The Luoba nationality is a minority in China, with a total population of about 600000. Among them, more than 2300 people are in China controlled areas.
The Luoba people are mainly distributed in the Luoyu area of Tibet from Chayu in the east to menyu in the West. They are mainly engaged in agriculture and hunting. The Luoba nationality has its own language and basically uses Tibetan. The Luoba language belongs to the Tibeto Burmese language family of the Sino Tibetan language family.
Most of the Luoba people live in the high mountains and valleys to the west of the great bend of the Yarlung Zangbo River. Until the middle of the 20th century, the society of the Luoba people was still at the end of the primitive society, and it is still following. Based on the oral legends handed down by their ancestors, the Luoba people continue their own cultural tradition.
There are many tribes in Luoba nationality, such as "Bogar", "Ningbo", "Bangbo", "degan", "ADI" and "tajin". "Luoba" is a Tibetan name for them, which means "southerner". After the founding of new China, according to the actual situation and the wishes of the people, it was officially named Luoba nationality.
Luoyu area has long been a part of Tibet in China. Since ancient times, the ancestors of the Luoba people have lived in this area. Together with the Tibetan and Menba ancestors, they created the ancient civilization of the Himalayas. The Luoba people do not have their own characters, so there is no literature about the history of the people. In Tibetan and Han literature, there are few records about the origin and history of the Luoba people. Although a group of Chinese archaeologists have made a number of valuable archaeological discoveries in the Himalayas since the 1970s, they are not enough to outline the continuous historical track of the activities of the ancestors of the Luoba nationality. Therefore, the origin of the Luoba nationality can only be explored from the rich ethnic legends of the tribes in the Himalayas. The more representative view is that "the Luoba nationality probably came from one or several ancient groups in the southeast of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau", "in history, the Luoba nationality had a historical process of migration from north to south." according to the national myths and legends, the ancient Tibetan literature records and the analysis of archaeological findings, it can be preliminarily considered that the Luoba nationality is the result of the fusion of the ancient indigenous groups in the Luoyu area and several ancient groups in the eastern Tibetan Plateau.
The communication between the ancestors of the Luoba nationality and the Tibetan nationality can be seen in the literature, which began in the period of the Tubo Dynasty. When describing the territory of Tubo in the Songzan Ganbu era, the Tibetan Ancient Book Hongshi said: "from luoyumen in the south, from Xiangxiong in the west, to hor in the north, and from zamixingmi in the East, all were under the rule of Tubo.". At the end of Ming Dynasty and the beginning of Qing Dynasty, after the Gelug school gradually grasped the local political power in Tibet, they also further strengthened the management of Luoyu area. In 1680, the fifth Dalai Lama issued a document to the Maira Lama, which clearly pointed out that "the people of Luoyu also came under my rule.". Under the command of the central government of the Qing Dynasty, the local government of Tibet carried out administrative management over some areas of Luoyu through the organizations of Zong and Xigu. In the middle of the 19th century, the local government of Tibet once put Luoyu area under the jurisdiction of bomitu king. In 1881, King bomitu established Didong sect in Didong Village (now Motuo County). He appointed the sect to administer five "CuO" and six temples. At the beginning of the 20th century, in order to further consolidate the rule of Luoyu, the king of bomitu expanded dagangcuo of Didong sect into a sect, namely galangyang sect, and successively appointed eight zongben here. The local government of Tibet often sends people to the Luoyu area for inspection. In 1927, the local government of Tibet had a conflict with the king of Bomi, deposed the separatist forces of the king of Bomi, and restored the establishment of dagangcuo. In dagangcuo and the areas south of dagangcuo, "the wrong version" and "the learning version" were appointed to collect taxes. At that time, in order to consolidate the border defense, the local government of Tibet also sent troops to inspect the border at the junction of Southern Luoyu and Assam, India. At that time, the local government of Tibet ruled the Luoba nationality by directly appointing officials to manage the places close to the Tibetan area; and in the central and southern areas of Luoyu, it instructed the eighteen clan members of Shannan to prepare various production and daily necessities, exchange commodities with the Luoba nationality, and consolidate their control over the Luoba nationality by strengthening material exchanges. Although the environment of Luoyu area is superior, the social development of Luoba nationality is relatively slow due to less contact with the outside world. Until the 1950s, there are still strong remnants of patriarchal clan system.
At the end of the 19th century, because the British Invaders wantonly destroyed the old tax collection system of the Luoba people in the border area of Assam and invaded Luoyu area by force, the Luoba people's large-scale armed resistance was caused. They used superior geographical conditions and ingenious tactics to defeat the invaders with guns and arrows, and dealt a heavy blow to the enemy. In order to force the Luoba people to yield, Britain once blocked the vast border line on the left bank of the Yarlung Zangbo River. However, because the Luoba people had long had close economic ties with the northern Tibetan areas, the British economic blockade had no effect, and finally had to revoke the blockade order. At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, a series of British invasions into the Luoyu area also aroused the serious concern of the Chinese government. At that time, Zhao Erfeng, the Minister of border affairs, proposed to the emperor Xuantong that Luoba "although it is wild, it is our territory". He could not sit back and watch the British invasion into Chayu and Luoyu. He suggested sending troops to "consolidate our territory" (played by Zhao Erfeng on January 19, the second year of Xuantong) Cheng Fengxiang was sent to lead the troops into Chayu to strengthen the border defense and prevent the further invasion of the British. In 1911, after sending Luo Changqi and his troops to destroy the remaining forces of King bomitu, the Minister of Tibet left a battalion of Tibetan soldiers to defend Motuo. From 1944 to 1945, the Assam authorities of British India sent people to Luoyu to spy on intelligence for many times, all of which met the resolute resistance of the Luoba people. Since then, Britain has vigorously carried out the "palibala development plan" in the subanshiri River Basin, encroaching on part of the territory of Luoyu region, causing strong opposition from the Luoba people. The local government of Tibet has also made many protests and representations to the British government. The democratic reform in 1959 completely broke the shackles of feudal serfdom that the three lords had put around the neck of the Luoba people, and implemented the political system of people's democratic dictatorship. In the areas inhabited by the Luoba people, ethnic autonomous townships and ethnic autonomous villages have been established successively, including Xiba Luoba autonomous village in Chayu County, naiyu Luoba autonomous Township in Milin County, Damu Luoba autonomous Township in Motuo County, douyu Luoba autonomous Township in Longzi County, etc. In accordance with the local conditions, these autonomous villages formulated and implemented economic and cultural development plans and measures, and fully exercised the autonomy and autonomy of the Luoba nationality in politics, economy, culture and education. officially recognized as a single nation in August 1965.
According to the publications compiled by the National Committee for democracy and people's livelihood in the early 1980s, the number of Luoba people has exceeded 300000. According to the natural growth of the population, the total population is about 600000. Among them, there are only over 2300 people in China's actual control area, and the rest are in Indian occupied areas, so it can not be counted in detail. Therefore, there is also the saying that the Luoba nationality is the least populous nationality in China. Luoba people are mainly distributed in Luoyu area in Southeast Tibet, and a few live in Milin, Motuo, Chayu, Longzi and Lang counties. With a population of only over 2300, it is the least populous ethnic group in China.
Until the middle of the 20th century, Luoba society was still at the end of the primitive society. The tribes are mainly engaged in agriculture, which is still based on the original production mode of slash and burn cultivation. The agricultural production tools are simple and rough. In addition to a small number of iron machetes and long knives, most areas also use wooden tools, such as wooden pointed sticks for sowing, wooden shovels for weeding, wooden hoes, etc. Planting corn, longzhaosu, upland rice and other cereals, the grain yield is very low. In many places, the habit of collecting oak nuts and root tubers to supplement food shortage is still retained. In some areas, the main food source is to collect starch from the stems of palm plants such as "Daxie". When large animals are captured, they are evenly distributed among ethnic groups or villages. Handicraft industry has not been completely separated from agriculture, but there have been artisans who are also engaged in pottery making and iron making, and household sidelines such as textile and weaving. Both men and women of the Luoba nationality weave bamboo baskets, mats, cages and ropes. These implements, with fine workmanship and various categories, reflect the characteristics of the material culture of the Luoba nationality. They use these items made in their leisure time and local products such as Lu PI, Huanglian, musk, bear's paw, pepper, dyestuff grass, etc. as well as their prey, and go to Chayu, Milin, Motuo and other counties to exchange iron tools, salt, wool, clothes, grain, tea and other necessities from Tibetans. After the founding of new China, the Luoba area was liberated one after another. After the overthrow of the feudal rule of the three lords of Tibet in 1959, democratic reforms were carried out one after another, realizing the aspiration of the Luoba people to be masters of their own country. In the people's governments of the Tibet Autonomous Region and at the county, district and township levels, the Luoba people have their own representatives to participate. With the strong support of the state and other fraternal nationalities, they quickly got rid of the primitive backward state of economy and culture. Over the past 40 years, the people of the Luoba nationality have vigorously carried out the basic construction of farmland and water conservancy, water diversion and irrigation, intensive cultivation and fertilization, and abandoned the cultivation habit of slash and burn cultivation, which has lasted for many years. As a result, the grain yield has increased by a large margin; the animal husbandry production has also been greatly developed, and the people's life has been significantly improved. In the past, the roads in the Luoba area were rugged, the traffic was dangerous, and the roads were extremely difficult. Now, wide roads and roads have been built from the county seat to remote villages, and steel cable suspension bridges have been built on the rolling rivers. The traffic situation has been significantly improved. The state has also built new villages, schools and medical stations in the Luoba area. Our nation has its own culture
Chinese PinYin : Luo Ba Zu
Release Time:2021-03-07 00:26:37
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