Menba nationality is one of the nationalities with a long history and culture in China. The national language is Menba language, which belongs to the Tibetan branch of Tibeto Burmese language family of Sino Tibetan language family. There are great differences in dialects. There is no native language and Tibetan is commonly used.
Menba people are mainly distributed in menyu and Motuo areas in the southeast of Tibet Autonomous Region. Lebu in Cuona county is the main residential area of Menba people. Menba people and Tibetans have long-term friendly exchanges and mutual marriage, and have close relations in politics, economy, culture, religious belief, life customs, etc.
In 1964, the Menba nationality was officially recognized as a single nationality. According to the statistics of the sixth national census in 2010, the total population of the Menba nationality is 10561.
"Menba" means "people living in the corner of the gate". "Menba" is not only a self styled name, but also a name given to them by Tibetans and other nationalities. due to the differences of living areas and the migration of ethnic groups in history, there are some other names of Menba people, such as "Zhuba" and "Lebo".
According to myths and legends, Tibetan literature records and archaeological materials, the origin of the Menba nationality is the fusion of the indigenous groups in menyu and the groups from the northern Tibetan Plateau. After a long history of development, about before the Tubo Dynasty unified Tibet, the Menba nationality had been formed. in the 7th century, menyu area was under the local regime of Tubo, and the Menba people became the people of Tubo. In 823, the Tang fan alliance stele standing in front of the Jokhang Temple in Lhasa recorded: "this is extremely powerful, and the king of Yongzhong is majestic. Therefore, the south is like Menba Although they can win the battle, they are not afraid to bow down to the powerful power and just laws of Zanpu, the holy God. They are happy with each other and are sent by orders. " According to the Tibetan historical book red history in 1346 of the Yuan Dynasty, as early as the era of Songzan Ganbu, it was recorded that "luoyumen They were all under the rule of Tubo. The Tibetan historical book "the sage's wedding banquet", which was completed in 1564, states: "so Luoyumen in the South And so on, were accepted as belonging to the people. " From these ancient Tibetan historical materials, we can see that there are close ties between the Tibetan, the Menba and the Luoba in ancient times. From the beginning of the Tubo Dynasty, the political, economic and cultural ties between the Tibetan, the Menba and the Luoba have been constantly strengthened. In the middle of the 13th century, menyu was brought under the governance of Sakya local government in Tibet and became an administrative region of the Yuan Dynasty. From the 14th century to the 16th century, the pamuzhuba regime and the Tibetan bahan regime ruled Tibet, and menyu became the territory of the Kagyu faction. This period had a great influence on the historical development of the Menba nationality. The local government of Tibet appointed officials in menyu, set up post stations, tax officials, checkpoints and markets, spread Buddhism and built temples. All these had a strong impact on the tribal society and village community organizations of the Menba nationality. While maintaining their original nature and functions, the original village community organizations also increased the responsibility of paying tribute, duty and taxes to the local government and lords of Tibet The people of Menba began to become serfs. in the middle of the 17th century, the Gelug Sect of Tibetan Buddhism gained local power in Tibet. In order to strengthen the governance of menyu, the fifth Dalai Lama sent his disciple and close friend, the Menba monk Maire luozhujiacuo, who was born in menyu, to preach and govern in menyu. Luozhujiacuo actively took measures to govern the menyu, changed the Ningma Temple Dawang temple into Gelug temple, and carried out large-scale expansion, making Dawang temple the largest temple in menyu and the political and religious center of Gelug in menyu area. In 1656, the fifth Dalai Lama ordered the Tibetan local government to appoint two "Rani" (General Manager) to assist the Maire Lama in managing the administrative affairs of menyu. After the completion of Dawang temple, the fifth Dalai Lama and the local government of Tibet granted many privileges to Dawang temple, such as appointing lower level officials, collecting taxes, implementing the "monk errand system" and managing the gate with government officials. In order to expand the influence of Dawang temple and strengthen the political and religious rule in menyu, the fifth Dalai Lama personally granted the seal to the Maira Lama in 1680. At the beginning of the 18th century, on the basis of the original management measures, the local government of Tibet further improved the administrative system in menyu area, established local administrative organs in menyu area, checked household registration, and issued decrees. In terms of administrative divisions and organizational system, menyu district is divided into 32 local administrative organizations with "measures" or "fixed" (equivalent to township level administrative organizations, and large "measures" equivalent to district level administrative organizations) according to different regions and traditional customs and referring to the administrative division system implemented in other parts of Tibet. On the basis of "CuO" or "Ding", there are four "Zongs", namely Jianggar, Senge, Derang and Dalong. The establishment of "Zong" is equivalent to the present county level regime, and some small "Zong" is equivalent to the district level regime. In order to manage the administrative affairs of "CuO" or "Ding" and "Zong", the local government of Tibet set up the administrative organization of "Dawang Xizhe" (meaning "Si Lian") in Dawang. "Xizhe" refers to the joint management committee composed of representatives from four aspects, namely, ranie appointed by the local government of Tibet, one monk and one folk representing one side, kaempu of Dawang temple and zacang of Dawang Temple appointed by luoselin zacang of Drepung temple. "Dawang Xizhe" is a permanent organization to manage daily administrative affairs. In the middle of the 19th century, the local government of Tibet strengthened the management function of "Dawang Xizhe". In 1853, the local government granted the power of Cuona sect of monks and customs to participate in the jurisdiction of the gate, forming a higher administrative committee of "Dawang Zhuzhe" (meaning "Liulian"). On the basis of "Dawang living philosophy", together with the Cuona "Zhezhu" (rice purchasing official) appointed by the local government of Tibet, the meeting of "Dawang living philosophy" (meaning "seven couplets") was formed. Dawontinger is not a permanent organization. It usually only deals with trade issues and only holds meetings under some special circumstances. There is also the "nine couplets" meeting of "Dawang ancient philosophy", which is based on the "six couplets", adding the leaders of three menima departments near Dawang, namely xiadecuo, srucuo and raucuo, mainly to solve the disputes between measures and between villages. When encountering the most urgent major event that concerns the interests of the whole menyu area, "Dawang Zhuzhe" will form a "Dawang taco" meeting with the heads of all menyu departments. The above-mentioned permanent and non permanent organizations at different levels played their respective administrative functions, and the feudal serfdom rule was further strengthened in the corner. In the 18th century, the rule of feudal serfdom in menyu was relatively complete. On the one hand, the local government of Tibet strengthened the governance of the gateway, ensured the stability of the southwest border, and consolidated the integrity and unity of the motherland. On the other hand, the three great lords of Tibet, the officials, temples and nobles, stepped up their extortion at the gate, which made the people of the Menba people who had lived here for a long time unbearable. Heavy Wula clerks (Wula clerks are collectively referred to as taxes, clerks and government rent, etc.). The word "Wula" means free labor, and there are many kinds, including all kinds of labor, taxes, government rent, etc.) In addition to the successive years of earthquake and flood and layer upon layer of oppression, many families have been destroyed and displaced. They are eager for a good place without oppression and exploitation. At this time, there came the beautiful legend that baimagang in the East is a place where "no barley, no yak, no butter, no house, no house". It brought hope to the desperate Menba people and led to the long-distance migration of the Menba people. The migration of the Menba people has experienced a long process. The earliest to move to Motuo has been 10 generations, the latest has been 6 generations, they settled in baimagang area along the Yarlung Zangbo River. In Motuo, many relics related to the history of their eastward migration can be seen today. Some villages also use the place names and village names of their original places, such as delgong, Didong, etc. Part of the Menba people moved to baimagang, which formed the living pattern of the East-West distribution of the Menba people and had a profound impact on the social development of the Menba people. In 1844, the governor of Britain and India sent Major Jenkins, the acting agent of the northeast border of India, to subdue six Menba leaders, forced the Menba people to rent the place of girabara in menyu, forced the Menba people to give up their jurisdiction to the south of the gulibala pass, which aroused the strong dissatisfaction of the Menba people and buried the flames of resistance. In the winter of 1872, major Guo zhoheng, Deputy Commissioner of the British occupied darrang District, took advantage of the opportunity of demarcating the border between the British side and Bhutan, and also proposed to draw a clear boundary between Dawang and the British side to the local leader of the Menba nationality. Immediately, the leader of the Menba nationality resolutely refused, showing the unyielding patriotism of the people of the Menba nationality. In 1913-1914, Henry McMahon, the representative of the British government, used blackmail and deception to induce shaza bianjuedoji, the representative of the local government of Tibet at that time, to make a secret deal with him at the Simla Conference. He included 90000 square kilometers of land in menyu, Luoyu and xiachayu into the British printing plate map, which is the infamous "McMahon line". As soon as the "McMahon line" came out, it was firmly opposed by the Chinese government and Tibetan, Menba, Luoba and other ethnic groups in Tibet. The Chinese central government has never recognized the so-called "McMahon line". The British colonialists' aggressive ambition is still alive. They first stepped up infiltration in the name of investigation and exploration, or expanded their sphere of influence by provoking ethnic relations between the Tibetan and the Tibetan, but they were all seen through by the people of all ethnic groups. In 1938, the British sent an expedition to dadawan in April, which was immediately strongly resisted by the Menba people, forcing the British expedition to retreat. At the beginning of 1944, the aggressors invaded the Menba clan, and were immediately strongly opposed by the Cuona clan government, "Dawang Zhuzhe" and the broad masses of the Menba nationality. After 1947, secession
Chinese PinYin : Men Ba Zu
Release Time:2021-03-07 00:26:32
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