northeast to west to Central Asia, successively conquered the Kara Khan dynasty and Gaochang Uighur Kingdom, and established the Khitan regime, known as the Western Liao Dynasty in history. The political oppression and economic plunder of the Uighur people by the rulers of the Western Liao Dynasty were very serious. At the end of the Western Liao Dynasty, Mongolia was strong. King Gaochang decided to rely on the Mongolian Khanate to get rid of the rule of the Western Liao Dynasty. They designed to get rid of the little prison sent by the Western Liao Dynasty, and announced to break away from the Western Liao Dynasty and submit to Genghis Khan. Gaochang Uighur kingdom became a dependency of the Mongolian Khanate.
The Uighurs who settled in the western regions after moving to the west not only integrated the Turkic language departments that had long been nomadic in the grasslands north and west of Tianshan Mountain, but also integrated the Han people who had moved here since the Han Dynasty. They lived with the Yanqi, kuci and Yutian people who had originally lived in the vast areas of Southern Xinjiang, as well as the later Tibetan, Khitan and Mongols, By the beginning of the 16th century, the Uighur nationality was formed.
After the rise of Mongolia, most of Xinjiang now belongs to the territory of Chagatai Khanate. While a large number of Han people were dispatched to the north and south of Tianshan Mountain to reclaim farmland, many Uighurs entered the mainland. In addition to handicraft craftsmen, there were also many intellectuals, including the ancestors of Uighur and Hui in Taoyuan County, Hunan Province.
From the end of the 14th century to the end of the 16th century, the vast Uygur areas from Hami in the east to Hotan in the South gradually unified into a large-scale feudal separatist Kashgar Khanate after more than 200 years of decentralized separatism. Due to the relocation of the capital Yeerqiang, also known as Yeerqiang khanate, the ruler is still a descendant of Chagatai, Mongolia.
In the early Qing Dynasty, the Yeerqiang Khanate established tributary and trade relations with the Qing Dynasty. The exchanges between Uighurs and the people of all ethnic groups in the mainland tended to normalize after sparse and dense in the Ming Dynasty.
Due to the struggle for power between the two sects of Islam "Heishan" and "Baishan", which represented different local feudal groups, in 1678, under the guidance of apak and Zhuo, leaders of the Muslim Baishan sect (Yichan sect) of the Uyghur people, the gardan Khan of the Junggar Khanate in Northern Xinjiang LED the Junggar army south, eliminated the Yeerqiang khanate, and established the Paxia (emperor) with apak and Zhuo as the "Paxia" (emperor) The puppet regime of serfdom with the integration of politics and religion.
In order to maintain their dominant position, APAC, Zhuo and their descendants successively relied on the Mongols in Junggar and foreign invaders in Central Asia to create division and riots in southern Xinjiang. In 1757 (the 22nd year of Qianlong), the Qing Dynasty put down the rebellion of the Junggar aristocrats. In 1759, the anti Qing rebellion in southern Xinjiang by the descendants of APAC and Zhuo was smashed, and the so-called independent "Batur Khanate" was exterminated.
In order to strengthen its jurisdiction over Xinjiang, the Qing government implemented the military government system of military and political integration in Xinjiang. After the middle of the 18th century, Xinjiang was completely under the direct rule of the Qing government. In 1765, the Wushi uprising broke out in Xinjiang, which was the first large-scale armed anti feudal struggle of the Uygur people. Under the leadership of the father and son of laiheimmutura and esemutura, the uprising people killed archimuburke and the Minister of affairs of ush. The insurgents held fast to their positions, and even women and children fought. They repeatedly defeated the Qing army for half a year.
From 1820 to 1828, at the instigation of Britain, Zhang GER, the representative of the Uighur reactionary feudal lord in southern Xinjiang and the sun of Dahe Zhuo mu, provided weapons and direct command and planning by Britain under the cover of religious flags, repeatedly invaded Southern Xinjiang without success. In the next two or three decades, Zhang ger's nephew claimed to be Hezhuo and continued to harass Southern Xinjiang and wipe out the lives of the Uyghur people. Their reactionary acts not only failed to win the support of the people, but aroused the resistance of the people of all ethnic groups and always ended in failure.
Shortly after the outbreak of the Opium War, under the influence of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, the Nian Army and the armed uprising of farmers of all ethnic groups in Yunnan, Shaanxi and Gansu, Xinjiang broke out a national uprising against the Qing Dynasty in 1864. The rapid anti Qing storm swept the north and south of Tianshan Mountain and shocked the rule of the Qing Dynasty in Xinjiang. During this period, several separatist regimes that did not belong to each other successively appeared in southern and Northern Xinjiang: rexidin Khan and Zhuo (Hui nationality) with Kuqa as the center, tuoming (Hui nationality) with Urumqi as the center, habibrahan (Uygur nationality) with Hotan as the center, jinxiangyin (Hui nationality) with Kashgar as the center and sidikburke (Kirgiz nationality), The Sultan of taranqi (Uighur) with ILI as the center. However, the banner of "nationality" and "religion" has shifted the goal of mass struggle, so that the fruits of victory won by the Uighurs and people of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang with their blood are always usurped by a small group of ethnic and religious elites. The leaders of the feudal separatist regime became king and Khan, and carried out more cruel and barbaric feudal rule over the working people. They fought with each other and brought greater disaster to the people of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang.
In 1865, the feudal lords of Kashgar, Jin Xiangyin and Si dikeburke, took advantage of the uprising of Uighur and other ethnic groups, trying to call on the masses to support the "holy race" and welcome the son of Zhang ger to Kashgar from Haohan. Akuba, an officer of the Haohan country supported by Britain, took the opportunity to invade Xinjiang, established the "zhedshar Khanate" (seven city Khanate), occupied Urumqi, Manas and other places in southern and Northern Xinjiang, and exercised the barbaric and violent rule of the medieval Islamic Khanate over the people of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang. The Uygur people and people of all ethnic groups suffered unprecedented havoc.
On the occasion of agubai's invasion of Southern Xinjiang, in order to safeguard its vested interests in Central Asia, tsarist Russia maintained a balance of power with Britain, stepped up collusion with agubai, and secretly signed an illegal trade treaty with agubai behind the back of the Qing government. In 1871, under the pretext of "riots in western provinces of China", Russia "had no reason to sit idly by", and brazenly sent troops in the name of "collecting and guarding" to occupy Ili. The Tsarist Russian aggressors carried out ten years of colonial rule in Ili area and implemented the policy of "divide and rule" against the people of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang. During this period, their crimes were countless.
It is the common interest and desire of Xinjiang and the people of all ethnic groups to completely destroy the agubai regime and recover Ili. With the support and assistance of the Uighur people and the people of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang, the Qing army won a victory against agubai in 1877. In 1881, China and Russia signed the Ili treaty. Although China recovered ILI, it lost more than 70000 square kilometers west of the Horgos River, with a compensation of 9 million rubles. Before that, tsarist Russia had forcibly cut off more than 440000 square kilometers of land in Northwest China through two unequal treaties, the Sino Russian Beijing treaty in 1860 and the Sino Russian Treaty on the northwest boundary in 1864. Moreover, tsarist Russia continued to do evil when it had to return ILI, robbing as many as 100000 local Uighur, Hui, Mongolian, Kazak, Kirgiz and other ethnic people by force. At the same time, the invading army wantonly destroyed farmland, canals, houses and orchards and robbed food and livestock. Five of the nine cities in Yili are almost in ruins, and three cities are left with only decaying walls and rubble. The Uighur people in nine townships on the right bank of the Ili River also looted all their property.
In 1884, the Qing government established the western region under the jurisdiction of the former general Ili as a provincial Province, named Xinjiang. This measure of the Qing government is of great significance for consolidating the northwest frontier, defending against foreign aggression, developing and building Xinjiang. In the war disaster caused by foreign aggressors and their own feudal ruling class, the Uighurs and the people of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang deeply feel the harm of splitting the motherland and undermining national unity. After the establishment of the province, the relationship between Xinjiang and the mainland has become closer, and the Uighurs and the people of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang have become more and more united in the struggle against imperialism and feudalism.
After the revolution of 1911, Xinjiang was under the rule of Yang Zengxin, Jin Shuren and Sheng Shicai. In August 1933, the British and Indian governments sent spies to use the extensive contacts of Indian businessmen in southern Xinjiang to buy many local people to act as British spies and propagandists and advocate "greater Turkism" and "greater Islamism". On November 12, 1933, with the careful planning of the British Consul in Kashgar and the support of 1000 rifles and 200 soldiers, Britain instigated pan Turkic elements Muhammad Yimin and shabiti Mullah to establish an "independent Islamic Republic of East Turkistan" in Kashgar and put forward the slogan of "protecting religion, killing Han and destroying Hui", We pursued extreme religiosity and nationalism and adopted a policy of extermination of the Hui, Han and other ethnic people. On February 6, 1934, Ma Zhongying's troops entered Kashgar, and the "Islamic Republic of East Turkestan" collapsed. In 1937, the Japanese imperialists plotted to support the so-called "independent" Islamic countries organized by mamuti and yaolewas, and mamuti colluded with mahushan to rebel together.
In August 1944, Sheng Shicai stepped down and the Kuomintang began to rule Xinjiang directly. The Kuomintang implemented a high-pressure political policy, and the number of troops stationed in Xinjiang soared to 100000. We will implement the Baojia system and establish a "self defense regiment" to suppress the people of all ethnic groups. Although the original "Burke" in Uygur areas was abolished after the revolution of 1911, many "Burke" have money and power and run rampant in places. Generally, there are five imams of Kazi (Grand Imam) in each county of Uygur region, who are in charge of local religious affairs. The feudal gentry colluded closely with the religious upper class to manipulate the grass-roots political power. In urban and rural areas inhabited by Uighurs, religious courts are law enforcement organs, with great authority, which is the only one in countries that believe in Islam. The working people have been wronged, ranging from being tortured by flogging, amputation, oil cooking and burying alive, to smearing their faces and riding donkeys in the streets. The combination of religious power and political power enslaves the Uighur people in life and spirit.
In 1944, the struggle against the reactionary rule of the Kuomintang broke out in Ili, Tacheng and Altay (collectively referred to as the "Three District revolution" after liberation). Under the influence of the Communist Party of China, the revolutionary leaders of the three regions, ahematijiang hasmu and abasov, waged a resolute struggle against meswood, Muhammad Yimin, Aisha, Usman and other national separatists, corrected the serious shortcomings and mistakes in the early stage of the revolution, and effectively cracked down on the rule of the Kuomintang in Xinjiang, It played a certain role in promoting the peaceful liberation of Xinjiang.
In September 1949, the Chinese people's Liberation War and the people's revolution had won a decisive victory throughout the country, and the Chinese people's Liberation Army had approached Xinjiang. On September 25, the Kuomintang garrison in Xinjiang, led by garrison commander Tao Shiyue, electrified the uprising. On September 26, the Xinjiang provincial government headed by Borhan also announced an uprising. Xinjiang was liberated by peaceful means.
Uighur social system has many different organizational forms in different historical periods.
According to the biography of Huihe in the old Tang Dynasty, Huihe initially called its leaders "waiting for Jin" and "Jie Lifa". Later, tumidu called himself Khan. The internal and external prime ministers and other officials at all levels are generally selected and appointed from the families of waijin, jielifa and Khan and clans and tribes close by blood. The Huihe Khanate founded by Gu Li Peiluo is composed of the inner nine tribes (nine surnamed Huihe) as the core and the outer nine tribes. The medicine Rogge family of the inner nine families is a royal group, and Khan often comes from the medicine Rogge family. The outer nine tribes were originally a tribal consortium that United Huihe against Turks. In 795, the Khan position was transferred from Luo Ge's to a Xie's.
During the period of Gaochang Uighur Kingdom, the supreme ruler was called "yiduhu". His rights were autocratic and hereditary. He was the supreme legislator and executor of the kingdom. Yiduhu appointed nine prime ministers, governors, judges and Burke at all levels to manage state affairs and local administration.
The political system of the Kara Khan dynasty continued the tradition of the original Turkic tribes such as Uighur, Yangmo, Geluolu and ugus in many aspects. At the same time, it was also deeply influenced by the social system of the Islamic countries, especially the Saman Dynasty. At first, the Kara Khan dynasty implemented the "double king system", that is, the Great Khan and the Deputy Khan. The Great Khan was called "alslan Khan" and stationed in balashagun, and the Deputy Khan was called "Kadir Khan". He first settled in Talos and then moved to Kashgar. Later, the supreme ruling group of the Kara Khan dynasty also used the titles of "bugra Khan" and "peach blossom stone Khan". The central and local officials of the Dynasty included prime minister, herald minister, court minister, general, finance minister, interior minister, ye Hu, Burke, etc.
Yeerqiang Khanate implements the enfeoffment system. After each Khan ascends the throne, his first task is to enfeoffment his close relatives and meritorious officials. The grantee is the governor of the fief. A fief cannot be hereditary, but when the power of a governor develops enough to compete with Khan, the fief becomes hereditary. The official system of the Khanate is more complex. The supreme administrator of the Khanate is the prime minister, and the local officials are mainly the administrative officials appointed by the Khanate. During the period of Yeerqiang khanate, religious forces - Hezhuo was a force that can not be ignored. In the later period of the khanate, they controlled and manipulated the regime.
In the early Qing Dynasty, the military government system was implemented in Xinjiang, and many new policies were adopted in Uighur inhabited areas. The most important one was the reform of Burke restraint, that is, dispersing the rights of archimuburke, abolishing the hereditary system as the appointment system, and stipulating Burke's methods of maintaining integrity and salary, so as to limit Burke's unwarranted search for the people, but Burke was still a feudal overlord.
In 1884, the Qing government established a province in Xinjiang, abolished the Burke system, weakened the local feudal separatist forces, realized the consistency of the administrative system between Xinjiang and other provinces, and implemented more direct rule.
After the revolution of 1911, Xinjiang entered the period of warlord rule. The governments of Yang Zengxin and Jin Shuren basically inherited the system of the late Qing Dynasty and retained the feudal imperial system. In the early stage of Sheng Shicai's rule, in order to stabilize the situation, win the support of the people, consolidate the rule, he formulated and implemented the "six policies", which objectively stabilized the political situation in Xinjiang. With the passage of time, Sheng Shicai exposed his warlord nature and completely took refuge in Kuomintang Chiang Kai Shek. Xinjiang was completely under the direct rule of the Kuomintang Central Government.
In September 1949, Xinjiang was peacefully liberated. The CPC Central Committee immediately established the Xinjiang branch of the CPC Central Committee in Xinjiang, and successively established party leading organs at all levels in Xinjiang. On December 17, 1949, under the leadership of the party, the provincial people's Government jointly composed of representatives of all ethnic groups and all walks of life in Xinjiang was announced, and Bao erhan was appointed chairman of the people's government. The provincial people's government completely abolished the national oppression policy implemented by the reactionary rulers, ensured the equality of all ethnic groups and the right of the people of all ethnic groups to be masters of the country, and began the land reform movement in Xinjiang.
On December 22, 1953, the measures for the implementation of regional national autonomy in Xinjiang Province approved by the Central People's government was officially released. In Xinjiang, Balikun Kazak Autonomous County, Mulei Kazak Autonomous County, Yanqi Hui Autonomous County, Chabuchar Xibo Autonomous County, hebukessel Mongolian Autonomous County, hechangji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Bayingolin Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture, Bortala Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture and Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture have been established successively. On this basis, the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region was officially established on October 1, 1955, with its capital in Urumqi. The implementation of regional national autonomy has further realized the aspirations of the Uighurs and the people of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang to be masters of their own affairs and greatly improved the enthusiasm of the people of all ethnic groups. The people's Congress of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and its Standing Committee have formulated various laws, regulations and resolutions to meet the characteristics and needs of Xinjiang in accordance with the powers conferred by the law on regional national autonomy and the reality of Xinjiang.
In history, Uighurs once believed in Shamanism, Manichaeism, Zoroastrianism, Nestorianism and Buddhism.
At the end of the 10th century, the Kara Khan dynasty began to believe in Islam. By the 15th century, Islam gradually occupied a dominant position in Uygur areas.
Islam has different sects. Most Uighurs believe in Hanafi, one of the Sunni sharia schools. There are also a considerable number of people who believe in the Sufi sect of mysticism, which is called Yichan sect in Xinjiang. In addition, a small number of people believe in wahhabis. Sunnis call themselves orthodox and are the largest sect of Muslims. They believe in Huda and Muhammad, the messenger of Huda, and worship the Koran.
The worship temple is the place where Sunnis carry out religious activities.
The Yichan sect in Xinjiang respects the Sunni doctrine, but has its own unique ideological system in the interpretation of the Koran and the hadith. They advocate "not valuing this life and reincarnation", abstinence, asceticism and poverty.
Mazar is the center of the activities of yizen sect. Worshipping Mazar is an important feature of the sect.
The traditional diet of Uygur people is mainly pasta, like sheep and beef, and eat relatively few vegetables. There are many kinds of staple foods. The most common ones are Nang, pilaf, steamed stuffed bun, ramen and so on.
Nang, made of wheat flour or corn flour, is baked in a special fire pit. It is a round cake with different shape, size and thickness.
Grabbing rice, called "poluo" in Uighur, is a kind of rice stewed with rice, mutton, mutton oil, edible oil and carrots. It tastes delicious.
Steamed buns are called "Manta" in Uighur; Roasted steamed stuffed bun, called "samosa" in Uygur language, uses noodles as skin, diced mutton and mutton oil mixed with a little onion as filling, with thin skin and more meat.
In addition, there are ramen, fried noodles, noodle soup, "Naren noodles" and so on. Famous dishes include roast whole sheep, stewed mutton, barbecue and so on.
Uyghur people are strictly forbidden to eat pork, donkey meat, dog meat and mule meat.
Horse meat is also forbidden in some areas of Southern Xinjiang (there is no such restriction in pastoral areas or agricultural and pastoral areas of Northern Xinjiang).
Generally, livestock and poultry that have not been slaughtered are also fasted.
Uighurs like drinking tea.
The traditional Uygur men's coat is called "forma loop", which is knee long, wide sleeved, collarless and buttonless. When wearing, it is tied with a long belt around the waist.
Women generally wear dresses, hoods or blouses. Women and girls like to use natural wormwood juice to thrush, dye nails, wear earrings, bracelets, rings, necklaces, etc.
Uyghur people, young and old, like to wear "Geba" (four Leng Flower Hat) and embroider various ethnic patterns with black-and-white or colored silk threads. In the past, unmarried girls wore more than a dozen braids, with long hair as their beauty. There are all kinds of headwear on the head, and some people coil their braids into a bun.
With the development of the times, in addition to traditional clothes and costumes, fashion is widely popular in cities.
The traditional courtyard house of Uygur nationality can be roughly divided into three basic plane combination forms of "outer room", "dining room" and "back room".
Most regions focus on one form, but the specific layout of the same form is also quite different.
The vast desert, severe wind and sand, hot and little rain in summer and cold ecological environment in winter make Uighurs pay great attention to the transformation and beautification of the environment. Therefore, courtyard houses often open up orchards, flower beds, poplar and grape sheds.
Uighurs attach importance to the decoration of houses, showing a variety of decoration means. However, each family wall is hung with a tapestry, and the earth Kang is covered with a carpet, which is its common feature.
When Uighurs meet elders or friends, they should put their right hand on their chest. Men should shake hands when they meet, women should hug each other when they meet, stick their right face, greet them with "Salam", and finally, touch their knees with both hands and bow down to say goodbye. The younger generation should first salute the elders. Now they mostly use handshake as a meeting gift.
Uighurs generally believe that it is enviable to have guests. Usually, if the guests arrive at the same time, they should enter the door and take their seats on the Kang. The most distinguished and oldest guests should sit on the mattress specially laid by the host in the middle of the Kang. Before and after dinner, the host will wash the hands of the guests with a hand washing pot. Generally, they will wash them three times. The guests are not allowed to throw the water. The host first poured a bowl of tea for each person, presented it with both hands, and then spread a meal cloth in front of the guests, put all kinds of snacks, fruits and delicious food, and slaughtered sheep to entertain the guests if possible. Sometimes the host will play national musical instruments such as doutar and rewave to add fun with songs and dances. At the end of the meal, under the leadership of the elderly, we should say "Duva" prayer. If it's late, the host should always warm up and take out the best bedding for the guests. When guests leave, the host always sends them out of the gate and watches them go away.
Modern Uighur language is the common language of the Uighur nation and belongs to the Turkic language family of Altaic language family. Historically, the development of Uighur language has experienced three stages: Ancient Turkic language stage (7th-13th century), Chahetai language stage (14th-18th century), modern and modern Uighur language stage (19th century to now).
Modern Uighur language in China is divided into three dialects: Central dialect, Hotan dialect and Luobu dialect. The standard language is based on the central dialect and takes the voice of Yili Urumqi as the standard sound. Uighur has many similarities with Kazakh, Kirgiz, Uzbek and other kinship languages of the same language family, as well as its own unique characteristics.
Uighurs have a long history of using characters. In different historical periods and regions, they use different alphabet systems to write their own language, and the character names are also different.
The Huihe people who established political power in the erhun River Basin in the 8th century used Turkic RuNi. From the 9th century to the 15th century, Uighurs in the Hexi Corridor of Xinjiang and Gansu and in the west of Congling used Uighur language based on Sute letters, but the length of time used in various regions was different, and Uighur Buddhists in the East used it the longest.
The Kara Khan dynasty, established by the Western Uighurs and Geluolu departments in Congling, has changed to the text based on Arabic letters since believing in Islam in the 10th century, which is called Dynasty Turkic. With the spread of Islam, the scope of use of this language has been expanding. In the 15th century, it basically replaced the Uighur language and has become a common language for the Uighur and Turkic nationalities in Xinjiang and Central Asia. At first, it was mainly used in the territory of the original Chagatai Khanate, so it was called Chagatai.
The current Uighur language is improved on the basis of Chagatai language in the late period. After continuous improvement and supplement, it has become a common language for the whole Uighur people. In 1960, Latin character reform was carried out, but since the conditions for full conversion to new characters are not mature, the use of new characters has been stopped since September 1982.
Uygur folk literature has various forms, including folk stories, fables, jokes, proverbs and so on.
Folklore is an important part of Uygur folk literature. The content of the story is often that the rulers cruelly exploit the working people, and the working people use their wisdom to skillfully expose and frustrate the rulers' schemes, such as the story of the shadow of mulberry trees, the story of Avanti, etc. There are also stories that encourage labor enthusiasm, express the desire for a better life, educate future generations, and describe love life. For example, the folk story "three wills" is a story that teaches people to unite and help each other, overcome difficulties, and obtain happiness; "Two slackers" is a story that teaches people to love labor and not to enjoy ease; "Smart qimanhan", "peasant girl" and "women who love wit" are warm praise and praise for the diligence and noble morality of Uygur women.
Uighur classical literature is most famous for the biography of ugus Khan, happiness and wisdom, Turkic dictionary, introduction to truth and the collection of five ministers' poems.
The biography of ugus Khan, also known as the legend of ugus Khan, is a folk heroic epic widely circulated among the ancient Uighur people. Its content is mainly divided into two parts: the first part is the ancient myths and legends of the ancient Uygur nationality; The second part mainly tells the history of ugus Khan's expedition. It narrates many historical stories with the unique writing method of folk epic and reproduces the original style of the social life of Uygur ancestors. It is of great value for the study of the history, literature and language of ancient Uygur.
Blissful wisdom was dedicated by yusupu Haas hajifu to bagrahan, the monarch of the Kara Khan dynasty at that time. Written in Turkic, the literal translation should be "knowledge to give happiness". This paper expounds the poet's political and philosophical views on governing the country, which reflects the code of conduct and life ideal advocated by the poet. The poem summarizes the nomadic culture of the Uygur grassland. The poet publicly declared that "it was written with the supreme wisdom of the sage of the state of Qin". It not only inherited the Han culture, but also accepted the influence of Arab, Persian and Central Asian cultures, thus creating a new era of Uygur Literature. This brilliant masterpiece has profound sociality, philosophy, elegant artistry and multi-cultural compatibility, Great influence and wide spread. At present, fule wisdom has Uyghur and Chinese versions in China, and a variety of full translations in Russian, English, German, Turkish, Uzbek, Kazakh, Kyrgyz and other sections in Japanese and Ukrainian abroad.
The Turkic dictionary was written in Arabic by Mahmoud Kashkari in 1074. It is the first large Turkic dictionary in the world. This dictionary provides a wealth of history, geographical knowledge and various professional terms about Xinjiang and Central Asia. It can be called a Concise Encyclopedia about the Turkic nation. In addition to the long preface, the book has more than 7000 entries. The Turkic dictionary is attached with a circular map, which depicts the world the author understood at that time, and is also the earliest and most complete map of Central Asia today.
The introduction to truth is a long admonishing poem written by Ahmed ugnack in the early 13th century. It is written in the form of wooden pagoda kaliv in aruzi rhythm. With the ethical and moral concept of Islam, the author exhorts the world to follow the religious rules and public morality, so as to restore social order and tranquility. Introduction to truth is of great value to the study of Uighur literature, language, history and philosophy during the Karakhan Dynasty.
The collection of five ministers' poems, written in Chagatai, is a collection of five long narrative poems written by Alisher navai. Its philosophy has a great impact on the formation of Uygur ethics. Among the five long narrative poems, the biography of sages is the most famous. It describes some famous sages in the development history of Islam, has a great influence on Uighur classical literature and occupies an important position in the spiritual life of Uighurs. In addition, from the 17th century to the early 20th century, there were also some works exposing the feudal ruling forces and feudal autocratic system, such as Hercules' love and distress, abudukhemu Nazari's rebia saidin, Riley and megnon, etc.
Modern and Contemporary Literature
Uighur modern and contemporary literature is greatly influenced by Russia. The emergence of novels and dramas has broken through the tradition of exclusive respect for poetry in the past. Representative works include Li mutarifu's Selected Poems of Li mutarifu (in Chinese), Li mutarifu's Anthology (in Chinese and Uyghur), nimisiyiti's love for the motherland, Tarim girl, saifuding azezi's the cry of the first train, amanisha Khan, etc.
Uighur medicine is an important part of Chinese medicine. "Uighur medicine" is abbreviated as "Uygur Medicine", which has a long history and a relatively complete theoretical system. Uighur medicine has established a set of methods for diagnosing and treating diseases based on the "four material theories" represented by "earth, water, fire and air" and the "four body fluid theories" of "blood fluid, phlegm fluid, bile fluid and black bile fluid". When diagnosing diseases, we should pay attention to pulse checking, observation and inquiry. Most of the medical diseases are mainly taking medicine. Non humoral disorders are adjusted by the method of correction. Humoral disorders of temperament include pathogenic body fluid maturation, pathogenic body fluid excretion, and main drug radical cure. In addition, there are 20 kinds of therapies, such as fumigating drugs, suppository, bloodletting, cold and hot compress, sunbathing, Wen Quanyu and burying hot sand, which are related to liver and gallbladder diseases, digestive diseases, vitiligo, diabetes, Angiosclerotic heart disease has good curative effect. In surgery, while taking medicine, more than 20 kinds of therapies such as branding, heat therapy, animal skin dressing, ligation, surgery, acupuncture, massage and manual reduction are adopted. There are more than 800 kinds of commonly used drugs and 400 kinds of preparations.
Many excellent doctors, physicians and medical works have appeared in the Uygur nationality. Medical treasure book and interpretation of typhoid fever by the famous Uighur doctor Biji Zamba hirahan, on nature, on human body, on Neurology, on the function of organs, on the heat, cold, wet and dry nature of natural objects by the famous Uighur scientist, philosopher, astronomer and medical scientist Farabi (870-950), Aksayi by the famous Uighur doctor jamalidin aksayi, Huihui prescription (1567-1658) prepared by the famous Uighur medical scientist hudu youmuhan Aji (1567-1658), kazunong written by Yusuf Aji, the founder of Kashgar Uighur medical hospital, the first four volume Encyclopedia of Uighur medicine, etc.
Lu Mingshan, an outstanding agronomist, wrote a summary of Nongsang clothes and food.
Uygur folk music can be divided into Mukam, folk songs, folk songs and dances, folk instrumental music, rap music, religious music, etc. it inherits the fine traditions of Shule music, Khotan music, Kucha music, Gaochang music and Yizhou music.
"Twelve Mukam" is a form of classical Daqu including songs, instrumental music and dance. There are three types of Kashi Mukam, dorang Mukam and Hami Mukam, which are performed by folk musicians at custom festivals, festive weddings and entertainment parties. Amanisha, an outstanding Uygur female musician in the 16th century, collected and sorted out Muqam popular all over the country and compiled it into twelve sets of songs and dances, which made the form of Muqam tend to be stereotyped. In 2005, "Twelve Muqam" was listed in the world intangible cultural heritage protection list by the United Nations.
There are dozens of Uygur national musical instruments, such as plucked, wind and percussion instruments.
"Dutar" and "rewave" are the most commonly used solo and ensemble instruments, with clear and soft timbre.
"Dafu" is a sheepskin drum struck with fingers. The wooden frame on the side of the drum is inlaid with many movable small iron rings. With the clang of drums, it is often used for dance accompaniment.
Uighur folk songs are similar to Mukam. Due to different geographical environment and other factors, the styles of Uighur folk songs are obviously different. Yili folk songs are lyrical; Hami folk songs are short and lively; Kashgar folk songs are more unrestrained and rough. Uygur singers often sing with musical instruments. Northern singers like to use dutar and play brin; Hami singers like to use Hami aijieke; Southern singers like to use kashiwap. In terms of scale and mode of folk songs, folk songs in most areas of Southern Xinjiang use seven tone scale or more than seven tone scale, which has an unusual feeling. Many folk songs in Northeast China use pentatonic and hexatonic scales.
Its content can be divided into traditional folk songs and new folk songs. Traditional folk songs include love songs, labor songs, history songs, life customs songs and so on.
Labor songs mainly include hunting songs, pastoral songs, wheat harvest songs, farm songs, canal digging songs, spinning wheel songs, wall building songs, etc. Many love songs express the incomparable loyalty and enthusiastic pursuit of young men and women for love. Historical songs are songs that reflect some major events in the history of the Uygur people. Such as the popular song of building a city and flowing back in Northern Xinjiang; Some praised the peasant uprising, such as "the hero sadir", "the song of the coachman", "the song of the Timur Haili faction", etc.; some exposed the ugly face of the imperialist aggressors, such as the song of whipping aguber and the song of forced relocation
Life custom songs are closely related to various rituals and national traditional customs. Custom songs are sung in weddings, funerals, celebrations, sacrifices and folk festivals. Such folk songs include wedding songs, spring greeting songs, snow greeting songs, funeral songs (also known as "Elegy"), fasting songs, etc. hypnotic songs (such as "sleep, children") are popular in eastern Xinjiang Xianghe song is a typical free song in short tune. Xianghe song can also be divided into two categories. The first category is mainly solo self playing and self singing, singing lyric and Narrative Folk Songs. The second category is Xianghe song with fixed rhythm, regular rhythm, bright rhythm and warm atmosphere. It is often accompanied by dance. The performance forms are mainly duet, chorus, lead singer and help singer.
Historical songs are mainly ballads about some major events in the history of the Uygur nationality. Some reflect the cruel oppression of the feudal ruling class and the heroic resistance and insurrection of farmers. Some reflect the heroic deeds of the Uygur people in resisting foreign aggression, defending their hometown, border areas and safeguarding the reunification of the motherland. Among them, Yili Area in Northern Xinjiang is widely spread Nuozigum, song of building a city, song of the hero sadir, song of forced relocation against the Czar, song about matitai in Kashgar, southern Xinjiang, and so on.
Love songs account for a large proportion in Uygur folk songs. The passionate love between young men and women is often expressed by Bixing techniques rich in Uygur national psychological characteristics and regional characteristics, so it has a unique artistic charm.
The new folk song is a warm eulogy of the Uighur people for the new socialist life, showing the people's love for the party, leaders and the socialist system.
Uighur dance is famous for its fast and changeable rotation. Traditional dances include top bowl dance, big drum dance, iron ring dance, puta dance, etc.
"Sanem" is the most common form of folk dance. Impromptu dance sometimes one person dances alone, sometimes two people dance to each other, and sometimes three or five people dance together. Accompanied by the band, the crowd sitting in a circle clapped and sang. When the music rhythm changes from medium speed to fast, and the dance steps become faster and faster, the voices of "Kay Na" (come on) and "Baal Kalla" (wonderful) rise everywhere, and the dancers' emotions become more intense. "Sainaim" in various places has its own style and is usually named by place names. Such as Kashgar "sainaim" and Ili "sainaim" to show the difference.
"Xiadiyana" is a popular dance in Xinjiang, especially in southern Xinjiang, which means happy dance. It is a folk collective dance. There is no limit to the number of participants and the formation is not fixed. The tunes of "Xia Di Yana" in different regions have their own characteristics, some are exuberant and gorgeous, and some are vigorous and powerful. The basic steps of "Xia Di Yana" are mainly small jump steps, with two arms raised and quick shaking inside and outside the palm, giving people a sense of joy and lightness.
"Duolang (Daolang)" is known as the flower of folk art. It is a dance full of the breath of working people's life. Its content shows the hunting activities of the people in the ancient Maigaiti area. The dance moves are vigorous, vigorous, passionate and strong in rhythm. The music accompanying "dorang" dance is called "dorang Muqam" and "dorang sainaim". The melody structure is simple, the singing style is broad, heroic, and has a strong grassland atmosphere.
"Nazirkum" is popular in Turpan, Shanshan, Hami and other places. It uses dance movements to express lively and humorous content, which fully reflects the optimistic and cheerful character of the Uygur people.
Uygur traditional festivals include Rouzi Festival, gulbang Festival and noruzi Festival. The first two festivals are derived from Islam. The date is calculated according to the Islamic calendar and moves every year.
Rouzi Festival is also called "Eid al Fitr", because it is held one month after fasting and usually takes three days.
The Eid al AdhA Festival, also known as the "Eid al AdhA", is held 70 days after the Rouzi Festival. If you have a good family, you have to kill a sheep.
Noruzi Festival is the oldest traditional festival of Uygur nationality. It is equivalent to March 22 of the Gregorian calendar at the spring equinox. On this day, all kinds of celebrations and traditional "maixilaifu" will be held.
In the past, arranged marriage was popular among Uighurs, but now free love is more common. Before marriage, the man must pay a financial gift to the woman.
After receiving the marriage certificate, both men and women will hold a wedding banquet to entertain their relatives, friends and colleagues. Some will ask the Imam to read "Nica.". The wedding ceremony includes the bride welcoming ceremony, the unveiling ceremony, and the celebration ceremony held by the groom and bride for their wedding.
After the banquet, a "Macy's Laifu" will be held. During this period, people will sing and jump, and the atmosphere is very warm. In the process of dancing, a pair of men and women will come up to dance purposefully. The man deliberately lifts the bride's veil and the woman covers it again. Until it is repeated three times, the bride stands up and bows deeply to the guests, and the guests applaud the end of the ceremony.
The Uighurs follow the rules of the Islamic religion, practice burial and advocate quick burial. After the end of the Islamic ceremony "namazi" to cross the dead, the corpse is sent to the cemetery with a corpse carrying bed, dug into a hole for burial, without coffins or any funerary objects. Tomb mounds are mostly rectangular and round. Fences shall be built around the cemetery, livestock shall not enter, and earth borrowing and excavation shall not be allowed.
Uighurs hold memorial activities on the day, 3rd, 7th, 40th and anniversary of the deceased, which is called "naizil" in Uighur. In all the memorial activities, the 7th, 40th and anniversary are quite grand. We should entertain relatives, friends, villagers and colleagues, do "dewa" (pray) and invite the Imam to chant scriptures. The meals in the memorial ceremony are mainly catching rice and so on.
According to the traditional custom, all men who come to the "Nazir" must wear hats and women must wear scarves.
Hani nationality, known as aka nationality in Southeast Asia, whose national language is Hani Language, belongs to the Yi branch of Tibetan Burmese language family of Sino Tibetan language family. Modern Hani nationality uses newly created Pinyin characte. Ha Ni Zu
Lisu nationality belongs to the South Asian type of Mongolian race. Its national language belongs to the Yi branch of Tibetan Burmese language family of Sino Tibetan language family. Its characters are divided into new and old Lisu languages. It generally. Li Su Zu
Dongxiang nationality is a minority nationality in Gansu Province, China. The national language belongs to the Altaic Mongolian language family. There is no national language. Most Dongxiang Nationalities also speak Chinese. Chinese is the common language. Dong Xiang Zu
Qiang nationality originates from ancient Qiang and is an ancient nationality in Western China. Ancient Qiang has a broad and far-reaching impact on China's historical development and the formation of the Chinese nation. The national language is Qiang lan. Qiang Zu
Bulang Nationality is a minority nationality with a long history. The national language is Bulang language. It belongs to the Bulang branch of the mon Khmer language family of the South Asian language family. It can be divided into Bulang and AVA dialects. Bu Lang Zu
Salar is one of the ethnic minorities who believe in Islam in China. The national language is salar. It belongs to the Ukrainian group of the West Hun branch of the Altaic Turkic language family. Some people also believe that it belongs to sarul dialect. . Sa La Zu
Pumi is one of the ethnic groups with a long history and ancient culture in China. The national language is Pumi. It belongs to the Qiang branch of the Tibetan Burmese language family of Sino Tibetan language family. It can be divided into southern and No. Pu Mi Zu
Nu is one of the ethnic groups with a small population and a large number of languages in China. Lushui (formerly Bijiang county) of Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture, Fugong, Gongshan Dulong Nu Autonomous County, Lanping Bai Pumi Autonomous County, Weix. Nu Zu
Ewenki (Russian: Эвенки， Tungus (formerly known as Tungus or Soren) is a nationality in Northeast Asia. It mainly lives in Siberia, Russia and Inner Mongolia and Heilongjiang provinces of China. Mongolia also has a small amount of distribution. In Russia . E Wen Ke Zu
Jing (Chinese standard) Roman letter: Gin, Vietnamese: ng ư ời Kinh/ ʛ Jing, or Jing people, is also known as the Yue nationality (Vietnamese: ng) ư ời Việt/ ʛ Yue), the national language is Beijing language. Due to the complex language factors, it is dif. Jing Zu
Dulong nationality is one of the ethnic minorities with a small population in China and the least populous nationality in Yunnan Province. It uses Dulong language and has no national characters.. Du Long Zu
Jino nationality is one of the seven unique nationalities with a small population in Yunnan Province. The national language is Jino language. It belongs to the Yi language branch of the Tibetan Burmese language family of the Sino Tibetan language family. . Ji Nuo Zu