Jinuo Nationality is one of the seven unique ethnic groups with a small population in Yunnan Province. Its ethnic language is Jinuo language, belonging to the Yi branch of Tibeto Burmese language family of Sino Tibetan language family. It has no characters. In the past, it used to carve wood and bamboo, count and record events, and use Chinese in general.
The Jinuo People mainly live in the Jinuo ethnic township in Jinghong City, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture (hereinafter referred to as Xishuangbanna prefecture), mengwang, Mengyang and Menghan, and Menglun and Xiangming in Mengla County.
In 1979, Jinuo was officially recognized as a single ethnic group. According to the sixth national census in 2010, the total population of Jinuo is 23143.
"Jino" is the self claim of the nation, which can be interpreted as "the descendants of Uncle" or "the nation respecting uncle". In the past, it was translated as "You Le" in Chinese, so it is also called "You Le Shan" in Jinuo mountain.
As for the origin of Jinuo Nationality, there are two kinds: Aboriginal theory and southward migration theory. The word "Jinuo" originated from the time when Jinuo ancestors lived in jiezhuo mountain. At that time, the name "jinuoluo" appeared. "Ji" is uncle, "Nuo" is the person who follows "Uncle". It is said that the birthplace of Jino nationality is "sjejdromi". It is a high mountain near 1440 meters above sea level on the eastern edge of Jinuo, now known as Kongming mountain. Up to now, the residents of AHA and Axi branches and Wuyou branch living in Buyuan administrative village of mengwang Township, looking back on the migration route of their ancestors, have all coincidentally pointed their birthplace to this mountain. This shows that the ancestors of Jinuo people lived in Jinuo mountain and its surrounding areas long ago. At the beginning of their settlement in Jinuo mountain, the Jinuo People may still be in the stage of matriarchal social development. It is said that the first person who lived in "jiezhuo" was a widow, who gave birth to seven men and seven women. The brothers and sisters married each other. Later, the population multiplied and divided into two pairs of stockaded villages - two pairs of clan groups that could intermarry. The first pair of stockaded villages are CI Tong and man Feng. CI Tong is the "father village" and man Feng is the "mother village". In the future, they developed 10 children's stockaded villages, such as man ya, wo Zhuang, Hui Zhen and Sheng Niu, which is commonly known as the first half of Jinuo mountain. Another pair of stockaded villages are manpo (father Village) and manpiao (mother Village). Their children's stockaded villages include nine stockaded villages, such as longpa, Moyang and chagong, which are the latter half of the mountain. the genealogy of the two parents' village is not known, but the genealogy of the children's village is still available. According to a survey in 1958, Manya village is the "eldest son" of CI Tong village. The founder of the village is Jieyou. After Youbao, Baojie, babaojie, jieyao, Yaoba, Basa, sajie, jiebaila, bailayao, Yaozi, bulejie, etc., there have been 12 generations. If the generation is 25 years old, Manya village has a history of more than 300 years. Manka village in the latter half of the mountain was separated later. It has gone through eight generations and more than 200 years since bulayao, the founder of the village. According to the names of father and son in Manya and other villages, the patriarchal system had been established when these children's villages were built. That is to say, at least 300 years ago, the Jinuo Nationality had developed from matrilineal age to paternal age. After the mid-18th century, the patriarchal family commune based on blood relationship continued to develop. At the end of the 19th century, with the development of productive forces, private ownership of some means of production and the emergence of individual family economy, the patriarchal family commune made a transition to the rural commune. However, in this process, the clan blood ties are still tenaciously preserved, and the children's villages have to go to the parents' village to hold the annual ancestor worship ceremony. According to the Convention, the "father" and "mother" (both male leaders) of parents' village should visit their children's village once every three years. At that time, the people of children's village should go far to welcome and see them off, organize a grand ancestral ceremony to welcome and warmly entertain them. according to local legend, in ancient times, when the earth was flooded, only a pair of good and brave brothers and sisters, Mahei and Manau, were protected and instructed by the immortal. They survived and finally married after all kinds of difficulties. The immortal once gave them 10 gourd seeds, and only one of them grew out after planting. Of the 100 small gourds, only one grew out, but it was as big as a house. There were still people talking inside. When you opened it, four kinds of people came out of the gourd. First came the Jinuo People, and then came the Han people, Dai people, and Hani people (some said there was a fifth kind of people, brown people). Later, they found their own paradise. From this legend, we can see the close relationship between Jinuo People and Han, Dai, Hani people in ancient times. According to another legend, the Jino people came from Pu'er, Mojiang and even farther north. During the migration, he passed through "wuqilong" in Kunming and Eshan County, then moved to mengzha and Mengyang in Xishuangbanna, and finally settled in jinuoluo. The Jino witches sent their souls to the dead, and they also sent them to the north. Jinuo People came to Jinuo mountain and first settled in shanliangzi called "jiezhuo". Up to now, people still call this place "tebatqian", which means a place shared by Jinuo People. It is said that when the Jino people lived in "jiezhuo", they dressed themselves in leaves and animal skins and ate on collecting and hunting. Their life was very difficult. The transformation from hunting economy to mountain agricultural economy is a great progress in Jinuo People's social life, but their upland rice seeds are not easy to come by. It is said that because the Jinuo people could not get the seeds of upland rice, they managed to take hunting dogs to the rice producing areas and let them roll on the rice pile. As a result, they brought back dozens of rice seeds in the dog's hair. Since then, the rice seeds gradually propagated, which made the Jinuo people enter the era of mountain agriculture, which mainly cultivated upland rice. The Jinuo people respect Zhuge Kongming. It is said that the ancestors of the Jinuo People were part of the southern expedition of Kongming. They were "lost" because they were sleepy on the way, and then "lost" was attached as "You Le", which is the origin of the name "You Le". Although these people later caught up with Kong Ming, they were no longer taken in. For the survival of these laggards, Kong Ming gave them tea seeds, ordered them to plant tea well, and ordered them to build houses according to the style of his hat. The circular embroidery pattern on the back of Jinuo boy's clothes is said to be Kongming's eight trigrams, and he also calls for Mr. Kongming when worshiping ghosts and gods. Although the authenticity of the above legends remains to be verified, to a certain extent, it reflects the close relationship between the ancient Jinuo Nationality and the Han nationality. According to the existing data, the earliest subordination of Jinuo can be traced back to 1160. When Bazhen unified the tribes of mengshe and established the kingdom of Jinglong Jindian in mengshe, Jinuo mountain was the hereditary territory of Bazhen. After Yunnan Province was set up in Yuan Dynasty, Xishuangbanna was brought into the rule of Yuan Dynasty. The Yuan government set up cherilu and appointed Dai local officials to rule. In the Ming Dynasty, the military and civilian missionary department was set up in Cheli, and the Tusi ruled until the Qing Dynasty. Mount Jino is also under its jurisdiction. In the Qing Dynasty, ertai was the governor of Yunnan Province. In order to develop Xishuangbanna, he changed the land to flow in the sixth Banna of the Yangtze River in 1729. Jinuo mountain was subordinate to Pu'er Prefecture. From 1729 to 1735, he built a brick city in Zitong village of Youle mountain, and sent about 500 cavalry and infantry to garrison there. In the 13th year of Yongzheng reign of the Qing Dynasty (1735), due to the "severe miasma", many garrison troops and administrative officials died. The Qing government abolished you le Tongzhi and appointed the Jinuo leader as "You Le Tu Mu" to directly manage Jinuo mountain area as an agent. Later, the Jinuo mountain area was under the jurisdiction of the Dai feudal lords for a long time. The Dai feudal lords "zhaopianling" appointed "Baya", "Zha" and "Xian" among the people in Jinuo mountain. During the period of the Republic of China, the national government once put Jinuo mountain under the jurisdiction of Xiaomengyang township. Later, the Baojia system was implemented, and Baochang and Jiachang were appointed among the top leaders of Jinuo Nationality. As a result, a "Trinity" political organization was formed in Jinuo mountain area. In 1941, there were about 8000 people in Jinuo mountain, 28 stockaded villages. Because they could not bear all kinds of taxes from the Kuomintang government, the Jinuo People launched an armed uprising under the leadership of Zuo Yue and others, forcing the authorities to dismiss Wang zi'e, the county magistrate of Cheli county. In the following three years, the local government of the Republic of China no longer increased taxes on military service to the Jinuo People.
Before the founding of the people's Republic of China, the basic social structure of Jinuo People was not based on blood relationship, but on rural commune, a geographical unit formed by different clans living together. Every village here is an independent village. The boundaries of villages are carved with knife and spear shaped wooden and stone landmarks, and the land within the boundaries belongs to the village community, which can not be occupied by others. Each village has more than two intermarriage clans, and two elders deal with the administration, sacrifice and production of the village according to the traditional customs, which is like a small self-sufficient world. The land of Jinuo mountain is nominally owned by "zhaopianling", the highest Lord of Xishuangbanna, but his ownership of this hereditary territory is only reflected by his sending officers to collect tribute and apportion miscellaneous labor every year, which does not affect the Jinuo People's actual possession and use of the land in the mountain area. there are three forms of land ownership system in Jinuo Village: one is the Land Co ownership system with village as the unit, the other is the Land Co ownership system with clan or surname as the unit, and the third is the private ownership system of individual family. These three forms of land ownership exist in different villages to varying degrees, but for most villages, the dominant one is the Land Co ownership system with patriarchal clan as the unit. Longpazhai is the representative of clan common ownership. The land of this village is redistributed by clan before cutting down trees every year. The products are distributed equally according to the labor force when harvesting. In longpa village, there are also a small number of land shared by villages and privately owned by families. Manya village is the representative of the private ownership of land. This kind of private land is called "kedekeduo". It can be occupied for a long time, even transferred. But when it moves out of the village, it must be returned to the family
Chinese PinYin : Ji Nuo Zu
Release Time:2021-03-07 00:26:42
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